Religion and business

Religion and business have throughout history interacted in ways that relate to and affected one another, as well as influenced sociocultural evolution, political geographies, and labour laws.

Religious tourism

Some areas, countries or cities have an economy based on religious tourism. Examples include Islamic Hajj tourism and Vatican tourism. The hotels and markets of important religious places are a source of income to the locals.[1]

Pilgrimage sites

The boards or shines sometimes receive so much in donations that governments to take it under control for proper utilization of resources and management.[2] The annual revenues of most of the religious places are not regulated.[3]

Business ethics


Judaism outlines requirements of accurate weights and measurements in commerce, as well as prohibitions on monetary deception, verbal deception and misrepresentation.[4]

Food processing


Globally, halal products comprise a US$2 trillion industry.[5]


As of 2003, the kosher industry had certified more than 100,000 products, which total approximately US$165 billion in sales annually.[6]

Business law

United Kingdom

United Kingdom labour law prohibits employer discrimination based on religion, belief, or any lack thereof.[7]

United States

In the United States, labor laws including Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibit businesses from discriminating against employees based on the basis of religion.[8][9] Business law is also at times applied to religious organizations, due to their status as incorporated entities.[10]

See also


  1. ^ India's booming business of religion -
  2. ^ Introduction
  3. ^ The Business of Religion
  4. ^ Scheinman, James (1995), "Jewish Business Ethics", The Evolution & Impact of Jewish Law, Regents of the University of California U.C. Davis Journal of International Law & Policy
  5. ^ Bladd, Joanne; Claire Ferris-Lay (2010-09-09). "Planet Islamic: the $2trn battle for the halal market". Arabian Business. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  6. ^ Shimoni, Giora. "10 Most Interesting Kosher Stats of 2006". Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  7. ^ "Religion or Belief and the Workplace" (PDF). Acas. Retrieved 2011-05-18. From 2 December 2003, when the Employment Equality (Religion or Belief) Regulations came into force, it became unlawful to discriminate against workers because of religion or similar belief.
  8. ^ Foltin, Richard T.; James D. Standish (2004). "Reconciling Faith and Livelihood". Human Rights Magazine (Summer 2004). Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  9. ^ Steinberger, Jeffrey (2007-09-19). "Religion and the Workplace". Entrepreneur. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2011-05-18. Under Title VII, an employer can't refuse to reasonably accommodate an employee's religious observances, unless accommodation would constitute an "undue hardship" for the business.
  10. ^ Sternal, Patrick (July–August 2009). "Current Legal Issues Facing Religious Organizations". Business Law Today. 18 (6). Retrieved 2011-05-18.

Further reading

  • Larkin, Geraldine A.; Larkin, Geri (1991-03-01). Building a Business the Buddhist Way. Celestial Arts. ISBN 978-0-89087-888-0.
  • Gambling, Trevor; Abdel Karim, Rifaat Ahmed (1991-05-01). Business and accounting ethics in Islam. London and New York: Mansell. ISBN 978-0-7201-2074-5.
  • Lundén, Rolf (1988). Business and Religion in the American 1920s. New York, New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  • Chewning, Richard C. (1990-09-14). Business Through the Eyes of Faith. HarperOne. ISBN 978-0-06-061350-1.
  • Edward J. Trunfio, eds. (1991). Christianity in Business: A Collection of Essays on Pedagogy and Practice. Christian Business Faculty Association. ISBN 978-0-9627504-1-0.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  • Solomon, Lewis (2004-04-22). Evangelical Christian Executives: A New Model for Business Corporations. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0230-9.
  • Hill, Alexander (2008-01-10). Just Business: Christian Ethics for the Marketplace. IVP Academic. ISBN 978-0-8308-2676-6.

External links

Anthony Sharp (Quaker)

Anthony Sharp (1643–1707) was a Dublin Quaker and wool merchant.

Ayşe Buğra

Ayşe Buğra is a Turkish social scientist, currently Professor of Political Economy at Atatürk Institute for Modern Turkish History and the co-founder of the Social Policy Forum of Boğaziçi University in İstanbul. She is a recipient of the TWAS Prize for Social Sciences which she received in 2014.After graduating from Robert College of Istanbul, she continued her education at Bogazici University. With a Ph.D in Economics from McGill University, Canada, Buğra has written on the history and methodology of economics, development economics, and comparative social policy. In addition to various publications in Turkish, English, and French, she is the translator into Turkish of The Great Transformation by Karl Polanyi (1986).

Business ethics

Business ethics (also known as corporate ethics) is a form of applied ethics or professional ethics, that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. It applies to all aspects of business conduct and is relevant to the conduct of individuals and entire organizations. These ethics originate from individuals, organizational statements or from the legal system. These norms, values, ethical, and unethical practices are the principles that guide a business. They help those businesses maintain a better connection with their stakeholders.Business ethics refers to contemporary organizational standards, principles, sets of values and norms that govern the actions and behavior of an individual in the business organization. Business ethics have two dimensions, normative business ethics or descriptive business ethics. As a corporate practice and a career specialization, the field is primarily normative. Academics attempting to understand business behavior employ descriptive methods. The range and quantity of business ethical issues reflects the interaction of profit-maximizing behavior with non-economic concerns.

Interest in business ethics accelerated dramatically during the 1980s and 1990s, both within major corporations and within academia. For example, most major corporations today promote their commitment to non-economic values under headings such as ethics codes and social responsibility charters.

Adam Smith said, "People of the same trade seldom meet together, even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public, or in some contrivance to raise prices." Governments use laws and regulations to point business behavior in what they perceive to be beneficial directions. Ethics implicitly regulates areas and details of behavior that lie beyond governmental control. The emergence of large corporations with limited relationships and sensitivity to the communities in which they operate accelerated the development of formal ethics regimes.

Business guru

A business guru or management guru is a leading authority on business practices and can be defined as 'a person with influential ideas or theories about business'. The earliest use of the term business guru can be tracked back to the 1960s being used in Business Week. There are no existing qualifications that make someone a business guru. Anyone can become a business guru by making impact in a particular business field. It's also possible to claim to be a business guru at any time. It's not a title. The lists of people who have been accepted as business gurus have constantly changed over time. However, there are some people who have been accepted by a great majority as a business guru and also some organizations which have created their own lists of gurus. One English writer has described management gurus as "overwhelmingly a US phenomenon."

Frederick Patterson

Frederick Douglas Patterson (1871–1932) was an American entrepreneur known for the Greenfield-Patterson automobile of 1915, built in Ohio. He later converted his business to the Greenfield Bus Body Company.

While in college at Ohio State University, he was the first African American to play on its football team. He returned to Greenfield to join his father in his carriage business, which became C.R. Patterson and Sons. The younger man saw opportunity in the new horseless carriages, and converted the company in the early 1900s to manufacture automobiles, making 150 of them. Later he shifted to making buses and trucks, and renamed his company as Greenfield Bus Body Company. After Patterson's death in 1932, his son kept the business going through much of the Great Depression, finally closing it in 1939.

John Sentamu

John Tucker Mugabi Sentamu (; Luganda: [sːéːntámû]; born 10 June 1949) is an Anglican bishop, serving as the 97th Archbishop of York, Metropolitan of York, and Primate of England. The position of Archbishop of York is the second most senior clerical position in the Church of England after that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Primate of All England.

Born near Kampala in present-day Uganda, Sentamu studied law at Makerere University before gaining employment as an advocate of the Supreme Court of Uganda. Speaking out against the regime of President Idi Amin, he was briefly imprisoned before fleeing in 1974 to the United Kingdom, where he devoted himself to Anglicanism, beginning his study of theology at Selwyn College, Cambridge, in 1976 and eventually gaining a doctorate in 1984. He studied for ordination at Ridley Hall, Cambridge, and was ordained in 1979. In 1996 he was consecrated as the area Bishop of Stepney and in 2002 moved to the position of Bishop of Birmingham. In 2005 he was appointed to the position of Archbishop of York.

Sentamu expresses support for some traditionalist positions within the Church of England, as he has publicly criticised multiculturalism and the legalisation of same-sex marriage, but contrary to traditional Christian moral teaching he supports cohabitation before marriage, stating "We are living at a time where some people ... want to test whether the milk is good before they buy the cow." He has also received attention for his vocal criticism of former Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe.


Kraków (, also US: , UK: , Polish: [ˈkrakuf] (listen)), also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków was the official capital of Poland until 1596 and has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, economic, cultural and artistic life. Cited as one of Europe's most beautiful cities, its Old Town was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The city has grown from a Stone Age settlement to Poland's second most important city. It began as a hamlet on Wawel Hill and was already being reported as a busy trading centre of Central Europe in 965. With the establishment of new universities and cultural venues at the emergence of the Second Polish Republic in 1918 and throughout the 20th century, Kraków reaffirmed its role as a major national academic and artistic centre. The city has a population of about 770,000, with approximately 8 million additional people living within a 100 km (62 mi) radius of its main square.After the invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany at the start of World War II, the newly defined Distrikt Krakau (Kraków District) became the capital of Germany's General Government. The Jewish population of the city was forced into a walled zone known as the Kraków Ghetto, from which they were sent to German extermination camps such as the nearby Auschwitz never to return, and the Nazi concentration camps like Płaszów.In 1978, Karol Wojtyła, archbishop of Kraków, was elevated to the papacy as Pope John Paul II—the first Slavic pope ever, and the first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Also that year, UNESCO approved the first ever sites for its new World Heritage List, including the entire Old Town in inscribing Kraków's Historic Centre. Kraków is classified as a global city with the ranking of high sufficiency by GaWC. Its extensive cultural heritage across the epochs of Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque architecture includes the Wawel Cathedral and the Royal Castle on the banks of the Vistula, the St. Mary's Basilica, Saints Peter and Paul Church and the largest medieval market square in Europe, the Rynek Główny. Kraków is home to Jagiellonian University, one of the oldest universities in the world and traditionally Poland's most reputable institution of higher learning.

In 2000, Kraków was named European Capital of Culture. In 2013, Kraków was officially approved as a UNESCO City of Literature. The city hosted the World Youth Day in July 2016.

Kurian Kachappilly

Kurian Kachappilly (born 6 July 1955, at Mallussery, in Kerala, India). He is a Catholic religious priest, a member of the Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (CMI) order, and a professor of philosophy and religion.

Louis Wade Sullivan

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Markus Vinzent

Markus Vinzent (born 1959) is a historian of religion (specializing in early Christianity, Patristics and Medieval Studies, Historiography, Retromodernity, Religion and Business). He is professor in the Department of Theology & Religious Studies at King's College London, and fellow of the Max Weber Center for Advanced Social and Cultural Studies, Erfurt, Germany.

Religious economy

Religious economy may refer to:

Theory of religious economy, the interpretation of religious persons and organizations interacting within a market framework of competing groups and ideologies.It could also refer to:

Buddhist economics, a spiritual and philosophical approach to the study of economics

Cultural economics, the branch of economics that studies the relation of culture to economic outcomes

Christian finance, ethical finance following Christian ethics

Economic imperialism (economics)

Economics of religion, the application of economic theory and methods to explain the religious behaviour of individuals and groups

Female labor force in the Muslim world

Institutional economics, the study of role of institutions and evolutionary processes in shaping economic behaviour

Islamic economics

Jewish business ethics, ethical issues that arise in a business environment using Jewish ethics

New institutional economics, the study of social and legal norms and rules that underlie economic activity

Religion and business

Sociology of religion, the study of the beliefs, practices, and organizational forms of religion using the methods of sociology

Wealth and religion

Rixos Hotels

Rixos Hotels is a Turkish luxury hotel chain with headquarters in Dubai. It was founded by Fettah Tamince in Turkey in 2000. The company operates 27 hotels and resorts across Europe and the Middle East, including properties in Azerbaijan, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine and the UAE. The company employs around 10,000 people.

Rosetta Stone (software)

Rosetta Stone Language Learning is proprietary computer-assisted language learning (CALL) software published by Rosetta Stone Inc. The software uses images, text, and sound to teach words and grammar by spaced repetition, without translation. Rosetta Stone calls its approach Dynamic Immersion™.

The software's name and logo allude to the an ancient stone slab of the same name on which the Decree of Memphis is inscribed in three writing systems.

Wealth and religion

The correlation between wealth and religion has been subject to academic research. Wealth is the status of being the beneficiary or proprietor of a large accumulation of capital and economic power. Religion is a cultural system that often involves belief in supernatural forces and may intend to provide a moral system or a meaning of life.

The GDP of countries generally correlates negatively with their religiosity, i.e. the wealthier a population is the more secular it is.

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