Religious broadcasting refers to the dissemination of television and/or radio content that intentionally has religious ideas, religious experience, or religious practice as its core focus. In some countries, religious broadcasting developed primarily within the context of public service provision (as in the UK), whilst in others, it has been driven more by religious organisations themselves (as in the USA). Across Europe and in the US and Canada, religious broadcasting began in the earliest days of radio, usually with the transmission of religious worship, preaching or 'talks'. Over time, formats evolved to include a broad range of styles and approaches, including radio and television drama, documentary, and chat show formats, as well as more traditional devotional content. Today, many religious organizations record sermons and lectures, and have moved into distributing content on their own web-based IP channels.
Religious broadcasting can be funded commercially or through some sort of public broadcasting-style arrangement (religious broadcasters are often recognized as non-profit organizations). Donations from listeners and viewers, often tax-deductible, are solicited by some broadcasters. In the US, 42 percent of non-commercial radio stations currently have a religious format where on the other hand about 80 percent of the 2,400 Christian radio stations and 100 full-power Christian TV stations throughout the entire United States are considered non-profit.
In some countries, particularly those with an established state religion, broadcasting related to one particular religion only is allowed, or in some cases required. For example, a function of the state-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation is by law "to broadcast such programmes as may promote Islamic ideology, national unity and principles of democracy, freedom equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam..." (s. 10(1)(b)).
(The distinction between radio and television broadcasters is not rigid; broadcasters in both areas may appear in the Radio or Television section in this article.)
Religious radio stations include
Religious broadcasting in the UK was established in 1922, when the first radio sermon was transmitted by the BBC. The religious ethos of the Corporation, and the importance attributed to the place of its religious output is predominantly due to the distinctive and formative role played by the BBC’s first Director-General, John Reith. Reith was the son of a Presbyterian minister. Although opposed to narrow dogmatism, he strongly believed that it was a public service duty of the BBC to actively promote religion. The pattern established by Reith in the early days, and the advisory system that he established, continued to exert a strong influence on the corporation's religious output through the war years and beyond, and eventually extend from radio into television.
British broadcasting laws prohibit religious organisations, political parties, local government and trade unions from running national analogue terrestrial stations. Some religious radio stations are available in certain areas on the MW (medium wave) or VHF (FM) wavebands; others transmit using other methods, some of them nationally (such as via digital terrestrial TV broadcasting, satellite and cable).
Premier Radio is available on MW in the London area and also nationally on DAB. United Christian Broadcasters is available in both the London and Stoke-on-Trent areas, and nationally as well via DAB. There are several UK-based radio stations which serve a genre group or locality, such as Cross Rhythms based in Stoke-on-Trent, a contemporary music station with a local FM community radio licence. Branch FM operates across West Yorkshire and is a volunteer-run community Christian radio station. Like most other local Christian stations, they also use the Internet to gain national coverage. There are other UK-based radio channels which apply for regular temporary licenses, such as Flame FM on the Wirral, Cheshire which applies for two months of local FM broadcasting per year via a Restricted Service Licence (RSL), and Refresh FM, which regularly broadcasts in Manchester for 3 or 4 weeks over the Easter period.
Also there are religious broadcasters that transmit to the UK from outside on medium wave at night (when MW signals travel much further) by buying airtime on commercial stations such as Manx Radio (from the Isle of Man) and Trans World Radio (from Monte Carlo).
Although there are tight restrictions on religious groups setting up their own radio and TV stations, there is a legal requirement for the BBC and ITV to broadcast a certain amount of religious programming. Some commercial local radio stations carry a limited amount of religious programming, particularly in Northern Ireland and parts of Scotland.
In 1938 the Federal Council of Churches petitioned the National Association of Broadcasters and the Federal Communications Commission formally requesting that all paid religious programs be barred from the air. The major radio networks at this time donated time to the three major divisions of organized religion in the United States: Protestant, Roman Catholic, and Judaism. Protestant programming had been placed under exclusive direction of the Council, an organization which represented about thirty denominations but less than half of American Protestantism. Overtly liberal in its theology, the Federal Council would not sponsor a conservative program such as the Lutheran Hour. Jealous of its privilege, the Council's general secretary was on record as having said in 1929, “in the future, no denomination or individual church will be able to secure any time whatever on the air unless they are willing to pay prohibitively high prices....” This was defeated by Walter A. Maier and others.
The most prominent religion on the radio in the United States is Christianity, particularly the evangelical sect. It has changed since its inception with a growing audience and different regulations. The audience for Christian radio has grown in the past twenty years and has a dispersed audience throughout the U.S.. The Moody Bible Institute was the first religious organization to use satellite radio to reach a larger audience than before. The Moody Bible Institute was also one of the first religious broadcasting networks to receive a non-commercial educational FM license from the FCC allowing them to open other stations. Religious broadcasting in the United States is mainly the province of local or regional networks which produce programming relevant to their community, and is usually heard on stations holding non-commercial educational broadcast licenses. Although religious radio began as locally owned, because of the deregulation in the 1996 Telecommunications act it has become more consolidated with local affiliates under a national radio company. Several national networks do exist, which include:
(The distinction between radio and television broadcasters is not rigid; broadcasters in both areas may appear in the Radio or Television section in this article.)
Dove TV is a Christian television network by the Redeemed Christian Church of God (www.rccg.tv)
Ezekiel TV is a Christian television network started by Ezekiel Guti of ZAOGA Forward in Faith Ministries International (FIFMI) in 2008, based in South Africa. Most of the programming is from Zimbabwe, where ZAOGA FIFMI is headquartered. The channel broadcasts on the internet on the FIFMI Website, www.fifmi.org
Liberty TV (Prophet Eric SEM) is founder of Liberty Ministry International also owns Liberty TV. website,He started his miniseterial work in Mundemba of the south west province. From there, he moved on to Ndokotti, Douala, where launched his present ministry. (www.libertycm.tv)
|Yes TV||Crossroads Christian Communications||Christianity (some multi-faith)||Burlington, Ontario||Nationwide||Airs a mixture of religious and general entertainment programming.
Also available over-the-air in:
In the Middle East, Christian satellite broadcaster SAT-7 operates five channels, SAT-7 ARABIC, SAT-7 PARS (Farsi), SAT-7 KIDS (Arabic), SAT-7 PLUS (Arabic) and SAT-7 TÜRK (Turkish), which broadcast in the prominent languages of the region with more than 80% of programs made by and for people of the region. SAT-7's satellite footprints reach 22 countries in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as 50 countries in Europe, with "free to air" programming. SAT7, founded in 1995, is the first and largest Christian satellite broadcast organization operating in the region. It is supported by Christian churches from a variety of denominations in the Middle East and North Africa, as well as supporters from Europe, Canada , United States , and Asia.
A function of the state-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation is by law "to broadcast such programmes as may promote Islamic ideology, national unity and principles of democracy, freedom equality, tolerance and social justice as enunciated by Islam..." (s. 10(1)(b)).
Islamic broadcasters include:
In the UK, In the UK, the first religious channel was Muslim TV Ahmadiyya which launched in 1992 however religious television is dominated by the main non-commercial terrestrial public service broadcaster, the BBC, obliged by its licence to broadcast 110 hours per year. Long-running programmes like Songs of Praise continue to draw loyal audiences, although declining interest in devotional-style religious programmes, and sometimes erratic scheduling decisions, have taken their toll. Up until the turn of the century, the ITV channels and Channel 4 also produced religious programme content, and for many years Sunday evenings were dominated by 'the God slot' - a seventy-minute diet of back-to-back religious programmes broadcast simultaneously on BBC 1 and ITV. Attempts to extend the range of formats and experiment in more populist styles, reached its zenith in the late 1960s with the light entertainment show, Stars on Sunday (Yorkshire Television, 1969–79) on ITV, reaching audiences of 15 million. The show was conceived and presented by Yorkshire Television's Head of Children's Programmes, Jess Yates and ran for a decade. Serious documentary-style religious content emerged in the 1970s, with the BBC's Everyman, and ITV's Credo programme series'. Religious broadcasting began to go into decline in the later 1970s and 1980s. The birth of the fourth public service channel in 1982 with a remit to cater for minority interests, raised great expectations followed by enormous disappointment among many who believed that Channel 4 would provide exciting now opportunities for religious broadcasting. Channel 4's first major religious programme commission caused a furore: Jesus: The Evidence (London Weekend Television for Channel 4), broadcast over the Easter period in 1984, proved to be a pivotal moment in the disintegrating relationship between the broadcasting institutions and the churches.
In 2010, the commercial public service television broadcasters de-prioritised their religious output due to commercial pressures. The 2009 Ofcom report found that religious broadcasting on public service channels was watched on average for 2.3 hours per year per viewer on the main PSB channels in 2011, 2.7 hours in 2008, reducing steadily from 3.2 in 2006 and 3.6 in 2001. In 2006, 5% of viewers found religious broadcasting to be of personal importance.
In 2017, the BBC announced that it was closing its dedicated Religious and Ethics Department and outsourcing its religious expertise and production work: a move described as 'dangerous' by at least one national newspaper, suggesting that the decision was based on a mistaken presumption that religion was 'a preoccupation of people who are old, strange or both, something of no interest to those happy enough to be neither'  The BBC's decision, and the quantitative decline in religious broadcasting over several decades (as well as a growing sense that there was an absence of informed portrayals of religion in content more generally), has been implicated in what has been described as a rise in religious illiteracy. Partly in response to these concerns, there was a major internal review at the BBC during 2017 'to reassess our role and strategy in this area, and reconsider how best to deliver our public service mission'. According to the BBC's internal report in December of that year:
In practice, that means the BBC will: Raise our game across all output – Increase specialist expertise with a new Religious Affairs Team and Religion Editor in News (p19); Create networks of specialists (p27); Develop stakeholder relations (p27); Reach as many people as possible – Landmark series and programmes (p21); Cross-genre commissions (p16), A ‘Year of Beliefs’ in 2019 (p23); Content and social media aimed at a next generation audience (p23); Portray the diversity of beliefs and society – Diversify our range of contributors (p14); Increase coverage of religious events (p15); Enhance portrayal in mainstream programming (p17); Help people understand their values and decisions – Innovative content that works across genres (p17); Innovative online services that include archive content that is still relevant (p25) 
The BBC has yet to unveil details of plans for its 2019 'Year of Beliefs'.
Dedicated religious channels are relatively new, and transmit via direct-to-home satellite, some, are streamed live via the Internet or, like TBN, broadcast 24 hours on terrestrial Freeview. Dedicated religious channels available include:
Religious television stations in the United States experienced growth in the 1990s, the number of faith-based T.V. stations alone has tripled. The United States government does not regulate these networks it is instead the National Religious Broadcasters. Religious television is widely used by evangelical groups, but other religions using television broadcasting is also growing, such as Jewish groups broadcasting on the Odyssey. The audience for religious television is still mainly white, middle-class, evangelicals but, that is also changing as there is an increase in young Catholic viewers and Spanish-language religious television. There has also been a growth in the number and power of television preachers in the United States, particularly evangelical preachers, also known as televangelists. An example is Pat Robertson, who appears on the show “The 700 Club” on CBN, regularly comments on other aspects of non-religious life.
In the United States, Christian organizations are by far the most widespread compared with other religions, with upwards of 1,600 television and radio stations across the country (not necessarily counting broadcast translators, though because many outlets have low power and repeat national telecasts, the difference is often hard to define).
Christian television outlets in the U.S. usually broadcast in the UHF band. While there are many religious content providers for religious and faith-based television, there are few nationally recognized non-commercial television networks—funded by soliciting donations—such as Daystar Television Network (operated by Marcus Lamb and Joni Lamb) and Trinity Broadcasting Network (TBN) (operated by Paul Crouch and Jan Crouch). Unlike the larger religious network providers available to the mass public, many smaller religious organizations have a presence on cable television systems, either with their own channels (such as the 3ABN service) or by transmissions on public-access television common for local congregations) or leased access channels. Religious programs are sometimes also transmitted on Sunday mornings by general commercial broadcasters not dedicated to religious programming. Religious broadcasters in the U.S. include:
The UK equivalent of the NRB is the Christian Broadcasting Council, but affiliation is much less common. Additionally in the UK is the Church and Media Network, formed in 2009 as a successor to the Churches' Media Council, which states that it seeks to be a bridge between the media and the Christian community.
Christian broadcasters (but not other religions) in the U.S. are organized through the National Religious Broadcasters (NRB) organization.
Financially, US channels tend to fare a lot better than UK based ones. The American concept of asking viewers to donate money to a channel to keep it going on air is considered more culturally acceptable than in the UK; as a result more money is raised this way. However this has become more contentious as television preachers have been accused of corruption and soliciting donations for their own personal use. There used to be no advertising revenue model – the traditional method of running commercial TV in the UK – that worked for religious TV channels. The UK government's Broadcasting Act 1990 allowed ownership of broadcasting licences by religious organisations and their officers and those who controlled them in some circumstances; this had previously not been allowed.
Religious channels aimed at a UK audience could get around this previous restriction by basing themselves offshore, often in a European country that permits asking viewers for money on air. Stations may appear to be based in the UK, but actually broadcast from another country. However Ofcom since lifted the restriction, and channels with UK licences can now ask for funds on air.
The other primary method for raising funds to run religious channels is to accept paid advertising. Traveling preachers and large churches and ministries often set up a TV department filming what they do; they then buy slots on TV channels to show their programmes. Often the same programme from an organization is shown on several channels at different times as they buy slots. The vast majority of organizations which do this are US-based. In the UK this tends to make Christian TV channels appear to be US-based, as most material originates there. Some UK TV channels have invested in making programmes to complement advertising, most notably GOD TV and Revelation TV.
The Accent Radio Network was a Rhode Island-based radio network with a Christian-conservative political point of view. Accent Radio Network was founded in the summer of 2000 by James and Patricia Feijo and went on air December 4, 2000. The Accent Radio Network aired programming original to the network as well as syndicated programs including; The Laura Ingraham Show and Monica Crowley.Programming from Accent Radio Network, which included some Talk radio format programs, was carried by 18 affiliates located across the United States, mostly very small stations located in small markets. These affiliates were especially concentrated in Missouri (three affiliates), Utah (two affiliates), and the Southeastern United States (nine affiliates). ARN programming was available at no charge to affiliates. ARN also provided listeners in extended areas with audio streaming via the World Wide Web, consumer Digital Video Broadcasting satellite, and a Roku channel.
James and Patricia Feijo were hosts of a program on the network called HealthWatch which promotes a "God-centered view of health and healing." In May 2012, a U.S. District Court judge found that the Feijos had violated an injunction against making claims on their radio show and websites for the cancer-curing effects of natural products sold through their business, Daniel Chapter One. Jerry Hughes, the network's most prominent non-brokered host, died three weeks later on June 1.American Public Media
American Public Media (APM) is the second largest producer and distributor of public radio programs in the United States after NPR. Its non-profit parent, American Public Media Group, also owns and operates radio stations in Minnesota and California. Its station brands include Minnesota Public Radio and Southern California Public Radio. Until July 2015, APM also operated Classical South Florida, which was sold to Educational Media Foundation, a California-based religious broadcasting company that airs contemporary Christian music.Based in St. Paul, Minnesota, APM is best known for the distribution of the popular weekend program Live From Here and the national financial news program Marketplace.CINU-FM
CINU-FM is a Canadian religious broadcasting radio station, broadcasting from Truro, Nova Scotia on 106.3 FM and is branded Hope 106.3 FM. The station has been on the air since September 2003 after receiving CRTC approval in June of that same year.Programs on the station have included the now defunct nationally syndicated CT-20 countdown of Christian music hits.
On September 3, 2009, the station received approval to move from its old FM frequency of 98.5 to a new FM frequency at 106.3 MHz. The station also received approval in part to use 106.1 MHz.CION-FM
For the defunct radio station in Rivière-du-Loup, Quebec, see CION-FM (defunct).CION-FM is a French-language Canadian radio station located in Quebec City, Quebec.
Owned and operated by the Fondation Radio Galilée, it broadcasts on 90.9 MHz with an effective radiated power of 5,865 watts (class B) using an omnidirectional antenna. The station's transmitter is located at Mount Bélair.
The station has a religious broadcasting (Christian) format since it went on the air on September 19, 1995, and identifies itself as "Radio Galilée".CIRA-FM
CIRA-FM is a French language Canadian radio station located in Montreal, Quebec. Its studios are located at 5000 d'Iberville street in the Plateau Mont-Royal district of Montreal.
It broadcasts on 91.3 MHz with an effective radiated power of 36,200 watts (class C1) using an omnidirectional antenna located atop Mount Royal. Radio Ville-Marie received CRTC approval in 1994 to operate a new religious French-language FM radio programming at Montreal.This radio station is Catholic and has a religious broadcasting format. Since its inception in 1995 it identifies itself as "Radio Ville-Marie". CIRA-FM is not a commercial broadcaster and as such does not carry paid advertising.God's Angry Man
God's Angry Man is a 1981 documentary film about Gene Scott, a U.S. pastor and Stanford PhD who served for almost fifty years as an ordained minister and religious broadcaster in Los Angeles, directed by Werner Herzog. The film was produced for television. The German title Glaube und Währung translates as Faith and Currency.
The film consists of footage of Scott on the set of his television program Festival of Faith and interviews with Scott and Scott's parents conducted by Herzog. The footage from Scott's television program focuses almost exclusively on his fund-raising efforts and an elaborate rant against the Federal Communications Commission (F.C.C.). Scott at one point refuses to speak until his viewers pledge an additional $600. After several minutes of silence, he yells angrily at the camera until a production assistant informs him that they have received $700. Scott represents the F.C.C. on his show by a cymbal-banging monkey toy.God's Country Radio Network
God's Country Radio Network was a Religious broadcasting radio network in the United States which launched in 2008. The majority of stations that the network aired on were owned by the non-profit organization Educational Media Foundation, though it also aired on some independent stations. God's Country Radio Network played a blend of Southern Gospel and Positive Country music.
In November 2010, God's Country Radio Network left the air because it "didn't connect with enough listeners to sustain the expenses of the broadcast". It relaunched in January 2011 as a web-based only broadcaster, which has since shut down also.
There is an unrelated "God's Country" network of stations in Maine, WMDR-FM and WWLN, owned by Light of Light Ministries.Islam in Seychelles
Islam in the Indian Ocean was established by Muslim sea merchants well before the European discovery of Seychelles. However, unlike in other island states including the Comoros and Maldives, there were no permanent inhabitants in Seychelles until the French settlement in 1770. Today, the Muslim population of the islands is reported to be only 1.1%, roughly 900 people. Many of its island neighbors in the southern Indian Ocean, including Comoros, the Maldives and Zanzibar, have a much larger Muslim influence because of their colonization by Muslims, before European colonization. Mauritius also has a much higher Muslim population due to the importation of labour from British India on a scale not seen in Seychelles. The government of Seychelles allows 15 minutes of religious broadcasting every Friday for the Muslim community.KBUB
KBUB (90.3 FM, The Source) is a radio station broadcasting a religious broadcasting music format. Licensed to Brownwood, Texas, United States, the station is currently owned by Blm of Brownwood and features programming from Salem Communications.KRHT-LD
KRHT-LD is a low-power television station in Redding, California, broadcasting locally on virtual channel 41 (UHF digital channel 25) as an affiliate of the Spanish-language Azteca network. Its programming is also multiplexed, including Azteca, SBN, and Ventana TV Religious Broadcasting channel. It was originally broadcasting on Channel 58, until March 24, 2009. The station is licensed, owned and operated by Gary Hanson.
KRHT is rebroadcast on the Charter Cable System on channel 276 in the Redding, CA area and the Comcast Cable System in the Chico, CA DMA on channel 390 & 621.KSPO
KSPO is a religious broadcasting talk outlet serving the Spokane, Washington area. The flagship station for the American Christian Network, it is owned by Thomas W. Read/Classical Broadcasting and its city of license is Dishman, Washington, broadcasting at 106.5 MHz with an ERP of 2.25 kW.Non-commercial educational
The term non-commercial educational (NCE) applies to a radio station or TV station that does not accept on-air advertisements (TV ads or radio ads), as defined in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). NCE stations do not pay broadcast license fees for their non-profit uses of the radio spectrum. Stations which are almost always operated as NCE include public broadcasting, community radio, and college radio, as well as many religious broadcasting stations.Specialty channel
A specialty channel can be a commercial broadcasting or non-commercial television channel which consists of television programming focused on a single genre, subject or targeted television market at a specific demographic.
The number of specialty channels has greatly increased during the 1990s and 2000s while the previously common model of countries having just a few (national) TV stations addressing all interest groups and demographics became increasingly outmoded, as it already had been for some time in several countries. About 65% of today's satellite channels are specialty channels.
Types of specialty services may include, but by no means are limited to:
(These categories are provided for convenience and do not necessarily represent industry-accepted or otherwise legally-binding names or categories for these types of services.)
Some specialty channels may not be free-to-air or may not be available through conventional broadcast television. Pay TV providers in particular often produce own specialty channels exclusively for their own network.TV Verdade
TV Verdade (English: Truth TV) is a religious broadcast station of the Philippine-based Christian organization, Members Church of God International (Portuguese: Membros da Igreja de Deus Internacional) in Portuguese-speaking countries in Central and South America.
TV Verdade's test broadcast started in December 2009. Its broadcast feed originates from a small garage, around 48 square meters, transformed into a makeshift broadcasting studio located in Florianópolis, Brazil.
TV Verdade airs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week via Star One C2 satellite in South American countries and SES-6 satellite which also covers South American countries as a redundancy, including other nations in North America, Europe and North Africa.
The station carries the 24-hour Portuguese broadcast of O Caminho Antigo (English: The Old Path, Tagalog: Ang Dating Daan), the longest-running religious program in the Philippines, hosted by international televangelist Irmão Eli Soriano, the Overall Servant of Members Church of God International (MCGI) (Portuguese: Membros da Igreja de Deus Internacional).Televangelism
Televangelism (tele- "distance" and "evangelism," meaning "ministry," sometimes called teleministry) is the use of media, specifically radio and television, to communicate Christianity.
Televangelists are Christian ministers, whether official or self-proclaimed, who devote a large portion of their ministry to television broadcasting. Some televangelists are also regular pastors or ministers in their own places of worship (often a megachurch), but the majority of their followers come from TV and radio audiences. Others do not have a conventional congregation, and work primarily through television. The term is also used derisively by critics as an insinuation of aggrandizement by such ministers.
Televangelism began as a uniquely American phenomenon, resulting from a largely deregulated media where access to television networks and cable TV is open to virtually anyone who can afford it, combined with a large Christian population that is able to provide the necessary funding. It became especially popular among Evangelical Protestant audiences, whether independent or organized around Christian denominations. However, the increasing globalisation of broadcasting has enabled some American televangelists to reach a wider audience through international broadcast networks, including some that are specifically Christian in nature, such as Trinity Broadcasting Network and The God Channel. Domestically produced televangelism is increasingly present in some other nations such as Brazil.
Some countries have a more regulated media with either general restrictions on access or specific rules regarding religious broadcasting. In such countries, religious programming is typically produced by TV companies (sometimes as a regulatory or public service requirement) rather than private interest groups.The Word Network
The Word Network, also known as The Word, is a religious broadcasting network. The Word is the largest African-American religious network in the world. It was founded in February 2000 by Kevin Adell who also owns 910 AM Superstation (a local urban-talk radio station) and WADL TV-38 (a television network serving the Detroit television market, and The Word Network. The network is headquartered in Southfield, Michigan. The network is also available as streaming content
Apple TV, Roku, Chromecast, YouTube Red, and via smartphone apps. The network is also available on cable and satellite in several countries, and on over-the-air television.Total Living Network
Total Living Network (TLN) is a religious broadcasting channel based in Aurora, Illinois which carries a wide variety of family and ministry programs.
Marriage: For Better For Worse, a show dedicated to helping people restore and refresh their marriages using biblical principles
Enjoying Everyday Life with Joyce Meyer
In Touch with Charles Stanley
Life Today with James Robison
Significant Insights, featuring one-on-one conversations with notable guests
Aspiring Women, a women's talk show produced by TLN
The DUI Expert, a no-frills, expert discussion on drugs, alcohol and driving hosted by William PelarenosTLN is also involved in the production of original specials, such as The Da Vinci Code Deception, and is committed to producing new types of Christian programming to reach seekers and to build up the Church.
TLN's building and Aurora property were purchased by Hobby Lobby in January 2010.VPRO
The VPRO (originally an acronym for Vrijzinnig Protestantse Radio Omroep, or "Liberal Protestant Radio Broadcasting Corporation") was established in the Netherlands in 1926 as a religious broadcasting organization. Falling under the Protestant pillar, it represented the Liberal Protestant current. However, in the 1950s and 1960s it became more (social) liberal than Protestant, and while the acronym VPRO was kept, its meaning was dropped. It was the first to show a nude woman on Dutch television, Phil Bloom in 1967, in the Wim T. Schippers show Hoepla. The VPRO is known for producing and broadcasting quality (and sometimes avant-garde) programmes, documentaries and films, the target audience of the VPRO is highly educated and creative people (e.g. artists, designers, scientists).
VPRO often collaborates with other broadcasting organisations such as WDR, the BBC, and Arte.
Like all Dutch public broadcasters, the VPRO does not have its own dedicated channel.WLGI
WLGI, known as "Radio Bahá'í", is licensed to Hemingway, South Carolina, and broadcasts at 90.9 FM. The station broadcasts a variety of programming, both religious and secular. The station is licensed by the FCC for noncommercial Class C operation and is operated by the Louis G. Gregory Bahá'í Institute, named after Hand of the Cause Louis George Gregory, a prominent African-American Bahá'í.
See The Bahá'í Faith in South Carolina.
|ATN Aastha TV||Asian Television Network||Hinduism||Newmarket, Ontario||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|ATN Punjabi 5||Asian Television Network||Sikhism||Markham, Ontario||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|ATN Sikh Channel||Asian Television Network||Sikhism||Ontario||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|Daystar Canada||World Impact Ministries||Christianity (Evangelical)||Vancouver, British Columbia||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|HopeTV||ZoomerMedia||Christianity||Winnipeg, Manitoba||Nationwide||Available over-the-air in Manitoba (Winnipeg) and pay television nationwide.|
|Joytv||ZoomerMedia||Multi-faith||Fraser Valley, British Columbia||Nationwide||Available over-the-air in British Columbia (Vancouver, Lower Mainland, and Victoria) and pay television nationwide.|
|Salt + Light Television||Salt & Light Catholic Media Foundation||Christianity (Catholicism)||Toronto, Ontario||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|Vertical TV||Vertical Entertainment||Christianity||Brampton, Ontario||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|VisionTV||ZoomerMedia||Multi-faith||Toronto, Ontario||Nationwide||Only available on pay television|
|CFSO-TV||Logan & Corey McCarthy||Christianity (Mormonism)||Cardston, Alberta||Local||Only available over-the-air; airs selected programming from BYUtv|
|CFEG-TV||Clearbrook Mennonite Brethren Church||Christianity (Mennonite Brethren)||Abbotsford, British Columbia||Local||Only available over-the-air|
|Miracle Channel||The Miracle Channel Association||Christianity (Evangelical)||Lethbridge, Alberta||Local||Only available over-the-air; secondary affiliate of Trinity Broadcasting Network|