Regensburg

Regensburg (US: /ˈreɪɡənzbɜːrɡ, ˈreɪɡənsbʊərk/,[2][3] German: [ˈʁeːɡn̩sbʊɐ̯k] (listen); older English: Ratisbon; Austro-Bavarian: Rengschburg or Rengschburch) is a city in south-east Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen rivers. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regensburg is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria after Munich, Nuremberg and Augsburg. The city is the political, economic and cultural centre and capital of the Upper Palatinate.

The medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2014, Regensburg was among the top sights and travel attractions in Germany.[4]

Regensburg
Rgbg-dom und rathaus
Flag of Regensburg

Flag
Coat of arms of Regensburg

Coat of arms
Location of Regensburg
Regensburg is located in Germany
Regensburg
Regensburg
Regensburg is located in Bavaria
Regensburg
Regensburg
Coordinates: 49°1′N 12°5′E / 49.017°N 12.083°ECoordinates: 49°1′N 12°5′E / 49.017°N 12.083°E
CountryGermany
StateBavaria
DistrictUrban district
Subdivisions18 districts
Government
 • Lord MayorJoachim Wolbergs (SPD)
Area
 • Total80.76 km2 (31.18 sq mi)
Population
 (2018-12-31)[1]
 • Total152,610
 • Density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
93001–93059
Dialling codes0941
Vehicle registrationR
Websitewww.regensburg.de
Official nameOld town of Regensburg with Stadtamhof
CriteriaCultural: ii, iii, iv
Reference1155
Inscription2006 (30th Session)
Area182.8 ha
Buffer zone775.6 ha

History

Early history

Regensburg-porta-praetoria 2
The remains of the East Tower of the Porta Praetoria from Roman times

The first settlements in Regensburg date from the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there.

In 179, a new Roman fort, called Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen"), was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius.[5] It was an important camp at the most northerly point of the Danube; it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Old City or Altstadt east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and west of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that as early as in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.

From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat of a ruling family known as the Agilolfings. From about 530 to the first half of the 13th century, it was the capital of Bavaria. Regensburg remained an important city during the reign of Charlemagne. In 792, Regensburg hosted the ecclesiastical section of Charlemagne's General Assembly, the bishops in council who condemned the heresy of adoptionism taught by their Spanish counterparts, Elipandus of Toledo and Felix of Urgell. After the partition of the Carolingian Empire in 843, the city became the seat of the Eastern Frankish ruler, Louis II the German. Two years later, fourteen Bohemian princes came to Regensburg to receive baptism there. This was the starting point of Christianization of the Czechs, and the diocese of Regensburg became the mother diocese of that of Prague. These events had a wide impact on the cultural history of the Czech lands, as they were consequently part of the Roman Catholic and not the Slavic-Orthodox world. A memorial plate at St John's Church (the alleged place of the baptism) was unveiled a few years ago, commemorating the incident in the Czech and German languages.

In 800 the city had 23,000 inhabitants, and by 1000 this had increased to 40,000.[6]

On 8 December 899 Arnulf of Carinthia, descendant of Charlemagne, died at Regensburg.[7]

In 1096, on the way to the First Crusade, Peter the Hermit led a mob of crusaders that attempted to force the mass conversion of the Jews of Regensburg and killed all those who resisted.[8]

Braun Regensburg UBHD
Regensburg in the 16th century

Between 1135 and 1146, the Stone Bridge across the Danube was built at Regensburg. This bridge opened major international trade routes between northern Europe and Venice, and this began Regensburg's golden age as a residence of wealthy trading families. Regensburg became the cultural centre of southern Germany and was celebrated for its gold work and fabrics.

Middle Ages

Imperial City of Regensburg

Reichsstadt Regensburg  (German)
1245–1803
StatusFree Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire
CapitalRegensburg
GovernmentRepublic
Historical eraMiddle Ages
• Gained Imperial immediacy (Reichsfreiheit)a
1245
• City annexed by Bavaria
1486–96
• City adopted Reformation
1542
• Made permanent seat of the Imperial Diet
1663
27 April 1803
• Ceded to Bavaria by Treaty of Paris
1810
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Coat of arms of Bavaria Duchy of Bavaria
Archbishopric of Regensburg Coat of arms of Regensburg
Today part ofGermany
a: The Bishopric of Regensburg acquired Imperial immediacy around the same time as the City. Of the three Imperial Abbeys in Regensburg, Niedermünster had already acquired immediacy in 1002, St. Emmeram's Abbey did in 1295 and Obermünster in 1315.
b: The Bishopric, the Imperial City and all three Imperial Abbeys were mediatised simultaneously.
Regensburg Homann 1728
Territory of Regensburg on an 18th-century map

In 1245 Regensburg became a Free Imperial City and was a trade centre before the shifting of trade routes in the late Middle Ages. In 1486, Regensburg became part of the Duchy of Bavaria, but its independence was restored by the Holy Roman Emperor ten years later. The city adopted the Protestant Reformation in 1542 and its Town Council remained entirely Lutheran. From 1663 to 1806, the city was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet of the Holy Roman Empire, which became known as the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg. Thus, Regensburg was one of the central towns of the Empire, attracting visitors in large numbers.

Regensburg Reichstag 1711
Ceremonial arrival at the Imperial Diet, 1711

A minority of the population remained Roman Catholic, and Roman Catholics were denied civic rights (Bürgerrecht). Although the Imperial city had adopted the Reformation, the town remained the seat of a Roman Catholic bishop and several abbeys. Three of these, St. Emmeram, Niedermünster and Obermünster, were free imperial estates within the Holy Roman Empire, meaning that they were granted a seat and a vote at the Imperial Diet (Reichstag). So there was the unique situation that the town of Regensburg comprised five independent "states" (in terms of the Holy Roman Empire): the Protestant city itself, the Roman Catholic bishopric, and the three monasteries. In addition, it was seen as the traditional capital of the region Bavaria (not the state), acted as functional co-capital of the Empire (second to the Emperor's court at Vienna) due to the presence of the Perpetual Diet, and it was the residence of the Emperor's Commissary-Principal to the same diet, who with one very brief exception was a prince himself (for many years the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, still resident in the town).

Modern history

In 1803 the city lost its status as an imperial city following its incorporation into the Principality of Regensburg. It was handed over to the Archbishop-Elector of Mainz and Archchancellor of the Holy Roman Empire Carl von Dalberg in compensation for the territory of the Electorate of Mainz located on the left bank of the Rhine which had been annexed by France under the terms of the Treaty of Lunéville in 1801. The Archbishopric of Mainz was formally transferred to Regensburg. Dalberg united the bishopric, the monasteries, and the town itself, making up the Principality of Regensburg (Fürstentum Regensburg). Dalberg strictly modernized public life. Most importantly, he awarded equal rights to Protestants and Roman Catholics alike. In 1810 Dalberg ceded Regensburg to the Kingdom of Bavaria, he himself being compensated by the award of Fulda and Hanau to him under the title of "Grand Duke of Frankfurt".

Between April 19 and April 23, 1809, Regensburg was the scene of the Battle of Ratisbon between forces commanded by Henri Gatien Bertrand and Napoleon himself and the retreating Austrian forces. The city was eventually overrun, after supplies and ammunition ran out. The city suffered severe damage during the fight, with about 150 houses being burnt and others being looted. Robert Browning's poem "Incident at the French Camp" describes the battle from the French perspective, but is filled with historical errors.

Nazism and World War II

The Regensburg Synagogue was destroyed on November 9, 1938, during Kristallnacht.

Regensburg was home to both a Messerschmitt Bf 109 aircraft factory and an oil refinery, which were bombed by the Allies on August 17, 1943, in the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission, and on February 5, 1945, during the Oil Campaign of World War II. Although both targets were badly damaged, Regensburg itself suffered little damage from the Allied strategic bombing campaign, and the nearly intact medieval city centre is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The city's most important cultural loss was that of the Romanesque church of Obermünster, which was destroyed in a March 1945 air raid and was not rebuilt (the belfry survived). Also, Regensburg's slow economic recovery after the war ensured that historic buildings were not torn down and replaced by newer ones. When the upswing in restoration reached Regensburg in the late 1960s, the prevailing mindset had turned in favour of preserving the city's heritage.

History after 1945

Ukrainian Camp Post - Regensburg postmark
Cancellation by the Ukrainian Camp Post at Regensburg DP Camp

Between 1945 and 1949, Regensburg was the site of the largest Displaced persons (DP) camp in Germany. At its peak in 1946–1947, the workers' district of Ganghofersiedlung housed almost 5,000 Ukrainian and 1,000 non-Ukrainian refugees and displaced persons. With the approval of U.S. Military Government in the American Allied Occupation Zone, Regensburg and other DP camps organised their own camp postal service. In Regensburg, the camp postal service began operation on December 11, 1946.[9]

At the beginning of the 1960s, Regensburg invested heavily in technical and social infrastructure to attract industry. Siemens was the first multinational company to come to Regensburg, a milestone in the city's development after World War II. In 1965, Regensburg University was founded; Regensburg University of Applied Sciences was established in 1971. The second multinational company, BMW, came in 1986 to build up a large production plant. Since the 1990s, several well-known hightech companies have been located in Regensburg, such as Infineon and OSRAM, contributing to the city's current wealth.

In 1997, Regensburg was awarded the Europe Prize for its outstanding achievements in European integration.[10]

The World Heritage Committee listed Regensburg's Old Town a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2006. It is the largest medieval old town north of the Alps and very well preserved, with the nickname "Italy's most northern city". Close to the Stone Bridge, the city of Regensburg established a World Heritage Centre in the historic Salzstadl in 2007, where detailed information on Regensburg's 2000-year history is given.

Geography

Donau Regensburg
Rhein-Main-Donau Canal at the Stadt-am-Hof locks, Regensburg

Topography

Regensburg is situated on the northernmost part of the Danube river at the geological crossroads of four distinct landscapes:

Climate

Regensburg straddles the humid continental (Dfb) and oceanic (Cfb) climate zones under the Köppen climate classification. While the average temperature of 8.5 °C (47.3 °F) in the period from 1971-2000 is slightly above the German average (7.8 °C or 46.0 °F), still only 5 of the 80 cities in Germany above 100000 inhabitants are colder. The average precipitation of 636 millimetres (25.0 inches) per year ranges slightly below the German average (approximately 700 millimetres or 28 inches ). For the newer period from 1981-2010 the average temperature and precipitation rose up to 8.9 °C (48.0 °F) respectively 658 millimetres (25.9 inches). As this increase in the average temperature can also be seen in the other cities, Regensburg still ranks fifth place (shared with Ingolstadt and Kiel) in the above-mentioned ranking.[11] With a total of 1670 sunshine hours per year, Regensburg is roughly 120 hours above German average.[12]

The warmest month of the year, on average, is July. The coolest month of the year, on average, is January.

Main sights

City

Regensburg cathedral front
St. Peter's Church – the Regensburg Cathedral
Regensburg square
Kohlenmarkt with Town Hall, site of the Perpetual Diet from 1663 to 1806.
SchlossThurnundTaxis2010
St. Emmeram's Abbey, now Schloss Thurn und Taxis, a huge palace

Regensburg includes the largest medieval old town north of the Alps with nearly 1,500 listed buildings and a picturesque cityscape. Its most famous sights are located mainly in the Old Town, such as:

  • The Dom (Cathedral) is an example of pure German Gothic and is regarded as the main work of Gothic architecture in Bavaria. It was founded in 1275 and completed in 1634, with the exception of the towers, which were finished in 1869. The interior contains numerous interesting monuments, including one of Peter Vischer's masterpieces. Adjoining the cloisters are two chapels which predate the cathedral. One of these, known as the old cathedral, goes back perhaps to the 8th century.[15] The official choir for the liturgical music at St Peter's Cathedral is the famous Regensburger Domspatzen ("cathedral sparrows").
  • The stone bridge, built 1135–1146, is a highlight of medieval bridge building. The knights of the 2nd and 3rd crusades used it to cross the Danube on their way to the Holy Land.
  • The Regensburg Sausage Kitchen is a major tourist destination, but locals eat there as well. It was originally built as the construction headquarters of the stone bridge and now lies adjacent to it.
  • Remains of the Roman fortress' walls including the Porta Praetoria
  • The Church of St. James, also called Schottenkirche, a Romanesque basilica of the 12th century, derives its name from the monastery of Irish Benedictines (Scoti) to which it was attached; the principal doorway is covered with very unusual grotesque carvings.[15] It stands next to the Jakobstor, a medieval city gate named after it.
  • The old parish church of St. Ulrich is a good example of the Transition style of the 13th century, and contains a valuable antiquarian collection.[15] It houses the diocesan museum of religious art.
  • Examples of the Romanesque basilica style are the church of Obermünster, dating from 1010, and the abbey church of St. Emmeram, built in the 13th century, remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached bell tower. The cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in a fair state of preservation. In 1809 the conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire.[15]
  • The Adler-Apotheke, located nearby the Regensburg Cathedral, was founded in 1610 and is one of the oldest pharmacies in Regensburg. The ancient interior and historical vessels can be viewed.
  • Wealthy patrician families competed against each other to see who could build the highest tower of the city. In 1260, the Goldener Turm (golden tower) was built on Wahlenstraße.
  • The Old Town Hall, dating in part from the 14th century, contains the rooms occupied by the Imperial Diet from 1663 to 1806.[15]
  • The Gasthof zum Goldenen Kreuz (Golden Cross Inn) is also of historical interest: it is where Charles V made the acquaintance of Barbara Blomberg, the mother of Don John of Austria (born 1547).[15]
  • Perhaps the most pleasant modern building in the city is the Gothic villa of the king of Bavaria on the bank of the Danube.[15] The grounds are now opened to public and known as VillaPark.
  • Among the public institutions of the city are the public library, picture gallery, botanical garden, and the institute for the making of stained glass. The city's colleges (apart from the University of Regensburg) include an episcopal clerical seminary, and a school of church music.[15]
  • St. Emmeram's Abbey, now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, is a huge castle owned by the powerful Thurn and Taxis family.
  • The City Park, the oldest and largest park in Regensburg with a lot of artwork
  • The Botanischer Garten der Universität Regensburg is a modern botanical garden located on the University of Regensburg campus.
  • Herzogspark also contains several small botanical gardens.
Regensburg Uferpanorama 06 2006
The Stone Bridge, St. Peter's Church and the Old Town of Regensburg

Surroundings

Walhalla aussen
Klenze's Walhalla, built in 1842
Postwertzeichen DPAG - Bayerischer Wald 2005 hi res scan
Bavarian Forest National Park stamp

Near Regensburg there are two very imposing Classical buildings, erected by Ludwig I of Bavaria as national monuments to German patriotism and greatness:[15]

  • The more imposing of the two is the Walhalla, a costly reproduction of the Parthenon, erected as a Teutonic temple of fame on a hill rising from the Danube at Donaustauf, 10 kilometres (6.2 miles) to the east. The interior, which is as rich as coloured marble, gilding, and sculptures can make it, contains the busts of more than a hundred Germanic worthies.[15]
  • The second of King Ludwig's buildings is the Befreiungshalle at Kelheim, 25 kilometres (16 miles) higher up the Danube, a large circular building which has for its aim the glorification of the heroes of the 1813 War of Liberation[15]

Besides, there is the famous Weltenburg Abbey (Kloster Weltenburg), a Benedictine monastery in Weltenburg near Kelheim on the Danube. The abbey is situated on a peninsula in the Danube, on the so-called "Weltenburg Narrows" or "Danube Gorge". The monastery, founded by Irish or Scottish monks in about 620, is held to be the oldest monastery in Bavaria.

To the east of Regensburg lies the Bavarian Forest with its National Park, one of the most visited protected areas in Germany.

Regensburg is on the designated heritage route, the Route of Emperors and Kings.[16]

Culture

Museums and exhibitions

Altogether Regensburg is home to 20 museums. Among the most prominent museums are for instance the Regensburg Museum of History which shows history, culture and arts of Regensburg and Eastern Bavaria from stone age to present. Then there is the Imperial diet museum (Reichstagsmuseum) in the Old Town Hall describing the life during the Holy Roman Empire. Its main attractions are an original torture chamber and the Reichssaal, the rooms occupied by the Imperial diet from 1663 to 1806.[15] The Kepler Memorial House (Keplergedächtnishaus) illustrates the life of the famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Kepler. The Municipal Art Gallery Leerer Beutel offers art collections, film events and cultural festivals. Over the last years, the city added several outdoor museums to its cultural landscape, the so-called document sites. These give an overview on specific topics such as Roman, Jewish and Bavarian history.

Besides, there are the diocese museums (Bistumsmuseen) of Regensburg and a branch of the Bavarian National Museum located in the St. Emmeram's Abbey, which contains the Princely Treasure Chamber of the family Thurn and Taxis. The Domschatzmuseum where church treasures, monstrances and tapestries are displayed is in St. Peter's Cathedral. Other museums are the Kunstforum Ostdeutsche Galerie, the Naturkundemuseum Ostbayern, the reptile zoo, the Regensburg Museum of Danube Shipping (Donau-Schiffahrts-Museum), the Public Observatory Regensburg as well as the watch museum (Uhrenmuseum), the golf museum, the post museum and the Dinoraeum. To celebrate its centenary, the State of Bavaria will open the museum of Bavarian history in Regensburg in May 2018. Besides, there are guided tours in most of the historical monuments of Regensburg, as well as organized tourist tours through the city available in several languages.

Theaters

Regensburg Stadttheater Zuschauerraum 2004
Inside Regensburg Theater

The Regensburg Theater at the Bismarckplatz is 200 years old and is the most important theater of the city. Operas, operettas, musicals and ballets are shown. In summer, open-air performances are carried out as well. With the theater at the Bismarckplatz as the oldest and largest one, the Regensburg theater has four other stages with programmes that complement each other:[17] in the Neuhaussaal of the theater at the Bismarckplatz, concerts by the Philharmonic Orchestra Regensburg take place. The Velodrom Theater presents musicals and plays. In the Haidplatz Theater mainly literary and modern plays are performed, whereas the Turmtheater at the Goliathplatz shows modern plays as well, but also cabarets, musicals and plays for children.

Music

Regensburg is home to the famous Regensburger Domspatzen. The Regensburger Schlossfestspiele has been held in the inner courtyard of the St. Emmeram's Abbey every July from 2003, sponsored by the former princely house of Thurn und Taxis. Meanwhile, those were attracting musicians like Elton John, David Garrett, Tom Jones, or Plácido Domingo. Modern music styles, especially jazz, are presented every summer during the Bavarian Jazz weekend during which over a hundred bands, combos, and soloists perform in the Old Town. In 2015, the House of Music was opened, giving a home to skilled musicians and their education.

Film and cinema

The international short film season is hosted annually in Regensburg. It is a non-profit event and takes place every March, being one of the most important of its type in Germany. Aside, there are several cinemas, such as CinemaxX, the largest one showing blockbusters and arthouse films, and smaller independent cinemas such as Garbo, Ostentor Kino and Regina Filmtheater. Regensburg has two open air cinemas as well.

Buildings

The Old Town of Regensburg with nearly 1,500 listed buildings offers a huge cultural diversity from Roman to modern times.

Recreation

The Old Town of Regensburg is surrounded completely by a green belt. Numerous inner-city parks like the City Park (Stadtpark), the Herzogspark, the Dörnbergpark, the Villapark or the university's botanical garden are a source for recreation and leisure.

Memorial sites

The city of Regensburg has erected several memorials to combat racism, intolerance towards minorities, and all other forms of contempt for human dignity:

Particular to Regensburg are the so-called Stolpersteine (stumbling stones) in honor of Jews deported during Nazism.

Events

Twice a year the Regensburg Dult takes place. This is the city's Volksfest, which is Bavaria's fourth largest. The Bürgerfest (citizen celebration) in the Old Town is held every two years, attracting over 100,000 visitors. Every second weekend in July, people dressed as knights and other medieval characters come together at the Regensburg Spectaculum, a medieval market, near the Stone Bridge. Every December, there are several Christmas markets all over the city.

Nightlife

With over 500 bars, restaurants, clubs, and other venues in the inner city alone, Regensburg provides a rich and diverse nightlife due to its young population.

Demographics

Population

In May 2017, Regensburg had 164,896 inhabitants,[18] making it the fourth largest city in Bavaria. Over the last hundred years, the city has experienced a strong increase in population, surpassing 100,000 inhabitants in 1945 due to Germans who were ethnically cleansed from eastern parts of the Third Reich, especially from the Sudetenland. Today, Regensburg is one of the fastest-growing cities in Germany.

Regensburg's population since 1830

Regensburg's population since 1830

International communities

Nearly 12% of the total population are foreign residents. Most of them come from Turkey and Central and Eastern Europe:[19]

Nation Population (2018)
 Romania 2,530
 Bulgaria 1,765
 Turkey 1,570
 Iraq 1,350
 Kosovo 1,210
Total: 27,865

Religion

A majority of Regensburg's population is Roman Catholic. In 2017, about 51.4% of the city's inhabitants identified with the Roman Catholic Church, 13.1% were registered Protestants and about 35.5% identified with other religions or did not have any registered religious affiliation.[20]

Politics

Government

The Lord Mayor and the City Council are elected for a period of six years. Both elections take place at the same time. The City Council is composed of 51 members and includes the Lord Mayor, two deputy mayors, five counsellors and the other council members.

The municipal elections in Bavaria of 2014 delivered the following results:

Party votes change seats change cooperation
Social Democratic Party 33,7% +12,2 17 +6 X
Christian Social Union 32,8% –7,1 16 –4
The Greens 10,5% -0,1 5 - X
Free Voters 6,9% -0,2 3 -1 X
Ecological Democratic Party 6,4% -0,5 3 -
The Left 3,1% -1,5 2 -
Free Democratic Party 3,0% -2,4 2 -1 X
Pirate Party 2,3% +2,3 1 +1 X
Christian Social Federation 1,5% -2,3 1 -1

After 18 years of a City Council with conservative majority, the social-democratic candidate, Joachim Wolbergs, became Lord Mayor in May 2014.

Boroughs

Regensburg is subdivided into 18 boroughs (Stadtbezirke): Innenstadt, Stadtamhof, Steinweg-Pfaffenstein, Sallern-Gallingkofen, Konradsiedlung-Wutzlhofen, Brandlberg-Keilberg, Reinhausen, Weichs, Schwabelweis, Ostenviertel, Kasernenviertel, Galgenberg, Kumpfmühl-Ziegetsdorf-Neuprüll, Großprüfening-Dechbetten-Königswiesen, Westenviertel, Ober- und Niederwinzer-Kager, Oberisling-Graß, Burgweinting-Harting. Each borough contains a number of localities (Ortsteile), which can have historic roots in older municipalities that became urbanized and incorporated into the city.

Twin towns – sister cities

Regensburg is twinned with:

Economy

Regensburg's economy counts among the most dynamic and fastest growing in Germany.[23] Focus is on manufacturing industries, such as automotive, industrial and electrical engineering.

Companies

There are several multinational corporations located in Regensburg, such as BMW, Continental, E.ON, General Electric, Infineon, Osram, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Telekom and Toshiba as well as hidden champions (Krones, MR).

BMW operates an automobile production plant in Regensburg; the Regensburg BMW plant produces 3 Series, 1 Series and (previously) Z4 vehicles. Continental AG, with the headquarters of its car component business, Osram Opto-Semiconductors and Siemens as well as Infineon, the former Siemens semiconductor branch, provide a high level of innovation and technical development in Regensburg. Other well known international companies, such as AREVA, Schneider Electric and Toshiba, have built plants in or near Regensburg. GE Aviation founded a greenfield site to innovate, develop and produce turbinemachinery components with a new manufacturing casting technology. Amazon.com located its first German customer service centre in Regensburg. The hidden champions Maschinenfabrik Reinhausen (MR) and Krones both are headquartered in or close to Regensburg and are among the major employers.

Aside from the industrial sector, tourism contributes a lot to Regensburg's economical growth, especially since 2006, when the city gained status as UNESCO World Heritage site. The University of Regensburg, the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences and mercantile trade also play major roles in Regensburg's economy. Increasingly, biotech companies were founded in Regensburg over the last two decades and have their headquarters and laboratories in the city's "BioPark". Another focus is on information technology, with the city running a start-up centre for IT firms. One of these former start-ups, CipSoft GmbH, now is a known video game company still based in Regensburg.

OTTI, the Eastern Bavaria Technology Transfer-Institut e.V., is headquartered in Regensburg.[24]

Tourism

The city recorded 912,238 overnight hotel stays and 531,943 hotel guests in 2012.[25] Tourism figures have nearly doubled within the last 15 years and Regensburg has become one of the most-visited German cities from 100,000 to 500,000 residents. In 2014, Regensburg was ranked as a Top-30 travel attraction in Germany by international tourists.[4]

Infrastructure

Transport

Regensburg Hauptbahnhof (central station) is connected to lines to Munich, Nuremberg, Passau, Hof and Ingolstadt and Ulm. The city lies also on two motorways, the A3 from Cologne and Frankfurt to Vienna, and the A93 from Holledau to Hof.

The local transport is provided by a bus network run by the RVV (Regensburger Verkehrsverbund).

Energy

Regensburg's energy is mainly supplied by the German company E.ON, one of the world's largest electric utility service providers. Its subsidiary Bayernwerk runs the local hydropower station in the Danube River. In 2012, about 9.1% of the total electricity consumption was generated by renewable energy sources, about 5.1% of the total heat consumption were generated by renewables.[26] Both figures show, that Regensburg is behind other Bavarian cities in this context. Therefore, the municipal government presented an energy plan in 2014, which should enhance the transformation towards renewable energy sources over the next decade.

Health

Regensburg hosts one of the most modern university hospitals in Europe, the Universitätsklinikum Regensburg. Aside, there are several other renowned hospitals such as the Krankenhaus Barmherzige Brüder and the St. Josef-Krankenhaus. In the Bezirksklinikum, mental diseases are treated. With 19.4 hospital beds per 1000 residents, Regensburg owns the fourth highest density of beds per residents in Germany.[27] Concerning medical doctors per residents, Regensburg obtains the third place in Germany (339 per 100,000 residents).[28]

The city's BioPark, representing Bavaria's second largest biotech cluster, hosts numerous research institutions and biotech companies.

Education

Vielberth-Gebäude, Uni Regensburg
University of Regensburg, Vielberth building, faculty of business
Campus OTH Regensburg
Regensburg University of Applied Sciences, campus

Universities and academia

Regensburg is known for its institutions of higher education. The biggest of those is the University of Regensburg. Founded in 1962, it is one of Germany's youngest institutions and ranked among the Top 400 universities worldwide. Among the prominent thinkers associated with the institution are Pope Benedict XVI, Udo Steiner and Wolfgang Wiegard. The campus is situated in one area together with the Regensburg University of Applied Sciences.

Since 1874 there has been a College of Catholic Music, the Hochschule für Katholische Kirchenmusik und Musikpädagogik Regensburg.

Research

In addition to the research centres and institutes of the universities, there are several research institutions situated in the city of Regensburg. Among them are the Leibniz-Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS), the Regensburg Centre for Interventional Immunology (RCI), the Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM) and the BioPark, the Bavarian biotech cluster.

Schools

Regensburg is home to 18 elementary schools. There are several institutions of secondary education, both public and private, representing all levels of the German school system. There are eight Gymnasiums in Regensburg, five Realschule, six Hauptschule and four vocational schools (the so-called Berufsschule). In addition, there are several folk high schools with different specialisations. Aside, there is the SIS Swiss International School which is offering families an international educational infrastructure.[29]

Sports

Football

SSV Jahn Regensburg is the local football club and attracts a fairly large local following. The team was part of a larger sports club founded in 1889 as Turnerbund Jahn Regensburg which took its name from Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, whose ideas of gymnastics greatly influenced German sport in the 19th century. The football department was created in 1907. The footballers and swimmers left their parent club in 1924 to form Sportbund Jahn Regensburg.

Ice hockey

EV Regensburg is the local ice hockey club, currently playing in the Oberliga Süd, Germany's third highest professional league.

Baseball

Regensburg Legionäre is the baseball and softball club from Regensburg. The team is also known as Buchbinder Legionäre, following a sponsorship of the Buchbinder company. The club plays in the German Bundesliga and is one of the most famous and most successful baseball clubs in Germany. Several players now in the MLB formerly played at the club. Its arena, Armin-Wolf-Arena, was built in 1996 and has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, making it to Germany's largest baseball stadium.

Athletics

The local athletics club, LG TELIS FINANZ Regensburg, offers a wide range of different competitions and is counted among the most successful clubs in Germany.

Notable residents

Gallery

Dom St. Peter

The Interior of Regensburg Cathedral

210704 regensburg-neupfarrplatz-aus-richtung-kassiansplatz 1-480x640

New Parrish Church (Neupfarrkirche)

270404 regensburg-kapelle-st-georg-und-afra 1-640x480

The romanic chapel St. George and Afra

RegensburgDonauAnsicht2012

The Danube seen from the Stone Bridge

020704 regensburg-reichstagssaal-erker 1-480x640

The bay window of the Old Town Hall

Regensburg Goliathhaus 06 2006

Goliath House

130404 regensburg-don-juan-d'austria 1-480x640

Monument of Don Juan de Austria

DampfnudelbaeckereiRegensburg 0047

Dampfnudel bakery in the Baumburger Turm

Regensburg Bruckmanndl 07 2006

Little Boy (Bruckmandl) on the Stone Bridge

Old city gate

Old city gate

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). July 2019.
  2. ^ "Regensburg". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  3. ^ "Regensburg". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 3 June 2019.
  4. ^ a b Deutsche Zentrale für Tourismus e.V. (2015-08-14). "The TOP 100 sights and attractions in Germany | Tourism in Germany – travel, breaks, holidays". germany.travel. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  5. ^ "Iron Age Braumeisters of the Teutonic Forests". BeerAdvocate. Archived from the original on 2006-06-13. Retrieved 2006-06-02.
  6. ^ Tellier, L.N. (2009). Urban World History: An Economic and Geographical Perspective. Presses de l'Universite du Quebec. p. 266. ISBN 9782760522091. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  7. ^ The Biographical Dictionary of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, Vol. III, Part II (page 623), printed by William Clowes and Sons, Stamford Street, London, 1844
  8. ^ Herald of Destiny by Berel Wein. New York: Shaar Press, 1993, page 144.
  9. ^ Karen Lemiski, Focus on Philately: The stamps of Regensburg, Camp Ganghofersiedlung in The Ukrainian Weekly, February 4, 2001, No. 5, Vol. LXIX
  10. ^ "Europeprize". europeprize.net. Archived from the original on 2015-08-01. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  11. ^ "DWD". Retrieved 18 August 2018.
  12. ^ Ursula Hagner (26 November 2009). "Europäische Wetterlagen" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  13. ^ "World Weather Information Service – Regensburg". June 2011.
  14. ^ "Klima Regensburg - Station Regensburg (365 m)". Wetterdienst.de. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Regensburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. 23 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 37.
  16. ^ "The Route of Emperors and Kings".
  17. ^ "Regensburg Theaters". regensburgtravel.com. Archived from the original on 2015-07-04. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  18. ^ https://www.regensburg.de/buergerservice/statistik
  19. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Stadt Regensburg" (PDF). Stadt Regensburg – Amt für Stadtentwicklung. Retrieved 2016-05-30.
  20. ^ "Stadt Regensburg – Abteilung Statistik". statistik.regensburg.de. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
  21. ^ "Who is Aberdeen twinned with?". Aberdeen City Council. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-03-02.
  22. ^ "National Commission for Decentralised cooperation". Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères) (in French). Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-12-26.
  23. ^ "Prognos Zukunftsatlas 2013: Ergebnisübersicht Gesamtranking" (PDF). 7 November 2013. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  24. ^ "OTTI – Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V." otti.de. Archived from the original on 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2014-10-10.
  25. ^ "Stadt Regensburg – Abteilung Statistik". statistik.regensburg.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  26. ^ "Energienutzungsplan Stadt Regensburg – Teilbericht C – Ist-Zustand Erzeugung" (PDF). 16 April 2014. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  27. ^ "Statistisches Bundesamt Deutschland – Interaktive Karten – AI014-1". www-genesis.destatis.de. Retrieved 2015-08-16.
  28. ^ Wirtschaftswoche, Nr. 49, 2014, Städteranking, p. 28
  29. ^ http://www.ihk-regensburg.de/ihk-r/autoupload/officefiles/RIS_Unternehmen_engl.pdf
  30. ^ "Hanisch, Joseph (Josef)". Bayerisches Musiker-Lexikon Online (BMLO). Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  31. ^ Christiaan Sepp (1879), "Gichtel, Johann Georg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB) (in German), 9, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 147–150
  32. ^ "Book of Nature". World Digital Library. 1481. Retrieved 2013-08-27.

References

  • David L. Sheffler, Schools and Schooling in Late Medieval Germany: Regensburg, 1250–1500 (Leiden, Brill, 2008) (Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, 33).

External links

Battle of Ratisbon

The Battle of Ratisbon, also called the Battle of Regensburg, was fought on 23 April 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars, between the army of the First French Empire, led by Napoleon I, and that of the Austrian Empire, led by Archduke Charles. Scene of the last engagement of the Bavaria phase of the campaign of 1809, the brief defense of the city and installation of a pontoon bridge to the east enabled the retreating Austrian army to escape into Bohemia. During the assault, Marshal Jean Lannes led his troops up ladders onto the walls, and Napoleon was wounded in his ankle by a small artillery round. The shot had been fired at great distance and did not severely hurt the Emperor, but caused a contusion.

Bavarian Circle

The Bavarian Circle (German: Bayerischer Reichskreis) was an Imperial Circle of the Holy Roman Empire.

The most significant state by far in the circle was the Duchy of Bavaria (raised to an Electorate by Emperor Ferdinand II in 1623) with the Upper Palatinate territories. Other Imperial Estates like the Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg, the Prince-Bishoprics of Freising, Passau and Regensburg as well as the Imperial city of Regensburg, seat of the Imperial Diet from 1663, had a secondary importance.

Federico Palacios Martínez

Federico Palacios Martínez (born 9 April 1995) is a German professional footballer of Spanish descent who plays as a striker for Jahn Regensburg.

Football at the 1972 Summer Olympics

The 1972 Olympic football tournament, held in Munich, Augsburg, Ingolstadt, Nürnberg, Passau, and Regensburg, was played as part of the 1972 Summer Olympics. The tournament features 16 men's national teams from five continental confederations. The 16 teams are drawn into four groups of four and each group plays a round-robin tournament. At the end of the group stage, the top two teams advanced to the second group stage, where the second-placed teams in each group advanced to the bronze medal match while the first-placed teams advanced to the gold medal match held at Olympic Stadium on 10 September 1972.In 2017, the physician of the Soviet team revealed that the match for the bronze medal between the Soviet Union and East Germany was fixed.

Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer

Dr Gottlieb August Wilhelm Herrich-Schäffer (17 December 1799 – 14 April 1874) was a German entomologist and physician. He was born, and died, in Regensburg. Herrich-Schäffer studied and collected particularly butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera). He was chairman of the Regensburg Botanical Society (Regensburgischen Botanischen Gesellschaft) from 1861 to 1871, and was awarded an honorary citizenship of Regensburg in 1871.

He wrote Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von Europa between 1843 and 1856, one of the most influential works on the higher classification of Lepidoptera of the 19th century. Many of the lepidopteran higher taxa recognized today were defined in this work for the first time. He based his classification mostly on wing venation.

Parts of his collection went to Otto Staudinger at the Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin and M. J. Bastelberg at the Zoologische Staatssammlung München. Lots of Microlepidoptera in his collection were given to Ottmar Hofmann (1835–1900) at the Natural History Museum in London.

The author citation used for Herrich-Schäffer is Herr.-Schaeff. in botany or Herrich-Schäffer in zoology.

Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire)

The Imperial Diet (Latin: Dieta Imperii/Comitium Imperiale; German: Reichstag) was the deliberative body of the Holy Roman Empire. It was not a legislative body in the contemporary sense; its members envisioned it more like a central forum where it was more important to negotiate than to decide.Its members were the Imperial Estates, divided into three colleges. The diet as a permanent, regularized institution evolved from the Hoftage (court assemblies) of the Middle Ages. From 1663 until the end of the empire in 1806, it was in permanent session at Regensburg.

The Imperial Estates had, according to feudal law, no authority above them besides the Holy Roman Emperor (or emperor-elect) himself. The holding of an Imperial Estate entitled one to a vote in the diet. Thus, an individual member might have multiple votes and votes in different colleges. In general, members did not attend the permanent diet at Regensburg, but sent representatives instead. The late imperial diet was in effect a permanent meeting of ambassadors between the Estates.

Jahnstadion (Regensburg)

The Jahnstadion is a 12,500 capacity stadium in Regensburg, Germany. It is primarily used for football and, until 2015, was the home of SSV Jahn Regensburg. Built in 1926, it also hosted five football matches during the 1972 Summer Olympics.

Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg

Judah ben Samuel of Regensburg (1150 – 22 February 1217), also called Yehuda HeHasid or 'Judah the Pious' in Hebrew, was a leader of the Chassidei Ashkenaz, a movement of Jewish mysticism in Germany considered different from the 18th-century Hasidic movement founded by the Baal Shem Tov.Judah was born in the small town of Speyer in the modern day Rhineland-Palatinate state in Germany in 1150 but later settled in Regensburg in the modern day state of Bavaria in 1195. He wrote much of Sefer Hasidim (Book of the Pious), as well as a work about Gematria and Sefer Hakavod (Book of Glory), the latter has been lost and is only known by quotations that other authors have made from it. His most prominent students were Elazar Rokeach, Isaac ben Moses of Vienna author of Or Zarua and perhaps also Moses ben Jacob of Coucy (according to the Hida).

List of the prince-bishops and bishops of Regensburg

The Bishops of Regensburg (Ratisbon) are bishops of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg, Bavaria, Germany. The seat of the bishops is Regensburg Cathedral.

Markus Weinzierl

Markus Weinzierl (born 28 December 1974) is a German football coach and former player who last managed VfB Stuttgart.As the manager of Jahn Regensburg, a position he held from 2008 to 2012, Weinzierl achieved promotion into the 2. Bundesliga. On 17 May 2012, Weinzierl was appointed the new manager of the Bundesliga club FC Augsburg, and was there for four years until he left the club to join Schalke 04.

Prince-Bishopric of Regensburg

The Prince-Bishopric of Regensburg (German: Fürstbistum Regensburg; Hochstift Regensburg) was a small ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire located near the Free Imperial City of Regensburg in Bavaria. It was elevated to the Archbishopric of Regensburg in 1803 after the dissolution of the Archbishopric of Mainz. The Prince-Bishopric of Regensburg must not be confused with the Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg, which was considerably larger.

Principality of Regensburg

The Principality of Regensburg (German: Fürstentum Regensburg) was a principality of the Holy Roman Empire created in 1803; following the dissolution of the Empire in 1806, it was part of the Confederation of the Rhine until 1810. Its capital was Regensburg.

Regensburg (district)

Regensburg is a Landkreis (district) in Bavaria, Germany. It is bounded by (from the north, in clockwise direction) the districts of Schwandorf, Cham, Straubing-Bogen, Kelheim and Neumarkt. The city of Regensburg is enclosed by it, but is not part of the district; nonetheless it is its administrative seat.

Regensburg (electoral district)

Regensburg is one of the 299 single member constituencies used for the German parliament, the Bundestag. One of forty five districts in Bavaria, it covers the district and city of Regensburg. The boundaries have been unchanged since its creation.

The constituency was created for the 1949 election, the first election in West Germany after World War II. Since then, all elections in the district have been won by the Christian Social Union (CSU).

The current representative is Philipp Lerchenfeld, who was elected for the first time in 2013.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Regensburg

The Diocese of Regensburg (Latin: Dioecesis Ratisbonensis) is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory seated in Regensburg, Germany. Its district covers parts of northeastern Bavaria; it is subordinate to the archbishop of Munich and Freising. The diocese has 1.22 million Catholics, constituting 81% of its population. The current bishop is Rudolf Voderholzer. The main diocesan church is Saint Peter in Regensburg. The diocese is divided into eight regions and 33 deaneries with 769 parishes. It covers an area of 14,665 km².

SSV Jahn Regensburg

Sport- und Schwimmverein Jahn Regensburg e. V., commonly known as SSV Jahn Regensburg, Jahn Regensburg, SSV Jahn or simply Jahn is a German football club based in Regensburg, Bavaria. The club is based on a gymnastics club founded in 1886 as Turnerbund Jahn Regensburg which took its name from Friedrich Ludwig Jahn, whose ideas of gymnastics greatly influenced German sport in the 19th century. The football department was created in 1907.

The footballers left their parent club in 1924 to form Sportbund Jahn Regensburg, in 1934 they were combined with two further sports clubs, Sportverein 1889 Regensburg and Schwimmverein 1920 Regensburg, to Sport- und Schwimmverein Jahn 1889 Regensburg, today commonly known as SSV Jahn 1889 Regensburg with the departments athletics, boxing, futsal, gymnastics, handball, kendo and nine-pin bowling. The football department separated in 2000 and is called SSV Jahn Regensburg.

SSV Jahn play their home games at Continental Arena since 2015. The club colours are white and red, the teams's most common nicknames 'Rothosen' (Red Shorts) and 'Jahnelf' (Jahn Eleven). Jahn currently plays in the 2. Bundesliga, the German second division, having been promoted from the 3. Liga in season 2016–17.

Saint Emmeram's Abbey

St. Emmeram's Abbey (Kloster Sankt Emmeram or Reichsabtei Sankt Emmeram), now known as Schloss Thurn und Taxis, Schloss St. Emmeram, and St. Emmeram's Basilica, was a Benedictine monastery founded in about 739 in Regensburg in Bavaria (modern southeastern Germany) at the grave of the itinerant Frankish bishop Saint Emmeram.

Truce of Ratisbon

The Truce of Ratisbon, or Truce of Regensburg, concluded the War of the Reunions between Spain and the Holy Roman Empire on one hand and France on the other hand. The Truce was signed on 15 August 1684 at the Dominican convent in Ratisbon (now in Bavaria) between Louis XIV, the Holy Roman Emperor, Leopold I, and the Spanish King, Charles II. The Spanish were involved as the owners of the Spanish Netherlands, which were part of the Holy Roman Empire. The final agreements allowed Louis to retain Strasbourg, Luxembourg, and most other Reunion gains, but he had to hand back Courtrai and Dixmude. Luxembourg, Courtrai, and Dixmude were in the Spanish Netherlands, whereas Strasbourg had been a free imperial city. The truce was supposed to last twenty years, but Louis terminated it after four years by declaring war to the Dutch Republic on 16 November and by investing Philippsburg on 27 September 1688, thereby starting the Nine Years' War.

University of Regensburg

The University of Regensburg (German: Universität Regensburg) is a public research university located in the medieval city of Regensburg, Bavaria, a city that is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The university was founded on July 18, 1962 by the Landtag of Bavaria as the fourth full-fledged university in Bavaria. Following groundbreaking in 1965, the university officially opened to students during the 1967–1968 winter semester, initially housing faculties in Law and Business Sciences and Philosophy. During the summer semester of 1968 the faculty of Theology was created. Currently, the University of Regensburg houses eleven faculties.

The university actively participates in the European Union's SOCRATES programme as well as several TEMPUS programmes. Its most famous academic, the previous Pope Benedict XVI, served as a professor there until 1977 and formally retains his chair in theology.

Climate data for Regensburg
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.1
(39.4)
10.5
(50.9)
17.3
(63.1)
20.6
(69.1)
24.2
(75.6)
26.3
(79.3)
24.5
(76.1)
20.6
(69.1)
14.4
(57.9)
7.2
(45.0)
2.9
(37.2)
14.6
(58.3)
Average low °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
0.1
(32.2)
4.4
(39.9)
8.1
(46.6)
11.8
(53.2)
13.6
(56.5)
12.5
(54.5)
9.3
(48.7)
5.1
(41.2)
1.8
(35.2)
−1.7
(28.9)
5.0
(41.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 51
(2.0)
34
(1.3)
37
(1.5)
41
(1.6)
76
(3.0)
77
(3.0)
81
(3.2)
79
(3.1)
43
(1.7)
38
(1.5)
45
(1.8)
56
(2.2)
658
(25.9)
Average relative humidity (%) 88 84 78 72 71 71 70 74 79 84 88 89 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44 73 140 194 211 226 240 194 158 105 45 37 1,667
Source #1: World Meteorological Organisation[13]
Source #2: German Weather Service[14]
Cities in Germany by population
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500,000–999,999
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100,000–199,999
Holy Roman Empire Bavarian Circle (1500–1806) of the Holy Roman Empire
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Central
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Flag of Bavaria Urban and rural districts in the Free State of Bavaria in Germany Flag of Germany
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See also
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