Registration authorities exist for many standards organizations, such as ANNA (Association of National Numbering Agencies for ISIN), the Object Management Group, W3C, IEEE and others. In general, registration authorities all perform a similar function, in promoting the use of a particular standard through facilitating its use. This may be by applying the standard, where appropriate, or by verifying that a particular application satisfies the standard's tenants. Maintenance agencies, in contrast, may change an element in a standard based on set rules – such as the creation or change of a currency code when a currency is created or revalued (i.e. TRL to TRY for Turkish lira). The Object Management Group has an additional concept of certified provider, which is deemed an entity permitted to perform some functions on behalf of the registration authority, under specific processes and procedures documented within the standard for such a role.
An ISO registration authority (RAs) is not authorized to update standards but provides a registration function to facilitate implementation of an International Standard (e.g. ISBN number for books). Frequently, facilitating the implementation of an ISO standard’s requirements is best suited, by its nature, to one entity, an RA. This, de facto, creates a monopoly situation and this is why care needs to be taken with respect to the functions carried out and the fees charged to avoid an abuse of such a situation. In most cases, there is a formal legal contract in place between the standards body, such as the ISO General Secretariat, and the selected registration authority.
ISO registration authorities differ from a maintenance agency. Maintenance agencies are authorized to update particular elements in an International Standard and as a matter of policy, the secretariats of MAs are assigned to bodies forming part of the ISO system (member bodies or organizations to which a member body delegates certain tasks in its country). The membership of MAs and their operating procedures are subject to approval by the Technical Management Board.
While registration authorities for a particular standard typically do not change, the position is not formally guaranteed and is subject to review and reassignment to a different firm or organization. In some cases, the concept of a registration authority may not exist for a standard at all.
ISO standards having registration authorities are:
.ca is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Canada. The domain name registry that operates it is the Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA).
Registrants can register domains at the second level (e.g., example.ca). Third-level registrations in one of the geographic third-level domains defined by the registry (e.g. example.ab.ca) were discontinued on October 12, 2010, but existing third-level domain names continue to be supported.Canadian Internet Registration Authority
The Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) (French: Autorité canadienne pour les enregistrements Internet ACEI) is the organization that manages the .CA country code top-level domain, the policies that support Canada's Internet community and Canada's involvement in international Internet governance. CIRA is a member-driven organization. Membership in CIRA is included in the cost of a .CA domain, and open to anyone who holds a .CA domain. There are approximately 15,000 CIRA members as of January 2013.
In November 2012, CIRA celebrated 2,000,000 .CA domains under management, making .CA the 19th largest top-level domain in the world.
CIRA was incorporated in 1998 and assumed operation of .CA on December 1, 2000 from the University of British Columbia. CIRA is currently based in the national capital, Ottawa, Ontario.
A Board of Directors, consisting of both elected and appointed members, sets CIRA's strategic directions. Board members are elected annually by CIRA Members through an online process.
In September 2012, CIRA held a DNSSEC key signing ceremony, and published a signed .CA zone file in January 2013.
In June 2018, the CIRA announced co-operation with the Canadian Centre for Child Protection.IEEE Registration Authority
The IEEE Registration Authority is the administrative body that is responsible for registering and administering Organizationally Unique Identifiers (OUI) and other types of identifiers which are used in the computer and electronics industries (Individual Address Blocks (IAB), Manufacturer IDs, Standard Group MAC Addresses, Unique Registration Numbers (URN), EtherType values, etc.)
The IEEE Registration Authority was formed in 1986 in response to a need for this service that was recognized by the P802 (LAN/MAN) standards group. The IEEE Registration Authority is currently recognized by ISO/IEC as the authorized registration authority to provide the service of globally assigning, administering, and registering OUIs.
Note: The term 'Registration' as used in this context is "the assignment of unambiguous names to objects in a way which makes the assignment available to interested parties".ISO/IEC 6523
ISO/IEC 6523 Information technology – Structure for the identification of organizations and organization parts is an international standard that defines a structure for uniquely identifying organizations and parts thereof in computer data interchange and specifies the registration procedure to obtain an International Code Designator (ICD) value for an identification scheme.
The standard consists of two parts:
Part 1: Identification of organization identification schemes defines a structure for the identification of organizations and parts thereof. The components of this structure are the following:
an International Code Designator (ICD) value, which uniquely identifies the authority which issued the code to the organization, up to 4 digits
an organization identifier, up to a maximum of 35 characters
an (optional) organization part identifier (OPI), up to a maximum of 35 characters (An organization part can be any kind of entity within an organization.)
an (optional) OPI source indicator, 1 digit, specifying who attributed the OPIPart 2: Registration of organization identification schemes defines the registration procedure for ICD values. This includes:
the registration authority for ICD values is Farance Inc. on behalf of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
the specific procedures for the allocation and deletion of ICD values
the contents of the register/list of the registered identification schemes(A list of allocated ICD values is available here. An up-to-date list may also be acquired by contacting the registration authority.)
Further information concerning ISO/IEC 6523 and on how to obtain an ICD value can be found here.
ISO/IEC 6523 forms the basis of OSI naming under ISO/IEC 8348. It also forms the 1.3 object identifier (OID) tree.
The most widespread standard compliant with ISO 6523 norm is the identifier called "Global Location Number" (GLN), developed by GS1 company members. In B2B exchanges, it is widely used by companies to identify locations or functions within a location (for example : a factory, the accounting department of a company, an administration, a warehouse, a delivery address, ...). It has become a key to exchange business messages (orders, invoices, ...) using UN/EDIFACT specifications.
The ebCore Party Id Type Technical Specification was issued by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS). It was elaborated by the OASIS ebXML Core Technical Committee and it specifies a Uniform Resource Name (URN) namespace for organization identifiers. It bases upon ISO/IEC 6523, ISO 9735 and ISO 20022.ISO/IEC 7812
ISO/IEC 7812 Identification cards — Identification of issuers was first published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1989. It is the international standard specifies "a numbering system for the identification of the card issuers, the format of the issuer identification number (IIN) and the primary account number (PAN).", and procedures for registering IINs. ISO/IEC 7812 has two parts:
Part 1: Numbering system
Part 2: Application and registration proceduresThe registration authority for Issuer Identification Numbers (IINs) is the American Bankers Association.
An IIN is currently six digits in length. The leading digit is the major industry identifier (MII), followed by 5 digits, which together make up the IIN. This IIN is paired with an individual account identification number, and a single digit checksum.In 2015, the industry began work on implementing a change to ISO 7812 to increase the length of the IIN to 8 digits. The 2017 revision of the standard defines the new eight digit IIN and outlines a timeline for conversion of existing six digits IINs to eight digit IINs.ISO 4
ISO 4 (Information and documentation – Rules for the abbreviation of title words and titles of publications) is an international standard which defines a uniform system for the abbreviation of serial publication titles, i.e., titles of publications such as scientific journals that are published in regular installments.The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has appointed the ISSN International Centre as the registration authority for ISO 4. It maintains the List of Title Word Abbreviations (LTWA), which contains standard abbreviations for words commonly found in serial titles. As of August 2017, the standard's most recent update came in 1997, when its third edition was released.A major use of ISO 4 is to abbreviate the names of scientific journals using the LTWA. For instance, under ISO 4 standards, the Journal of Biological Chemistry is cited as J. Biol. Chem., and the Journal of Polymer Science Part A should be cited as J. Polym. Sci. A (capitalization is not specified by the standard). The standard notes that "Full stops shall only be used to indicate an abbreviation. Full stops may be omitted from abbreviated words in applications that require limited use of punctuation" (section 4.6).
It was initially published in 1972 (ISO 4:1972), with a second edition published in 1984 (ISO 4:1984), and the third edition in 1997 (ISO 4:1997).ISO 639-1
ISO 639-1:2002, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 1: Alpha-2 code, is the first part of the ISO 639 series of international standards for language codes. Part 1 covers the registration of two-letter codes. There are 184 two-letter codes registered as of December 2018. The registered codes cover the world's major languages.
These codes are a useful international and formal shorthand for indicating languages.
Many multilingual web sites—such as Wikipedia—use these codes to prefix URLs of specific language versions of their web sites: for example, en.Wikipedia.org is the English version of Wikipedia. See also IETF language tag. (Two-letter country-specific top-level-domain code suffixes are often different from these language-tag prefixes).
ISO 639, the original standard for language codes, was approved in 1967. It was split into parts, and in 2002 ISO 639-1 became the new revision of the original standard. The last code added was ht, representing Haitian Creole on 2003-02-26. The use of the standard was encouraged by IETF language tags, introduced in RFC 1766 in March 1995, and continued by RFC 3066 from January 2001 and RFC 4646 from September 2006. The current version is RFC 5646 from September 2009. Infoterm (International Information Center for Terminology) is the registration authority for ISO 639-1 codes.
New ISO 639-1 codes are not added if an ISO 639-2 code exists, so systems that use ISO 639-1 and 639-2 codes, with 639-1 codes preferred, do not have to change existing codes.If an ISO 639-2 code that covers a group of languages is used, it might be overridden for some specific languages by a new ISO 639-1 code.
There is no specification on treatment of macrolanguages (see ISO 639-3).ISO 639-2
ISO 639-2:1998, Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code, is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. The three-letter codes given for each language in this part of the standard are referred to as "Alpha-3" codes. There are 487 entries in the list of ISO 639-2 codes.
The US Library of Congress is the registration authority for ISO 639-2 (referred to as ISO 639-2/RA). As registration authority, the LOC receives and reviews proposed changes; they also have representation on the ISO 639-RA Joint Advisory Committee responsible for maintaining the ISO 639 code tables.ISO 639-3
ISO 639-3:2007, Codes for the representation of names of languages – Part 3: Alpha-3 code for comprehensive coverage of languages, is an international standard for language codes in the ISO 639 series. It defines three-letter codes for identifying languages. The standard was published by ISO on 1 February 2007.ISO 639-3 extends the ISO 639-2 alpha-3 codes with an aim to cover all known natural languages. The extended language coverage was based primarily on the language codes used in the Ethnologue (volumes 10-14) published by SIL International, which is now the registration authority for ISO 639-3. It provides an enumeration of languages as complete as possible, including living and extinct, ancient and constructed, major and minor, written and unwritten. However, it does not include reconstructed languages such as Proto-Indo-European.ISO 639-3 is intended for use as metadata codes in a wide range of applications. It is widely used in computer and information systems, such as the Internet, in which many languages need to be supported. In archives and other information storage, they are used in cataloging systems, indicating what language a resource is in or about. The codes are also frequently used in the linguistic literature and elsewhere to compensate for the fact that language names may be obscure or ambiguous.ISO base media file format
ISO base media file format (ISO/IEC 14496-12 – MPEG-4 Part 12) defines a general structure for time-based multimedia files such as video and audio.
The identical text is published as ISO/IEC 15444-12 (JPEG 2000, Part 12).It is designed as a flexible, extensible format that facilitates interchange, management, editing and presentation of the media. The presentation may be local, or via a network or other stream delivery mechanism. The file format is designed to be independent of any particular network protocol while enabling support for them in general. It is used as the basis for other media file formats (e.g. container formats MP4 and 3GP).International Standard Name Identifier
The International Standard Name Identifier (ISNI) is an identifier for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, television programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 digits. It can optionally be displayed as divided into four blocks.
ISNI can be used to disambiguate names that might otherwise be confused, and links the data about names that are collected and used in all sectors of the media industries.
It was developed under the auspices of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as Draft International Standard 27729; the valid standard was published on 15 March 2012. The ISO technical committee 46, subcommittee 9 (TC 46/SC 9) is responsible for the development of the standard.List of ISO 639-3 codes
These are lists of ISO 639-3 language codes.
A media access control address (MAC address) of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller (NIC). For communications within a network segment, it is used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. Within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, MAC addresses are used in the medium access control protocol sublayer of the data link layer. As typically represented, MAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or no separator (see Notational conventions below).
A MAC address may be referred to as the burned-in address, and is also known as an Ethernet hardware address, hardware address, and physical address (not to be confused with a memory physical address).
A network node with multiple NICs must have a unique MAC addresses for each. Sophisticated network equipment such as a multilayer switch or router may require one or more permanently assigned MAC addresses.
MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of network interface cards. Each is stored in hardware, such as the card's read-only memory or by a firmware mechanism. A MAC address typically includes the manufacturer's organizationally unique identifier (OUI). MAC addresses are formed according to the rules of one of two numbering name spaces managed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): EUI-48 (it replaces the obsolete term MAC-48) and EUI-64. EUI is an abbreviation for Extended Unique Identifier.MPEG-4 Part 14
MPEG-4 Part 14 or MP4 is a digital multimedia container format most commonly used to store video and audio, but it can also be used to store other data such as subtitles and still images. Like most modern container formats, it allows streaming over the Internet. The only official filename extension for MPEG-4 Part 14 files is .mp4. MPEG-4 Part 14 (formally ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003) is a standard specified as a part of MPEG-4.
Portable media players are sometimes advertised as "MP4 Players", although some are simply MP3 Players that also play AMV video or some other video format, and do not necessarily play the MPEG-4 Part 14 format.Ministry of Interior (Pakistan)
The Ministry of Interior (Urdu: وزارت داخلہ, abbreviated as MoI) is a Cabinet-level ministry of the Government of Pakistan, tasked and primarily responsible for implementing the internal policies, state security, administration of internal affairs involving the state, and assisting the government on territorial affairs of Federally Administered Tribal Areas (Fata), and insular areas of Provincially Administered Tribal Areas (PATA).
The ministry is led by the Interior Minister, the Minister of State for Interior and the Interior Secretary. The Interior Secretary is a Grade 22 officer whereas the Interior Minister is a leading member of the federal cabinet. The ministry is located in Islamabad and is currently led by Imran Khan.
The minister is required to be a member of parliament. During the martial regimes of Generals Ayub Khan and Yahya Khan, from 1962 until 1971, the Interior Minister was called Home Affairs Minister.National Database and Registration Authority
The National Database and Registration Authority, Pakistan (Urdu:نادرا; reporting name: NADRA), is an independent and autonomous agency under Ministry of Interior, Government of Pakistan that regulates government databases and statistically manages the sensitive registration database of all the national citizens of Pakistan. It is responsible to issuing the computerized national identity cards to the citizens of Pakistan, maintaining their sensitive informational upgraded in the government databases, and securing national identities of the citizens of Pakistan from being stolen and theft. It is one of the largest government database institution, employing more than 11,000 people in more than 800 domestic offices and five international offices.
Codified by the Second Amendment, §30 of the Constitution of Pakistan in 2000, the constitution grants powers to NADRA to enact civil registration and sensitive databases of Pakistan's citizens; all databases are kept in extreme secrecy and security to ensure the safety of its citizen's databases. As of 2018, it is directed and headed by Usman Yousaf Mobin who was Chief Technology Officer of NADRA and now appointed as the Chairman.National Identification and Registration Authority
The National Identification and Registration Authority (NIRA) is a government-owned organisation in Uganda, mandated to register births and deaths in the country and to develop a National Identification Register for both citizens and legally resident non-citizens. NIRA is also mandated to issue national identification numbers and cards for every citizen and lawfully admitted alien.Public key infrastructure
A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store & revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption. The purpose of a PKI is to facilitate the secure electronic transfer of information for a range of network activities such as e-commerce, internet banking and confidential email. It is required for activities where simple passwords are an inadequate authentication method and more rigorous proof is required to confirm the identity of the parties involved in the communication and to validate the information being transferred.In cryptography, a PKI is an arrangement that binds public keys with respective identities of entities (like people and organizations). The binding is established through a process of registration and issuance of certificates at and by a certificate authority (CA). Depending on the assurance level of the binding, this may be carried out by an automated process or under human supervision.
The PKI role that assures valid and correct registration is called a registration authority (RA). An RA is responsible for accepting requests for digital certificates and authenticating the entity making the request. In a Microsoft PKI, a registration authority is usually called a subordinate CA.An entity must be uniquely identifiable within each CA domain on the basis of information about that entity. A third-party validation authority (VA) can provide this entity information on behalf of the CA.QuickTime File Format
QuickTime File Format (QTFF) is a computer file format used natively by the QuickTime framework.