Regnal name

A regnal name, or reign name, is the name used by monarchs and popes during their reigns and, subsequently, historically. Since ancient times, some monarchs have chosen to use a different name from their original name when they accede to the monarchy.

The regnal name is usually followed by a regnal number, written as a Roman numeral, to differentiate that monarch from others who have used the same name while ruling the same realm. In some cases, the monarch has more than one regnal name, but the regnal number is based on only one of those names, for example Charles X Gustav of Sweden, George Tupou V of Tonga. If a monarch reigns in more than one realm, he or she may carry different ordinals in each one, as some realms may have had different numbers of rulers of the same regnal name. For example, the same person was both King James I of England and King James VI of Scotland.

The ordinal is not normally used for the first ruler of the name, but is used in historical references once the name is used again. Thus, Queen Elizabeth I of England was called simply "Elizabeth of England" until the accession of Queen Elizabeth II almost four centuries later in 1952; subsequent historical references to the earlier queen retroactively refer to her as Elizabeth I. However, Tsar Paul I of Russia, King Umberto I of Italy, King Juan Carlos I of Spain, Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia and Pope John Paul I all used the ordinal I (first) during their reigns, while Pope Francis does not. In spoken English, such names are pronounced as "Elizabeth the First", "George the Sixth", etc.

In some countries in Asia, monarchs took or take era names. While era names as such are not used in many monarchies, sometimes eras are named after a monarch (usually long-lived), or a succession of monarchs of the same name. This is customary; there is no formal or general rule. For example, the whole period during which a succession of four Georges (George I, II, III, and IV) of the Hanoverian dynasty reigned in Great Britain became known as the Georgian era. Conversely, although there were many Edwards, the Edwardian era always refers to the reign of Edward VII at the beginning of the 20th century.

Monarchies

Ancient rulers

Ancient rulers in many parts of the world took regnal names or throne names which were different from their personal name. This is known to be true, for instance, of several kings of Assyria, and appears to be the case for several Kings of Judah. In Ancient Egypt, Pharaohs took a number of names – the praenomen being the most commonly used, on occasion in conjunction with their personal name.

Africa

Ethiopia

In the Ethiopian Empire, especially during the Solomonic dynasty, many Emperors would take a throne name, though this was not a general practice; a great number of rulers would remain known during their reign by their birth names. Yekuno Amlak, the founder of the Solomonic dynasty, took his father's name, Tasfa Iyasus, as his throne name. Yagbe'u Seyon, his son and heir, took the throne name Salomon after the biblical figure. Amda Seyon took the throne name Gebre Mesqel, "slave of the cross"; Tewodros I was Walda Ambasa, "son of the lion"; Sarwe Iyasus was Mehreka Nañ "distributor of your [the Lord's] mercy"; etc. Tafari Makonnen, the last sovereign Emperor of Ethiopia, took as his throne name Haile Selassie, meaning "Power of the Trinity".

Nigeria

In the various extant traditional states of Nigeria, the regnal names of the titled monarchs, who are known locally as the traditional rulers, serve two very important functions within the monarchical system. Firstly, seeing as how most states are organised in such a way as to mean that all of the legitimate descendants of the first man or woman to arrive at the site of any given community are considered its dynastic heirs, their thrones are usually rotated amongst almost endless pools of contending cousins who all share the names of the founders of their houses as primary surnames. In order to tell them all apart from one another, secondary surnames are also used for the septs of each of the royal families that are eligible for the aforementioned rotations, names that often come from the names of state of the first members of their immediate lineages to rule in their lands. Whenever any of their direct heirs ascend the thrones, they often use their septs' names as reign names as well, using the appropriate ordinals to differentiate themselves from the founders of the said septs. An example of this is found in the kingdom of Lagos, where the Adeniji-Adele family is distinguished from their numerous Adele cousins by the word Adeniji, which was actually the first name of the reigning founder of their branch of the dynasty, the Oba Adeniji Adele II. This distinction notwithstanding, both groups of dynasts (as well as a number of other ones that don't have the name Adele as an official surname, such as that of the Oloye Adekunle Ojora, a prominent nobleman of royal descent) are part of what is known as the Adele Ajosun Ruling House of Lagos.

Beyond that which is described above, regnal names also serve in Nigeria and indeed in much of Africa as chronological markers in much the same way that those of Europe do (e.g. the Victorian era). Whenever one hears of a person describing what happened at the time when so and so ruled over any particular place or people, what he or she is actually saying is that an event happened within a finite period of time, one that is equal to the duration of the reign of the monarch in question. Now seeing as how it is possible (and in fact common, particularly among the southern tribes) for one individual to have several different names and aliases in a single life, a certain degree of uniformity in usage is required if the history of an entire state is to be tied to his or her name. It is for this reason that when new monarchs are enthroned, the uniqueness of their names is usually considered to be a matter of considerable importance (even when it is caused by nothing more than the adding of ordinals to them or the allowing of more than a generation to pass before their subsequent usage). An example of this can be found in the kingdom of Benin, where the throne name of Erediauwa I became the surname of all of his immediate family in the Eweka royal house of the state, thus nominally tying them and their descendants to the era of his reign. This is especially obvious when their branch's name is compared to the last names of the said king's brothers and their heirs, named the Akenzuas after his father Akenzua II, and his uncles and their heirs, named the Ewekas after his grandfather Eweka II.

In the case of the comparatively small number of Nigerian monarchs, such as Obi Nnaemeka Achebe of Onitsha, who do not make use of regnal names as a result of a variety of reasons, pre-coronation names are maintained during their reigns.

Asia

In parts of East Asia, it is more a rule than an exception that monarchs take additional names when ascending, and quite often discard the name they were known by as princes. Often the assumed name is different from the childhood name, and a new temple name could be assumed. A posthumous name is sometimes accorded to a deceased monarch. Rebel leaders may also take regnal names. The regnal names of some monarchs were long, for example Lý Thái Tổ, Emperor Shizong of Ming and Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire. While many rulers in east Asia (including in China, Vietnam, Korea and Japan) took regnal names based on Chinese characters, some monarchs of Xu, Xiongnu, Tuyuhun Kingdom, Rouran Khaganate, Göktürks, Uyghur Khaganate and Mongol took Chinese transliterated non-Chinese regnal names. For details on the multiple names assumed by individual East Asian monarchs, see:

Some royal family members may receive honorary names such as Huihao and Miyagō.[1]

Europe

Hungary

During the Medieval Age, when the House of Árpád disappeared in 1301, two of the monarchs that claimed the throne and were crowned chose a different name. Otto III, Duke of Bavaria became Bela V of Hungary, taking the name of his maternal grandfather, Béla IV of Hungary. In the other hand, Wenceslaus III of Bohemia signed his royal documents in Hungary as Ladislas, this being a very traditional name in the Kingdom.

Later during the first half of the 14th century, Charles I of Hungary signed as "Carolus rex", but in fact his birth name was the Italian Caroberto. This is why he is often referred to by Hungarian historians as "Charles Robert of Hungary".

Netherlands

All ruling male members of the House of Orange-Nassau bore the name Willem (William). The current king of the Netherlands was christened Willem-Alexander. During an interview in 1997 he said he intended to rule under the name of Willem IV, but he had a change of mind. In a televised interview just before his inauguration, he announced he would continue to use the name Willem-Alexander, saying "I spent 46 years of my life under the name Willem-Alexander, and specifically under the nickname of Alexander. I think it would be weird to discard that because I become king of the country." Furthermore, he said he did not consider himself "a mere number", adding that regnal numbers reminded him of Dutch cattle naming conventions.[2]

Poland

When the House of Piast disappeared and the Lithuanian House of Jagiellon was elected in the figure of the High Duke Jogaila, this monarch took the name of Władysław II, in honour of the previous Polish king (Władysław I the Elbow-high) with this traditional name. Similarly, when the Elector of Saxony, Frederick Augustus I, was elected king in 1697, he took the name of Augustus II. His son Frederick Augustus II crowned in 1734, also took the name of Augustus, becoming Augustus III.

Portugal

The monarchs of Portugal have traditionally used their first baptismal name as their regnal name upon their accession. The only notable exception was Sancho I, who was born Martin of Burgundy (Martinho de Borgonha, in Portuguese). As he was a younger son, Martin was expected to join the clergy, and was named after Saint Martin of Tours, on whose feast day he had been born. When the heir apparent, Henry, died, the prince's name was changed to Sancho, one with a more established royal tradition in the other Iberian monarchies (Navarre, Castile and Aragon).

United Kingdom

Though most monarchs of the United Kingdom have used their first baptismal name as their regnal name, on three occasions monarchs have chosen a different name.

First, Queen Victoria had been christened Alexandrina Victoria, but took the throne under the name Victoria.

When Victoria's son, Prince Albert Edward, became king in 1901, he took the regnal name Edward VII, against the wish of his late mother.[3] The new king declared that he chose the name Edward alone as an honoured name borne by six of his predecessors, and that he did not wish to diminish the status of his father, with whom alone among royalty the name Albert should be associated.

In 1936, after the abdication crisis, Prince Albert, Duke of York, assumed the throne as King George VI rather than "King Albert". His full name was Albert Frederick Arthur George; like Edward VII and Victoria he used another of his names.

There has been speculation that the current heir apparent to the British throne, Charles, Prince of Wales, whose full name is Charles Philip Arthur George, may elect not to be known as "Charles III" out of concern about comparisons with Charles II of England (who was known for his Catholic sympathies), Charles I of England (who was executed after the English Civil War) and the Jacobite memory of the "Young Pretender" Charles Edward Stuart (who claimed the title "Charles III").[4] He may instead choose to be known as George VII in honour of his grandfather.[4] However, the Prince has not as yet announced any decision.[5]

Scotland

When John, Earl of Carrick ascended the Scottish throne in 1390, it was deemed imprudent for him to take the regnal name of "John II", as recent kings named John had turned out badly: in England as well as in Scotland. Furthermore, royal propaganda of the time held that John Balliol had not been a legitimate king of Scotland, making the new king's regnal number also a tricky issue. To avoid these problems, John took the regnal name of Robert III, honouring his father and great-grandfather.[6]

Upon the accession, in 1952, of Elizabeth II the title Elizabeth II caused controversy in Scotland as there had never been a Scottish Elizabeth I. The Prime Minister Winston Churchill informed the British House of Commons that the practice since the Union was to use the higher numeral. New Royal Mail post boxes in Scotland, bearing the cypher EIIR, were vandalised, after which, to avoid further problems, post boxes and Royal Mail vehicles in Scotland bore only the Crown of Scotland. A legal case, MacCormick v. Lord Advocate (1953 SC 396), contested the right of the Queen to title herself Elizabeth II in Scotland, arguing that to do so would be a breach of the Act of Union. The case, however, was lost on the grounds that the pursuers had no title to sue the Crown, and also that the numbering of monarchs was part of the royal prerogative, and thus not governed by the Act of Union.

Roman Empire

The Roman Emperors usually had the titles of Imperator Caesar Augustus in their names. (which made their regnal names) Caesar came from the cognomen of Gaius Julius Caesar, Imperator meant Commander and Augustus meant venerable or majestic. The name usually went in two ways, Imperator (Praenomen, Nomen and Cognomen) Caesar Augustus or Imperator Caesar (Praenomen, Nomen and Cognomen) Augustus. Also Imperator became a Praenomen of Roman Emperors, Augustus and Caesar became a cognomen of theirs.

Religious offices

Catholic Church

Immediately after a new pope is elected, and accepts the election, he is asked by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, "By what name shall you be called?" The new pope chooses the name by which he will be known. The senior Cardinal Deacon, or Cardinal Protodeacon, then appears on the balcony of Saint Peter's Basilica to proclaim the new Pope, informing the world of the man elected Pope, and under which name he would be known during his reign.

Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum:
Habemus Papam,
Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum,
Dominum [forename],
Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Cardinalem [surname],
qui sibi nomen imposuit [papal name].

I announce to you a great joy:
We have a Pope,
The Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord,
Lord [forename],
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname],
who conferred upon himself the name [papal name].

During the first centuries of the church, priests elected bishop of Rome continued to use their baptismal names after their elections. The custom of choosing a new name began in AD 533 with the election of Mercurius. Mercurius had been named after the Roman god Mercury, and decided that it would not be appropriate for a pope to be named after a Roman god. Mercurius subsequently decreed that he would be known as John II. Since the end of the tenth century the pope has customarily chosen a new name for himself during his Pontificate; however, until the 16th century some pontiffs used their baptismal names.

The last pope to use his baptismal name was Pope Marcellus II in 1555, a choice that was even then quite exceptional. The names chosen by popes are not based on any system other than general honorifics. They have been based on immediate predecessors, mentors, political similarity, or even after family members—as was the case with Pope John XXIII. The practice of using the baptismal name as papal name has not been ruled out and future popes could elect to continue using their original names after being elected pope.

Often the new pontiff's choice of name upon being elected to the papacy is seen as a signal to the world of whom the new pope will emulate or what policies he will seek to enact. Such is the case with Benedict XVI who, in fact, explained the reasons for his choice of name during his first General Audience in St. Peter's Square, on 27 April 2005. On that occasion, he said that he wanted to remember "Pope Benedict XV, that courageous prophet of peace, who guided the Church through turbulent times of war", and also "Saint Benedict of Nursia, co-patron of Europe, whose life evokes the Christian roots of Europe".

There has never been a Pope Peter II. Even though there is no specific prohibition against choosing the name Peter, bishops elected to the Papacy have refrained from doing so even if their own given name was Peter. This is because of a tradition that only Saint Peter should have that honor. In the 10th century John XIV used the regnal name John because his given name was Peter. While some antipopes did take the name Peter II, their claims are not recognized by the mainstream Roman Catholic Church, and each of these men only either has or had a minuscule following that recognized their claims.

Probably because of the controversial Antipope John XXIII, new popes avoided taking the regnal name John for over 600 years until the election of Angelo Cardinal Roncalli in 1958. Immediately after his election, there was some confusion as to whether he would be known as John XXIII or John XXIV. Cardinal Roncalli thus moved to immediately resolve by declaring that he would be known as John XXIII.

In 1978, Albino Luciani became the first pope to use two names for his regnal name when he took the name John Paul I, including the "I". He took the "John Paul" name to honor both John XXIII and Paul VI. With the unexpected death of John Paul I a little over a month later, Karol Wojtyła took the name John Paul II to honor his immediate predecessor.

Antipopes also have regnal names, and also use the ordinal to show their position in the line of previous pontiffs with their names. For example, David Bawden took the name Michael I when declared pope in 1990.

Coptic Church

Coptic Popes also choose regnal names distinct from their given names.

Islamic caliphates

The use of regnal names (in Arabic, laḳab (sing.) alḳāb (pl.)[7]) was uncommon in the Medieval Islamic era until the Abbasid Caliphate, when the first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas Abdullah ibn Muhammad, who overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate, used the laḳab as-Saffah ("the Generous"). This name carried a messianic association, a theme that would be continued by as-Saffah's successors.[8] The use of regnal names among the caliphs lasted throughout the reign of the Abbasid Caliphate, until the institution was deposed after the defeat of the Mamluk Sultanate and the capture of Caliph Al-Mutawakkil III by the Ottoman Army in 1517.

The Fatimid caliphs adopted the Abbasid use of alḳāb to assert their claims of authority.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ 紀宮は、宮号(みやごう=皇族に天皇がおくる称号)
  2. ^ http://nos.nl/koningshuis/video/496848-willem-4-staat-bij-bertha-38-in-de-wei.html
  3. ^ Panton, Kenneth. Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. US: Scarecrow Press. p. 392. ISBN 978-0810857797.
  4. ^ a b Pierce, Andrew (24 December 2005). "Call me George, suggests Charles". The Times. UK. Retrieved 13 July 2009. (subscription required)
  5. ^ White, Michael (27 December 2005). "Charles denies planning to reign as King George". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
  6. ^ Magnusson, Magnus, Scotland: The Story of a Nation (2000)
  7. ^ Bosworth, C.E. (2012). "Laḳab". In P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (Second ed.). ISBN 9789004161214. Retrieved 10 June 2016.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  8. ^ Crone, Patricia (1 November 2005). God's Rule: Government and Islam. Columbia University Press. pp. 87–8. ISBN 978-0-231-13291-6.
  9. ^ Safran, Janina M. (2000). The Second Umayyad Caliphate: The Articulation of Caliphal Legitimacy in Al-Andalus. Harvard CMES. pp. 203–4. ISBN 978-0-932885-24-1.

External links

Aggabodhi III of Anuradhapura

Aggabodhi III was King of Anuradhapura in the 7th century, whose reign lasted the year 623 and from 624 to 640. He succeeded his father Silameghavanna as King of Anuradhapura.

The new king appointed his brother Mana as the governor of Rohana. The king Aggabodhi III was soon challenged by the son of earlier king Sangha Tissa II, Prince Jettathissa. Prince had a large army mainly drawn from the eastern parts of the Island. Prince Mana dealt a severe defeat to the Prince Jettatssa's general Datasiva in the western part of the country and Datasiva himself was captured by the King's forces. Prince Jettsthissa's main forces were difficult to defeat and the King was defeated. He sought refuge in India.

Aggabodhi III was succeeded by Jettha Tissa III in his first reign.

The fugitive king Aggabodhi soon returned at the head of a large Indian mercenary army, King Jettathissa's army was defeated. The king having ascended the throne again brought the country to peace again.

In 624 king's brother was found guilty of misconduct with the queen and was executed. The younger brother Prince Kasspa was appointed in prince Mana's place. King Jettathissa's general Datopatissa led a rebellion and defeated the King Aggabodh III and the king had seek refuge again in India with only his necklace. The defeated king was succeeded by general Datasive with assumed regnal name Dathopa Tissa I.

King Aggabodhi III returned a second time from india and wrested the throne from Dathopatissa I.The third regnal period was marked with the excesses by prince Kassapa towards the priesthood and the temples which were robbed of their valuables. The king had to spend 1000 massa to repair thuparama dagoba. Before he was able to repair the Dakkinathupa (another temple destroyed by Datopatissa I and prince Kassapa). The Aggabodhi was driven to Rohana and carried out his administration from there during his last years.

Al-Mahdi

Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Abdallah al-Mansur (Arabic: أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله المنصور‎; 744 or 745 – 785), better known by his regnal name al-Mahdi (المهدي, "He who is guided by God"), was the third Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 775 to his death in 785. He succeeded his father, al-Mansur.

Al-Muhtadi

Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn al-Wāṯiq (died 21 June 870), better known by his regnal name al-Muhtadī bi-'llāh (Arabic: المهتدي بالله‎, "Guided by God"), was the Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate from July 869 to June 870, during the "Anarchy at Samarra".

Al-Musta'in

Al-Mustaʿin (836 – 17 October 866) was the Abbasid Caliph from 862 to 866, during the "Anarchy at Samarra". After the death of previous Caliph, al-Muntasir (who had not appointed any successors), the Turkish military leaders held a council to select his successor. They were not willing to have al-Mu'tazz or his brothers; so they elected Ahmad ibn Muhammad أحمد بن محمد, a grandson of al-Mu'tasim, who took the regnal name al-Mustaʿin bi-llah (المستعين بالله "he who looks for help to God").

Arab and other troops based in Baghdad, displeased at the choice, attacked the assembly, broke open the prison, and plundered the armory. They were attacked by the Turkish and Berber soldiers, and after some fighting in which many died, succumbed. Baghdad had yet to learn that the Caliphate no longer depended on the opinions of the Arabians, but had passed into other hands.

Al-Muti

Abū ʾl-Qāsim al-Faḍl ibn al-Muqtadir (914 – September/October 974), better known by his regnal name of al-Mutīʿ li-ʾllāh (Arabic: المطيع لله‎, "obedient to God"), was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 946 to 974. He had long aspired to the office. Between him and the previous Caliph, al-Mustakfi, bitter enmity existed, which led him to retire into hiding.

When the Buwayhids under Mu'izz al-Dawla entered Baghdad in 945, al-Muti came forth from his retirement and established himself at the new court. But even he, after he became caliph, was no longer allowed a voice in nominating the vizier by the Buwayhid amirs who dominated Iraq. The caliphal office was shorn of every token of respect and dignity. Shi'a observances were set up, such as public mourning on the anniversary of Husayn's death, and rejoicing of the Prophet's testimony in Ali's favor. On one occasion they went so far as to post upon the various mosques sheets inscribed with curses against the early Caliphs, and even against Aisha. The city was exasperated by the insult, and the placards torn down by the infuriated mob.

The Buwayhids maintained their hold on Baghdad over one hundred years. The material position of the Caliphs throughout the Buwayhid reign was at its lowest ebb. Mu'izz al-Dawla was only prevented from raising to throne a Shi'a Caliph by alarm for his own safety, and fear of rebellion, not in the capital alone, but all around. But the Caliphate of Baghdad, on its spiritual side, was still recognized throughout the Muslim world wherever the orthodox (Sunni) faith prevailed, except for Umayyad Spain and Idrissid Morocco. The Fatimid caliphs, on the other hand, claimed spiritual supremacy not only in Egypt, but also contested the pulpits of Syria. In the East the spiritual dominance varied, but, except Persia and Daylam, the balance clearly favored orthodoxy. The Turks were staunch Sunnis. The Great Mahmud of Ghazni, of Eastern fame, held always a friendly attitude towards the Caliphs, and his victories in India were accordingly announced from the pulpits of Baghdad in grateful and glowing terms.

Al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah

Abu'l-Qasim Muhammad ibn al-Mahdi (Arabic: أبو القاسم محمد بن المهدي القائم بأمر الله‎; April 893 – 17 May 946), better known by his regnal name al-Qa'im bi-Amr Allah or bi-Amri 'llah (القائم بأمر الله, "He who carries out God's orders"), was the second caliph of the Fatimid Caliphate in Ifriqiya and ruled from 934 to 946. He is the 12th Imam according to the Isma'ili faith.

Ali Mirza Safavi

Ali Mirza Safavi also known as Soltan-Ali Safavi (died 1494) was the penultimate head of the Safavid order. Having grown wary of his political power, Ali Mirza was captured by the Ak Koyunlu and spent several years in captivity in Fars before being released in 1493 by prince Rostam. In the ensuing period he and his men assisted the prince in defeating Baysonqor bin Yaqub. A year later however, in 1494, now perceiving the Safavid order as a threat to his own position, Rostam ordered for the execution of Ali Mirza Safavi. Realizing his inevitable fate, shortly before his death, Ali Mirza Safavi appointed his brother Ismail as his successor. Ismail, in turn, eventually came to establish the Safavid Empire, with the regnal name Ismail I (r. 1501–1524).

Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Alid dynasties of northern Iran or Alâvids. In the 9th–14th centuries, the northern Iranian regions of Tabaristan, Daylam and Gilan, sandwiched between the Caspian Sea and the Alborz range, came under the rule of a number of Alid dynasties, espousing the Zaydi branch of Shia Islam.

The first and most powerful Zaydi emirate was established in Tabaristan in 864 and lasted until 928. It was interrupted by Samanid occupation in 900, but restored in 914 by another Alid branch.

The second period of the Alid emirate was plagued by internal dissensions and power struggles between the two branches, and ended in the second conquest of the region by the Samanids in 928. Subsequently, some of the soldiers and generals of the Alavids joined the Samanids, among them Mardavij, founder of the Ziyarid dynasty, and the three sons of Buya (Ali, Hassan and Ahmad), founders of the Buyid dynasty.

Local Zaydi rulers survived in Daylam and Gilan until the 16th century.

Ar-Radi

Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad (Muhammad) ibn Ja'far al-Muqtadir (Arabic: أبو العباس أحمد (محمد) بن جعفر المقتدر‎, translit. Abū al-ʿAbbās Aḥmad (Muḥammad) ibn al-Muqtadir; December 909 – 23 December 940), usually simply known by his regnal name ar-Radi bi'llah (Arabic: الراضي بالله‎, translit. ar-Rāḍī bi'llāh, lit. 'Content with God'), was the 20th Caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate, reigning from 934 to his death. He died on 23 December 940 at the age of 31. His reign marked the end of the caliph's political power and the rise of military strongmen, who competed for the title of amir al-umara.

Charles VIII of Sweden

Charles VIII of Sweden (1408 Uppsala - 1470 Stockholm, in reality Charles II), Charles I of Norway, also Carl (Swedish: Karl Knutsson), was king of Sweden (1448–1457, 1464–1465 and from 1467 to his death in 1470) and king of Norway (1449–1450).

Gebre Mesqel Lalibela

Lalibela (Ge'ez: ላሊበላ), regnal name Gebre Meskel (Ge'ez: ገብረ መስቀል, lit. 'Servant of the Cross'; 1162 – 1221) was Emperor of Ethiopia of the Zagwe dynasty, reigning from 1181 to 1221. According to Taddesse Tamrat, he was the son of Jan Seyum and brother of Kedus Harbe. Perhaps the most well-known of the Zagwe monarchs, the namesake monolithic churches of Lalibela are attributed to his reign, although recent scholarship has suggested origins as early as the late Aksumite period, with the complex reaching its present form during his time. He is venerated as a saint by the Orthodox Tewahedo churches.

Hasan al-Utrush

Abu Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ‘Alī ibn ‘Umar al-Ashraf ibn ‘Alī Zayn al-‘Ābidīn (Medina, ca. 844 – Amul, January/February 917), better known as al-Ḥasan al-Uṭrūsh ("the Deaf"), was an Alid Shia missionary of the Zaydi sect who re-established Zaydid rule over the province Tabaristan in northern Iran in 914, after fourteen years of Samanid rule. He ruled Tabaristan until his death under the regnal name of al-Nāṣir li'l-Ḥaqq ("Defender of the True Faith"), and became known as al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr ("al-Nasir the Elder") to distinguish him from his descendants who bore the same surname. He is still known and recognized as Imam among the Zaydis of Yemen.

Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi

Ibrahim ibn al-Mahdi (Arabic: إبراهيم بن المهدي‎) (779–839) was an Abbasid prince, singer, composer and poet. He was the son of the third Abbasid caliph Al-Mahdi and thus the half-brother of the poet and musician ‘Ulayya bint al-Mahdī. He was not a full brother of Al-Mahdi's sons Al-Hadi and Harun al-Rashid, since his mother was not Al-Khayzuran but rather an Afro Iranian princess named Shikla or Shakla. Historian Ibn Khallikan reported that Ibrahim was consequently "of dark complexion."During the Fourth Fitna, Ibrahim was proclaimed caliph on 20 July 817 by the people of Baghdad, who gave him the regnal name of al-Mubarak (Arabic: المبارك‎) and declared his reigning nephew al-Ma'mun deposed. Ibrahim received the allegiance of the Hashemites. He had to resign in 819, and spent the rest of his life as a poet and a musician. He is remembered as "one of the most gifted musicians of his day, with a phenomenal vocal range", and a promoter of the then innovative 'Persian style' of song, 'which was characterized inter alia by redundant improvisation'.

Inthavong

Chao Inthavong (Lao: ເຈົ້າອິນທະວົງສ໌; Thai: เจ้าอินทวงศ์; died 7 February 1805), or known as his regnal name Xaiya Setthathirath IV, was the 5th king of the Kingdom of Vientiane (r. 1795 to 1805).Inthavong was the second son of King Ong Boun. In 1778, he was taken as hostage by Siamese together with his siblings, including Nanthasen, Anouvong and Khamwaen.After Nanthasen crowned the Vientiane king, he was appointed the oupahat ("vice king") of Vientiane. However, he had to live in Bang Phlat (Khwaeng Bang Yi Khan), Bangkok, where he entered the Siamese government service. After the Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút, Vietnamese ruler Nguyễn Ánh fled to Bangkok. There, Inthavong met Nguyễn Ánh. According to Vietnamese royal records, Inthavong "admired him".In 1795, King Nanthasen was deposed by Siamese, Inthavong crowned the new king. During Inthavong's reign, Vientiane made alliance with Nguyễn lord. In 1800 and 1801, when Nguyễn army marched north to attack Tây Sơn dynasty, Inthavong ordered his forces to attack Nghệ An Province, cooperating with Nguyễn forces. Inthavong died on 7 February 1805. His younger brother Anouvong was appointed the new king by Siamese, and sent back to Vientiane.

List of monarchs of Persia

This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Median Empire by Medes around 705 BC until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.

Earlier monarchs in the area of modern-day Iran are listed in:

List of rulers of the pre-Achaemenid kingdoms of IranMinor dynasties and vassal monarchs can be found in:

List of rulers of Parthian sub-kingdoms

Islamic dynasties of Iran

Papal name

A papal name or pontificial name is the regnal name taken by a pope. Both the head of the Catholic Church, usually known as the Pope, and the Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic Pope) choose papal names. As of 2013, Pope Francis is the Catholic Pope, and Tawadros II or Theodoros II is the Coptic Pope. This article discusses and lists the names of Catholic Popes; another article has a list of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria.

While popes in the early centuries retained their birth names after their accession to the papacy, later on popes began to adopt a new name upon their accession. This first started in the sixth century and became customary in the 10th century. Since 1555, every pope has taken a papal name.

The pontificial name is given in Latin by virtue of the Pope's status as Bishop of the Holy See of Rome. The Pope is also given an Italian name by virtue of his Vatican citizenship. However, it is customary when referring to popes to translate the regnal name into all local languages. Thus, for example, Papa Franciscus (Latin, the official language of the Holy See), is Papa Francesco in Italian (the language of the Vatican), Papa Francisco in his native Spanish, and Pope Francis in English.

Petru I of Moldavia

Petru I may have been a Voivode (prince) of Moldavia from the end of 1367 to after July 1368. Several historians, including Constantin Rezachevici and Ioan Aurel Pop, believe him to have been the son of prince Ştefan, oldest son of voivode Bogdan I of Moldavia, while others, including historian Juliusz Demel, considered him to be the son of Costea of Moldavia with a daughter of Bogdan I. In the second hypothesis, there was no such voivode of Moldavia in 1367-1368, the first using the regnal name Petru being Petru II of Moldavia.

Souvanna Banlang

Souvanna Banlang (1455-1486) was king of Lan Xang from 1479-1486 taking the regnal name Samdach Brhat-Anya Chao Suvarna Panya Lankara Raja Sri Sadhana Kanayudha. His reign was marked as a period of peace and reconstruction, following a massive invasion by the Đại Việt forces of Emperor Lê Thánh Tông. He became king in 1479 after the abdication of his father Chakkaphat Phaen Phaeo, who had fled the capital of Muang Sua ahead of the Đại Việt armies. Prior to his accession he served as Governor of Muang Dansai, according to the Lao chronicles he commanded Lao forces at the Battle of Pakphun where the invading forces were halted and forced to retreat to Vietnam.

Uzana of Pagan

Uzana (Burmese: ဥဇနာ, pronounced [ʔṵzənà]; also known as Sithu III; 1213–1256) was king of Pagan dynasty of Burma (Myanmar) from 1251 to 1256. He assumed the regnal name "Śrī Tribhuvanāditya Dhammarājajayasūra" (ၐြီတြိဘုဝနာဒိတျဓမ္မရာဇဇယသူရ).Although his actual reign lasted only five years, Uzana was essentially the power behind the throne during his predecessor Kyaswa's reign, 1235–1251. Kyaswa, a devout Buddhist and scholar, had given Uzana full royal authority to govern the kingdom to the business of governing the country. However Uzana reportedly cared more about chasing elephants, and drinking liquor than governing during his father's or his reign. As king, he left the task of governing to his chief minister Yazathingyan. The king was accidentally killed at Dala (modern Twante) in May 1256 while hunting elephants.His death was followed by a brief power struggle for the throne. His eldest son, Thihathu, claimed the throne but was pushed aside by the court led by Yazathingyan, who placed the other son by a concubine, Narathihapate, on the throne by November 1256.

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