Finland comprises 19 regions, called maakunta in Finnish and landskap in Swedish.[a] The regions are governed by regional councils, which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. The main tasks of the regions are regional planning and development of enterprise and education. In addition, the public health services are usually organized on the basis of regions. Currently, the only region where a popular election is held for the council is Kainuu. Other regional councils are elected by municipal councils, each municipality sending representatives in proportion to its population.
In addition to inter-municipal cooperation, which is the responsibility of regional councils, there are 15 Centres for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment (Finnish: elinkeino-, liikenne- ja ympäristökeskus, abbreviated ely-keskus), which is responsible for the local administration of labour, agriculture, fisheries, forestry and entrepreneurial affairs. They are each responsible for one or more of regions of Finland, and include offices of the Ministries of Employment and the Economy, Transport and Communications and Environment. The Finnish Defence Forces regional offices are responsible for the regional defence preparations and for the administration of conscription within the region.
Regions represent dialectal, cultural and economic variations better than the former provinces, which were purely administrative divisions of the central government. Historically, regions are divisions of historical provinces of Finland, areas which represent dialects and culture more accurately.
|№||Flag||Coat of arms||Name||Official English name||Finnish name||Swedish name||Capital||Area (km2)||Population|
(31 Dec 2017)
|2.||North Ostrobothnia||North Ostrobothnia||Pohjois-Pohjanmaa||Norra Österbotten||Oulu||36,815||411,150|
|4.||North Karelia||North Karelia||Pohjois-Karjala||Norra Karelen||Joensuu||17,761||164,085|
|5.||Northern Savonia||Pohjois-Savo||Pohjois-Savo||Norra Savolax||Kuopio||16,768||247,776|
|6.||Southern Savonia||Etelä-Savo||Etelä-Savo||Södra Savolax||Mikkeli||14,257||148,975|
|7.||South Karelia||South Karelia||Etelä-Karjala||Södra Karelen||Lappeenranta||5,327||130,506|
|8.||Central Finland||Central Finland||Keski-Suomi||Mellersta Finland||Jyväskylä||16,703||276,196|
|9.||South Ostrobothnia||South Ostrobothnia||Etelä-Pohjanmaa||Södra Österbotten||Seinäjoki||13,444||191,860|
|11.||Central Ostrobothnia||Central Ostrobothnia||Keski-Pohjanmaa||Mellersta Österbotten||Kokkola||5,020||69,027|
|15.||Tavastia Proper||Kanta-Häme||Kanta-Häme||Egentliga Tavastland||Hämeenlinna||5,199||173,781|
|17.||Helsinki-Uusimaa Region||Helsinki-Uusimaa Region||Uusimaa||Nyland||Helsinki||9,097||1,638,293|
|18.||Southwest Finland||Varsinais-Suomi||Varsinais-Suomi||Egentliga Finland||Turku||10,663||475,543|
|Number||Coat of Arms||Name||Official English name||Finnish name||Swedish name||Capital||Dissolution (date)|
|20||Eastern Uusimaa||Itä-Uusimaa||Itä-Uusimaa||Östra Nyland||Porvoo||January 1, 2011|
Central Finland (Finnish: Keski-Suomi; Swedish: Mellersta Finland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) in Finland. It borders the regions of Päijät-Häme, Pirkanmaa, South Ostrobothnia, Central Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, Pohjois-Savo, and Etelä-Savo.
Jyväskylä is the regional centre and by far the largest city in the area.Central Ostrobothnia
Central Ostrobothnia (Finnish: Keski-Pohjanmaa; Swedish: Mellersta Österbotten) is a region in Finland. It borders the regions of Ostrobothnia, North Ostrobothnia, Central Finland and South Ostrobothnia.Kymenlaakso
Kymenlaakso (literally Kymi Valley) (Swedish: Kymmenedalen) is a region in Finland. It borders the regions of Uusimaa, Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme), Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo) and South Karelia and Russia (Leningrad Oblast). Its name means literally The Valley of River Kymijoki. Kymijoki is one of the biggest rivers in Finland with a drainage basin with 11% of the area of Finland. The city of Kotka with 55,000 inhabitants is located at the delta of River Kymijoki and has the most important import harbour in Finland. Other cities are Kouvola further in the inland which has after a municipal merger 88,000 inhabitants and the old bastion town Hamina.List of Finnish regions by GDP
This is a list of Finnish regions by GDP and GDP per capita. The equivalent countries which are comparable to the Finnish regions in GDP per capita are chosen by Worldbank data for the same year.North Karelia
North Karelia (Finnish: Pohjois-Karjala; Swedish: Norra Karelen) is a region in eastern Finland. It borders the regions of Kainuu, Northern Savonia (Pohjois-Savo), Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo) and South Karelia, as well as Russia (Republic of Karelia).
The city of Joensuu is the capital of North Karelia.
North Karelia is renowned among public health officials. In the 1960s Finland led industrialized nations in heart disease mortality rates; North Karelia had Finland's highest incidence. In 1972 a long-term project was undertaken which targeted this risk in North Karelia. The resulting improvement in public health is still considered remarkable, a model for the rest of the nation.North Ostrobothnia
North Ostrobothnia (Finnish: Pohjois-Pohjanmaa; Swedish: Norra Österbotten) is a region of Finland. It borders the Finnish regions of Lapland, Kainuu, Northern Savonia (Pohjois-Savo), Central Finland and Central Ostrobothnia, as well as the Russian Republic of Karelia.Northern Savonia
Northern Savonia or, officially, Pohjois-Savo (Finnish: Pohjois-Savo; Swedish: Norra Savolax) is a region in eastern Finland. It borders the regions of Etelä-Savo, Central Finland, North Ostrobothnia, Kainuu, and North Karelia. Kuopio is the largest city in the region.Ostrobothnia (region)
Ostrobothnia (Swedish: Österbotten; Finnish: Pohjanmaa) is a region of Finland. It is located in Western Finland. It borders the regions of Central Ostrobothnia, South Ostrobothnia, and Satakunta and is one of the four modern regions making up the historical province of Ostrobothnia.
Ostrobothnia is one of the two Finnish regions with a Swedish-speaking majority (the other being the constitutionally monolingual province of Åland); Swedish-speakers make up 51.2%. The region contains both bilingual municipalities and ones that are exclusively Finnish-speaking.
Geographically, Ostrobothnia has little topographical relief, because it is mostly former seafloor brought to surface by post-glacial rebound and the accumulation of alluvial sediment. Ostrobothnia has both vast expanses of cultivated fields (lakeus) as in Southern Ostrobothnia, and the archipelago of Kvarken (Finnish: Merenkurkku). Glacial transport has deposited large quantities of glacial erratics (rocks) in the area. Like elsewhere in Pohjanmaa, rivers are a prominent part of the landscape. The major rivers that discharge into the Gulf of Bothnia in Ostrobothnia are Kyrönjoki, Lapuanjoki and Ähtävänjoki.
The regional tree is the black alder (Alnus glutinosa), the regional mammal is the common elk (Alces alces alces), the regional stone is Vaasa granite and the regional song is "The march of Vaasa" (Swedish: Vasamarschen, Finnish: Vaasan marssi).
In local circles or communities, Ostrobothnia is often referred to as "Pampas". The word derives from the similarities in the flat landscape with the Pampas area in South America.Outline of Finland
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Finland.
Finland – sovereign Nordic country located in Northern Europe. Finland has borders with Sweden to the west, Russia to the east, and Norway to the north, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland. The capital city is Helsinki.
Around 5.4 million people reside in Finland, with the majority concentrated in the southern part of country. It is the eighth largest country in Europe in terms of area and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union. The native language for most of the population is Finnish, a member of the Uralic language family most closely related to Estonian and one of the four EU languages not of Indo-European origin. The second official language, Swedish, is spoken by a 5.5 percent minority. Finland is a democratic, parliamentary republic with a central government and local governments in 415 municipalities. Greater Helsinki (including Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa and Kauniainen) totals a million residents and a third of the GDP. Other major cities include Tampere, Turku, and Oulu.
Finland was historically part of Sweden and from 1809 an autonomous Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire. Finland's declaration of independence in 1917 from Russia was followed by a civil war, wars against the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany, and a period of official neutrality during the Cold War. Finland joined the United Nations in 1955 and the European Union in 1995 and participates in the Eurozone. Finland has been ranked the second most stable country in the world, in a survey based on social, economic, political, and military indicators.Finland has seen excellent results in many international comparisons of national performance such as the share of high-technology manufacturing, the rate of gross domestic product growth, and the protection of civil liberties.Pirkanmaa
Pirkanmaa (Swedish: Birkaland, also known as Tampere Region in government documents), is a region of Finland. It borders the regions of Satakunta, Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme), Päijät-Häme, South Ostrobothnia, Central Finland and Southwest Finland (Varsinais-Suomi).Päijänne Tavastia
Päijänne Tavastia or, officially, Päijät-Häme (Finnish: Päijät-Häme; Swedish: Päijänne-Tavastland) is a region in Southern Finland south of the lake Päijänne. It borders the regions of Uusimaa, Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme), Pirkanmaa, Central Finland, Southern Savonia (Etelä-Savo) and Kymenlaakso. The biggest city in the region is Lahti.Satakunta
Satakunta (Swedish: Satakunta) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland, part of the former Western Finland Province. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland (Varsinais-Suomi), Pirkanmaa, South Ostrobothnia and Ostrobothnia. The capital city of the region is Pori. The name of the region literally means Hundred. The historical province of the same name was a larger area within Finland, covering modern Satakunta as well as much of Pirkanmaa.South Ostrobothnia
South Ostrobothnia (Finnish: Etelä-Pohjanmaa; Swedish: Södra Österbotten) is one of the 19 regions of Finland. It borders the regions of Ostrobothnia, Central Ostrobothnia, Central Finland, Pirkanmaa, and Satakunta.
Seinäjoki is the regional centre and by far the largest city in the area.Southern Savonia
Southern Savonia or, officially, Etelä-Savo (Finnish: Etelä-Savo; Swedish: Södra Savolax) is a region in the south-east of Finland. It borders the regions of Pohjois-Savo, North Karelia, South Karelia, Päijät-Häme, and Central Finland. The total area of Southern Savonia is 18,768.33 km2 (7,246.5 sq mi), with a population of 153,738 (2011).
Southern Savonia is located in the heart of the Finnish lake district, and contains Lake Saimaa, the largest lake in Finland. The two major towns in the region are Mikkeli and Savonlinna.Southwest Finland
Southwest Finland or, officially, Varsinais-Suomi, also known as Finland Proper (Finnish: Varsinais-Suomi, Swedish: Egentliga Finland) is a region in the south-west of Finland. It borders the regions of Satakunta, Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme), and Uusimaa. The region's capital and most populous city is Turku.
The area comprising the southwest is largely the same as the historical province of Finland Proper, so named because it is the original home of the tribe known as the Finns.Sub-regions of Finland
Finland is divided into 70 sub-regional units (Finnish: seutukunta, Swedish: ekonomisk region). The sub-regions are formed by groups of municipalities within the 19 regions of Finland. The sub-regions represent a LAU 1 level of division used in conjunction with the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics.Tavastia Proper
Tavastia Proper or, officially, Kanta-Häme (Finnish: Kanta-Häme; Swedish: Egentliga Tavastland) is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland (Varsinais-Suomi), Pirkanmaa, Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme), and Uusimaa.
Hämeenlinna is the largest urban area in the region. There are two other municipalities that have township status: Riihimäki and Forssa.Uusimaa
Uusimaa (Finnish: [ˈuːsimɑː]; Swedish: Nyland [²nyːland]; both lit. "new land") is a region of Finland. It borders the regions of Southwest Finland (Varsinais-Suomi), Tavastia Proper (Kanta-Häme), Päijänne Tavastia (Päijät-Häme), and Kymenlaakso. Finland’s capital and largest city, Helsinki, along with the surrounding Greater Helsinki area, are both contained in the region, which makes Uusimaa Finland's most populous region. The population of Uusimaa is 1,638,469.
Regions of Finland
|States with limited|