Reginald Innes Pocock

Reginald Innes Pocock F.R.S.[1] (4 March 1863 – 9 August 1947) was a British zoologist.[2]

Pocock was born in Clifton, Bristol, the fourth son of Rev. Nicholas Pocock and Edith Prichard. He began showing interest in natural history at St. Edward's School, Oxford. He received tutoring in zoology from Sir Edward Poulton, and was allowed to explore comparative anatomy at the Oxford Museum. He studied biology and geology at University College, Bristol under Conwy Lloyd Morgan and William Johnson Sollas. In 1885 he became an assistant at the Natural History Museum, and worked in the section of Entomology for a year. He was put in charge of the collections of Arachnida and Myriapoda. He was also tasked with arranging the British birds collections, in the course of which he developed a lasting interest in ornithology. The 200 papers he published in his eighteen years at the museum soon brought him recognition as an authority on Arachnida and Myriapoda: he described between 300-400 species of millipede alone,[3] and also described the scorpion genus Brachistosternus.[4]

In 1904 he left to become Superintendent of London Zoo, remaining so until his retirement in 1923. He then worked, as a voluntary researcher, in the British Museum, in the mammals department.

He described the Leopon in a 1912 letter to The Field, based on examination of a skin sent to him by W. S. Millard, the Secretary of the Bombay Natural History Society.

His brother Edward Innes Pocock played international rugby for Scotland and was part of Cecil Rhodes' Pioneer Column. His great grandfather was marine artist Captain Nicholas Pocock.

Reginald Innes Pocock
R. I. Pocock
Born4 March 1863
Died9 August 1947 (aged 84)
NationalityBritish
Scientific career
FieldsZoology
InstitutionsNatural History Museum, London, London Zoo

Selected works

  • Pocock, R. I. (1893). "On some points in the morphology of the Arachnida (s.s) with notes on the classification of the group". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 6. 11: 1–19.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1900). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Arachnida. London: Trustees of the British Museum.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1901). "Some new and old genera of South American Aviculariidae". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 7. 8 (48): 540−555.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1902). "Arachnida. Scorpiones, Pedipalpi, and Solifugae". Biologia Centrali-Americana: zoology, botany and archaeology. London: R. H. Porter.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1903). "On some genera and species of South-American Aviculariidae". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 7. 11: 81–115.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1917). "The Classification of existing Felidae". The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 8. XX: 329–350.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1930). "The Panthers and Ounces of Asia". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 34 (1): 65–82.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1932). "The marbled, Pardofelis marmorata, cat and some other Oriental species, with a definition of a new genus of the Felidae". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 102 (3): 741–766.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1939). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma – Mammalia. Volume 1, Primates and Carnivora. London: Trustees of the British Museum.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1940). Description of a new race of puma (Puma concolor), with a note on an abnormal tooth growth in the genus. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 11. VI. pp. 307–313.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1941). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma – Mammalia. Volume 2, Carnivora: Aeluroidea, Arctoidea. London: Trustees of the British Museum.
  • Pocock, R. I. (1951). Catalogue of the Genus Felis. London: Trustees of the British Museum.

References

  1. ^ Hindle, Edward (1948). "Reginald Innes Pocock. 1863-1947". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6 (17): 189–211. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1948.0025. JSTOR 768917.
  2. ^ Schwarz, Ernest (1948). "Reginald Innes Pocock, F. R. S". Journal of Mammalogy. 29 (1): 93. JSTOR 1375287.
  3. ^ Sierwald, Petra; Bond, Jason E. (1 January 2007). "Current Status of the Myriapod Class Diplopoda (Millipedes): Taxonomic Diversity and Phylogeny". Annual Review of Entomology. 52 (1): 401–420. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.52.111805.090210. PMID 17163800.
  4. ^ Jan Ove Rein (2012). "Bothriuridae Simon, 1880". The Scorpion Files. Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet. Retrieved 3 March 2012.
  5. ^ "The Code Online". International Council of Zoological Nomenclature.

External links

Anemesia

Anemesia is a genus of wafer trapdoor spiders first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1895.

Batesiella

Batesiella is a spider genus in the family Theraphosidae (tarantulas), with the sole species Batesiella crinita. It is native to Cameroon. The genus was named by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1903, and honours the collector, G. L. Bates.

Chactidae

The Chactidae are a family of scorpions established by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1893. They make up the superfamily Chactoidea.Genera include:

Anuroctonus

Auyantepuia

Broteochactas

Brotheas

Chactas

Chactopsis

Chactopsoides

Guyanochactas

Hadrurochactas

Megachactops

Neochactas

Nullibrotheas

Teuthraustes

Uroctonus

Vachoniochactas

Chaerilus celebensis

Chaerilus celebensis also known as the Asian bush scorpion or speckled bush scorpion is a species of scorpion from the family Chaerilidae. It was described in 1894 by Reginald Innes Pocock, using material from Luwu on the island of Sulawesi (Celebes) in Indonesia. Although it has been reported from a number of locations in Southeast Asia, the only reliable records are from Luwu. Specimens are stocky and barely exceed 1.5 inches (38 mm) in length. They rarely sting and their venom is of little or no medical significance. They live in tropical forests, but remain in the soil and mulch, graze on low vegetation and insects and are not capable of climbing vertical surfaces.

Heteroscodra maculata

Heteroscodra maculata is an Old World species of tarantula which was first described in 1899 by Reginald Innes Pocock. This species native to West Africa and is found primarily in Togo and Ghana. This species has many common names, of which Togo starburst and ornamental baboon are most frequently encountered.

Jackal coursing

Jackal coursing involves the pursuit of jackals (usually the golden jackal and black-backed jackal) with dogs.

Jackal coursing was an occasional pastime for sportsmen in British India. English Foxhounds were usually imported to India for the purpose. Due to the comparatively hotter weather, jackal hounds were rarely long lived. Indian jackals were not hunted often in this manner, as they were slower than foxes and could scarcely outrun greyhounds after 200 yards. According to Thomas C. Jerdon, although jackals are easily pulled down by greyhounds and give an excellent run with foxhounds, they are nonetheless cunning animals which will sham death when caught, and will ferociously protect their packmates.Salukis were a popular choice of breed for jackal coursing in the Māzandarān Province; Rudyard Kipling wrote of a Persian proverb in his novel Kim which states "The jackal that lives in the wilds of Mazandaran can only be caught by the hounds of Mazandaran." British sportsmen pursued jackals in Ceylon as well, though hounds would not attack jackals. Reginald Innes Pocock speculated that this was due to Ceylonese dogs being closely related to the local jackals, and would thus not attack their own kind.In South Africa, black-backed jackal coursing was first introduced to the Cape Colony in the 1820s by Lord Charles Somerset who, as well as an avid fox hunter, sought a more effective method of managing jackal populations, as shooting proved ineffective. Coursing jackals also became a popular pastime in the Boer Republics, particularly in Orange Free State, where it was standard practise to flush them from their dens with terriers and send greyhounds in pursuit. This was fraught with difficulty however, as jackals were difficult to force out of their earths, and usually had numerous exits to escape from. This method is still used by farmers in Free State. In the western Cape in the early 1900s, dogs bred by crossing foxhounds, lurchers and borzoi were used.

Latouchia

Latouchia is a genus of Asian mygalomorph spiders in the Halonoproctidae family, first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1901.

Megaphobema

Megaphobema is a genus of tarantulas first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1901. It looks similar to members of Pamphobeteus except for its legs; the third and fourth pairs of legs are much larger and stronger than the first two pairs.As of February 2019, it contains only five species from Central and South America.

Ornithoctoninae

The Ornithoctoninae, also known as earth tigers, are a subfamily of Asian tarantulas, which were first erected in 1895 by Reginald Innes Pocock on basis of the genotype Ornithoctonus andersoni described in 1892 from former Burma, now Myanmar.

The Ornithoctoninae comprise a theraphosid subfamily, which is widely distributed in Asia from Myanmar to South China in the north and as far as to Halmahera in the Indonesian archipelago in the south, and in all the ranges in between. Most species in the subfamily live fossorially in burrows, though several species live arboreally. They are known as defensive spiders; when disturbed, they quickly retreat into their burrows or dig themselves into the soil. When neither is a possibility, they assume a defensive posture. When provoked, they strike the aggressor repeatedly with the anterior legs; if the aggressor does not retreat, these spiders have been known to bite. Though not deadly, the effects of the venom can be very unpleasant, including pain, swelling, and arthritis-like stiffness in the joints of the extremity affected.

The theraphosid subfamily Ornithoctoninae is defined by a combination of characteristics: Presence of retrolateral scopula of filiform setae on the cheliceral base, a small row of larger filiform paddle setae retrolaterally ventrobasally in connection to the retrolateral cheliceral scopula, and arrangement of stridulatory spines prolaterally on maxilla. The characteristic of retrolateral scopula of filiform setae on the cheliceral base is shared by the African subfamily Harpactirinae, but the Ornithoctoninae can be distinguished from the Harpactirinae by the geographic distribution range and the presence of the other characteristics mentioned, which are lacking in the Harpactirinae.

Pamphobeteus nigricolor

Pamphobeteus nigricolor is a large species of tarantula found in Colombia and Brazil. First described in 1875 by Anton Ausserer as Lasiodora nigricolor, in 1901 Reginald Innes Pocock moved it to the new genus Pamphobeteus, and designated it as the genus's type species.

Pantherinae

Pantherinae is a subfamily within the family Felidae, which was named and first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1917.

The Pantherinae and the Felinae diverged from a common ancestor between 10.8 and 11.5 million years ago.

Paramigas

Paramigas is a genus of tree trapdoor spiders native to Madagascar. It was first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1895.

Plesiosiro

Plesiosiro is an extinct arachnid genus known exclusively from only nine specimens from the Upper Carboniferous of Coseley, Staffordshire, United Kingdom. The genus is monotypic, represented only by the species Plesiosiro madeleyi described by Reginald Innes Pocock in his important 1911 monograph on British Carboniferous arachnids. It is the only known member of the order Haptopoda. The original locality from which these fossils originate is no longer available thus it is unclear whether any further examples will be found.

The original fossils have been redescribed in detail by Alexander Petrunkevitch in 1949 and Dunlop in 1999. A supposed example from the Coal Measures of Lancashire is a misidentification.

Pocock

Pocock is a surname, and may refer to:

Andrew Pocock (born 1955), British High Commissioner to Nigeria

Bill Pocock (1884–1959), English footballer

Blair Pocock (born 1971), New Zealand cricketer

Colin Pocock (born 1972), South African beach volleyball player

Cyrena Sue Pocock (c. 1896–1964), American operatic contralto

David Pocock (born 1988), Zimbabwe-born Australian rugby union player

David Pocock (disambiguation), several other people

Edward Innes Pocock (1855–1905), Scottish rugby international

Fiona Pocock, English rugby union player

Sir George Pocock (1706–1792), Royal Navy Admiral

George Pocock (inventor) (1774–1843), English schoolteacher and inventor

George Yeomans Pocock (1891–1976), American boat builder and philosopher of rowing

H. R. S. Pocock (1904–1988), British businessman and author

Isaac Pocock (1782–1835), English dramatist and painter

John Pocock (died 1732), British Army general

John Pocock (cricketer) (1921–2003), English cricketer

J. G. A. Pocock (born 1924), British intellectual historian

Lena Margaret Pocock (1872–1957), British actress

Lilian Josephine Pocock (1883–1974), English stained glass artist

Nancy Meek Pocock (1910–1998), Canadian activist

Nicholas Pocock (1740–1821), British artist

Nicholas Pocock (historian) (1814–1897), English academic and cleric

Nick Pocock (born 1951), English cricketer

Pat Pocock (born 1946), English cricketer

Philip Francis Pocock (1906–1984), Roman Catholic Archbishop of Toronto

Philip Pocock (born 1954), Canadian artist

Reginald Innes Pocock (1863–1947), British zoologist, arachnologist and mammalogist

Stuart Pocock, British medical statistician

Tim Pocock (born 1985), Australian actor

Thomas Pocock (clergyman) (1672–1745), English diarist

Tom Pocock (1925–2007), British naval historian

William Willmer Pocock (1813–1899), British architect

Pterinochilus

Pterinochilus is a genus of tarantulas (family Theraphosidae), in the subfamily known as baboon spiders. The species was first described in 1897 by British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock. The type species is P. vorax.

Robert Charles Wroughton

Robert Charles Wroughton (15 August 1849, in Naseerabad – 15 May 1921) was an officer in the Indian Forest Service from 10 December 1871 to 1904.He was a member of the Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) and was interested in Hymenoptera, particularly ants and then later took an interest in scorpions due to his interaction with Reginald Innes Pocock.

His major work was however on the mammals of India and after his retirement in 1904, became a regular worker at the Natural History Museum in London. He initially took an interest in African mammals and there was little material from India. He persuaded his friends in India to collect specimens and this led to a collaborative mammal survey in 1911. Interest in small mammals was also raised by work on plague particularly due to the work of Captain Glen Liston who delivered a special address to the members of the BNHS. Collectors for the small mammal survey included C. A. Crump (Khandesh, Darjeeling), Sir Ernest Hotson (Baluchistan), R. Shunkara Narayan Pillay (Travancore), J. M. D. Mackenzie (Burma), Captain Philip Gosse (Poona, Nilgiris), S. H. Prater (Satara), Charles McCann and others and the survey went on until 1923. It is believed to be the first collaborative biodiversity study in the world. The project accumulated 50,000 specimens over 12 years, especially of the smaller mammals and the information was published in 47 papers. Wroughton was also helped by his brother-in-law T. B. Fry who continued to work after his death in 1921. Several new species were discovered in the process.

Numerous species are named after him including

Wroughton's Free-tailed Bat (Otomops wroughtoni)

Many ant species: (Aenictus wroughtonii, Camponotus wroughtonii, Cardiocondyla wroughtonii, Carebara wroughtonii, Chronoxenus wroughtonii, Crematogaster wroughtonii, Hypoponera confinis wroughtonii, Lepisiota rothneyi wroughtonii, Monomorium wroughtoni, Monomorium wroughtonianum, Pheidole wroughtonii, Platythrea wroughtonii, Polyrhachis wroughtonii, Rhoptromyrmex wroughtonii, Tapinoma wroughtonii, Temnothorax wroughtonii)

Sclater's guenon

The Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri), also known as Sclater's monkey and the Nigerian monkey, is an Old World monkey that was first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1904 and named after Philip Sclater. It is an arboreal and diurnal primate that lives in the forests of southern Nigeria. It should not be confused with the closely related species, the white-throated guenon (Cercopithecus erythrogaster), which occurs in Nigeria and Benin. Sclater's guenon was formerly classified as a subspecies of the red-eared guenon (C. erythrotis).The diet of Sclater's guenon is unknown. The species is likely primarily a frugivore that supplements its diet with other plant parts and insects, based on data from closely related species.Sclater's guenon was thought to be nearly extinct until the late 1980s. The species is now known to occur in several isolated populations between the Niger and Cross Rivers in southern Nigeria. This region falls in the Guinean Forests of the West Africa biodiversity hotspot.

The species does not occur in any officially protected areas, but three populations of Sclater's guenon are known to be protected by local people who consider the monkeys to have sacred status. Mostly because of hunting and habitat fragmentation and loss, and thus increasing population isolation and decline, Sclater's guenon is listed as a Vulnerable species.Sclater's guenon is known to occur in captivity only at the Centre for Education, Rehabilitation, and Conservation of Primates and Nature (CERCOPAN) in Cross River State, Nigeria.

Urodacus manicatus

Urodacus manicatus, commonly known as the black rock scorpion, is a species of scorpion belonging to the subfamily Urodacinae (family Scorpionidae). It is native to eastern Australia.

The black rock scorpion was described by Swedish naturalist Tamerlan Thorell in 1876 as Ioctonus manicatus. The type locality was described as "New Holland". In 1888 Reginald Innes Pocock, an assistant at the Natural History Museum in London, was cataloging specimens of the genus and described what he thought was a new species—naming it U. abruptus— from two dried female specimens, one from Adelaide and the other labelled "New Holland". German naturalist Karl Kraepelin concluded that Thorell's I. manicatus was the same species as U. abruptus and U. novaehollandiae. It was also collected from Cooma by William Joseph Rainbow who named it Buthus flavicruris in 1896. The genus Urodacus was placed in its own family in 2000. Before this, the group had been a subfamily Urodacinae within the family Scorpionidae.Measuring up to 5.5 cm (2.2 in), it is dark brown or black. It ranges from Queensland through New South Wales and Victoria into South Australia. Its preferred habitat is granite outcrops in open forest. It excavates a burrow underneath rocks or logs with a terminal chamber and passage to the surface. It preys upon insects such as cockroaches and beetles, as well as other invertebrates such as millipedes, centipedes, spiders and rarely earthworms. Its sting can cause local pain and swelling in humans.It is one of the species of scorpion most commonly seen for sale in pet shops in Australia and is relatively easy to keep in captivity, where it has a lifespan of 6 to 10 years. There are concerns wild populations are being depleted because of specimens taken for the pet trade.

Zanzibar leopard

The Zanzibar leopard (Panthera pardus pardus syn. Panthera pardus adersi) is a leopard population on Unguja Island in the Zanzibar archipelago, Tanzania. It is the island's largest terrestrial carnivore and apex predator. In 2008, it was considered extinct due to persecution by local hunters. Increasing conflict between people and leopards in the 20th century led to the demonization of the Zanzibar leopard and determined attempts to exterminate it. Efforts to develop a leopard conservation program in the mid-1990s were shelved when wildlife researchers concluded that there was little prospect for the population's long-term survival.

In 2018, a leopard was recorded by wildlife biologist Forrest Galante using a camera-trap, thus renewing hopes for the population's survival.The Zanzibar leopard was described as a leopard subspecies by Reginald Innes Pocock, who proposed the scientific name Panthera pardus adersi in 1932. In 1996, it was subsumed to P. p. pardus.

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