Refit

For the boot menu, see rEFIt.

Refitting or refit of boats includes repairing, fixing, restoring, renewing, mending, and renovating an old vessel. Refitting has become one of the most important activities inside a shipyard. It offers a variety of services for an old vessel of any size and kind starting with the construction itself and what is added to it, such as hardware, electric & hydraulic systems, entertainment systems, etc.

Refitting can be divided into several main subjects:

  • Adding or replacing: for example replacing old deck equipment with new or refurbished ones.
  • Modifying: for example modifying a yacht for participating in and winning a regatta.
  • Customizing: for example customizing a yacht for the owner's needs and desires.
  • Modernizing: for example modernizing an old yacht with modern styling, technologies and systems.
  • Restoring: for example restoring an old wooden boat for preservation.

Further reading

  • Naujok, Michael (2004), Fitting out your boat: in fibreglass or wood, Sheridan House, ISBN 1-57409-185-9
  • Roselló, Enric (2007), The Restoration Handbook, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-51264-7

See also

3"/50 caliber gun

The 3″/50 caliber gun (spoken "three-inch fifty-caliber") in United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter, and the barrel was 50 calibers long (barrel length is 3 in × 50 = 150 in or 3.8 m). Different guns (identified by Mark numbers) of this caliber were used by the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard from 1890 through the 1990s on a variety of combatant and transport ship classes.

The gun is still in use with the Spanish Navy on Serviola-class patrol boats.

Banff-class sloop

The Banff-class sloop was a group of ten warships of the Royal Navy. Built as United States Coast Guard Lake-class cutters, in 1941 these ships were loaned to the Royal Navy as antisubmarine warfare escort ships. The transfers took place at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, where the British battleship Malaya was under repair after being torpedoed by U-106. The sloops were manned for transport to England by personnel from the damaged battleship. The sloops were initially used to escort SL convoys between England and Sierra Leone, and one was sunk while so employed. The nine surviving sloops were assigned to Operation Torch where two were destroyed attacking Oran in Operation Reservist. The remaining seven escorted Mediterranean convoys in support of the North African invasion and saw varied employment in the Atlantic until assigned to the Kilindini Escort Force in late 1943 and early 1944. They stayed in the Indian Ocean for the remainder of the war escorting trade convoys in the Arabian Sea, and five served in the Bay of Bengal supporting Operation Dracula and Operation Zipper in the last months of conflict with Japan. Six were returned to the United States after the conclusion of hostilities; and one, disabled by mechanical failure, was scrapped overseas.

Carnival Sunshine

Carnival Sunshine (formerly Carnival Destiny) is the lead ship of the Sunshine-class of cruise ships. Carnival Sunrise and Carnival Radiance will join in April 2019 and April 2020. With two of her four sisters, she is operated by Carnival Cruise Line. Built by Fincantieri at its Monfalcone shipyard in Friuli-Venezia Giulia, northern Italy, she was christened as Carnival Destiny in Venice, Italy, in November 1996 by Lin Arison, wife of Ted Arison, the founder of Carnival Cruise Line. Carnival Sunshine itinerary is 5-13 day Caribbean cruises out of Port Canaveral. Starting in May 2019, The ship will be homeported in Charleston, South Carolina. Upon entering service, Carnival Destiny was the first passenger ship ever built to be over 100,000 tons as measured by gross tonnage for a year. She became Carnival Sunshine on 5 May 2013, after receiving a major renovation featuring all Fun Ship 2.0 upgrades. At a ceremony in New Orleans on 17 November 2013, she was rechristened, with Lin Arison once again serving as her godmother.

HMAS Vampire (D11)

HMAS Vampire was the third of three Australian-built Daring class destroyers serving in the Royal Australian Navy (RAN). One of the first all-welded ships built in Australia, she was constructed at Cockatoo Island Dockyard between 1952 and 1959, and was commissioned into the RAN a day after completion.

Vampire was regularly deployed to South East Asia during her career: she was attached to the Far East Strategic Reserve on five occasions, including during the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, and escorted the troop transport HMAS Sydney on six of the latter's twenty-five transport voyages to Vietnam. In 1977, the destroyer was assigned to escort the Royal Yacht Britannia during Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Phillip's visit to Australia. In 1980, Vampire was reclassified as a training ship.

The warship remained in service until 1986, when she was decommissioned and presented to the Australian National Maritime Museum for preservation as a museum ship; the largest museum-owned object on display in Australia.

HMCS Bonaventure

HMCS Bonaventure was a Majestic-class aircraft carrier, the third and last aircraft carrier in service with Canada's armed forces. The aircraft carrier was initially ordered for construction by Britain's Royal Navy as HMS Powerful during the Second World War. Following the end of the war, construction on the ship was halted and it was not until 1952 that work began once again, this time to an altered design for the Royal Canadian Navy. The ship entered service in 1957 renamed Bonaventure and, until the vessel's decommissioning in 1970, was involved in major NATO fleet-at-sea patrols and naval exercises and participated in the Cuban Missile Crisis. During her career Bonaventure carried three hull identification numbers, RML 22, RRSM 22 and CVL 22. Following her decommissioning Bonaventure was sold for scrap and broken up in Taiwan.

HMS Bristol (D23)

HMS Bristol (D23) is a Type 82 destroyer, the only vessel of her class to be built for the Royal Navy. Originally intended as the first of a class of large destroyers to escort the CVA-01 aircraft carriers projected to come into service in the early 1970s, Bristol turned out to be a unique ship: the rest of the class were cancelled with the CVA-01 carriers in the 1966 Strategic Defence Review. Following a long career which included the Falklands War, she was converted into a training ship in 1987 and continues to serve in that role. HMS Bristol is named after the English city of Bristol.

HMS Eagle (1918)

HMS Eagle was an early aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. Ordered by Chile during the South American dreadnought race as the Almirante Latorre-class battleship Almirante Cochrane, she was laid down before World War I. In early 1918 she was purchased by Britain for conversion to an aircraft carrier; this work was finished in 1924. Her completion was delayed by labour troubles and the possibility that she might be repurchased by Chile for reconversion into a battleship, as well as the need for comparative trials to determine the optimum layout for aircraft carriers. The ship was initially assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet and then later to the China Station, spending very little time in home waters other than for periodic refits.

Eagle spent the first nine months of World War II in the Indian Ocean searching for German commerce raiders. During the early part of the war, the Fleet Air Arm was desperately short of fighters and Eagle was equipped solely with Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers until late 1940. She was transferred to the Mediterranean in May 1940, where she escorted convoys to Malta and Greece and attacked Italian shipping, naval units and bases in the Eastern Mediterranean. The ship also participated in the Battle of Calabria in July but her aircraft failed to score any hits when they attempted to torpedo Italian cruisers during the battle. Whenever Eagle was not at sea, her aircraft were disembarked and used ashore.

The ship was relieved by a more modern carrier in March 1941 and ordered to hunt for Axis shipping in the Indian Ocean and the South Atlantic. Her aircraft sank a German blockade runner and disabled a German oil tanker in mid-1941 but did not find any other Axis ships before the ship was ordered home for a refit in October. After completing an extensive refit in early 1942, the ship made trips delivering fighter aircraft to Malta to boost its air defences in the first half of 1942. Eagle was torpedoed and sunk by the German submarine U-73 on 11 August 1942 while escorting a convoy to Malta during Operation Pedestal.

HMS Victorious (R38)

HMS Victorious, ordered under the 1936 Naval Programme, was the third Illustrious-class aircraft carrier after Illustrious and Formidable. She was laid down at the Vickers-Armstrong shipyard at Newcastle-Upon-Tyne in 1937 and launched two years later in 1939. Her commissioning was delayed until 1941 due to the greater need for escort vessels for service in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Her service in 1941 and 1942 included famous actions against the battleship Bismarck, several Arctic convoys, and the Pedestal convoy to Malta. She was loaned to the United States Navy in 1943 and served in the south west Pacific as part of the Third Fleet. Victorious contributed to several attacks on the Tirpitz. The elimination of the German naval threat allowed her redeployment first to the Eastern Fleet at Colombo and then to the Pacific for the final actions of the war against Japan.

After the war, her service was broken by periods in reserve and, between 1950-8, the most complete reconstruction of any Royal Navy carrier. This involved the construction of new superstructure above the hangar deck level, a new angled flight deck, new boilers and the fitting of Type 984 3D Air Warning (AW) and Air Defence (AD) radar and data links and heavy shipboard computers, able to track 50 targets and assess their priority for interrogation and interception. The reduction of Britain's naval commitment in 1967, the end of the Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, and a fire while under refit, prompted her final withdrawal from service, 3–5 years early, and she was scrapped in 1969.

Halifax-class frigate

The Halifax-class frigate, also referred to as the City class, is a class of multi-role patrol frigates that have served the Royal Canadian Navy since 1992. The class is the product of the Canadian Patrol Frigate Project, which dates to the mid-1970s. HMCS Halifax was the first of an eventual twelve Canadian-designed and -built vessels which combine traditional anti-submarine capabilities with systems to deal with surface and air threats as well. All ships of the class are named after a major city in each province (St. John's, Halifax, Charlottetown, Fredericton, Québec City, Toronto, Winnipeg, Regina, Calgary and Vancouver) plus the cities of Ottawa and Montreal.

In 2007, the Government of Canada announced a planned refit of the Halifax class which is known as the Halifax Class Modernization Project (HCMP) of which the Frigate Equipment Life Extension (FELEX) project is a part. In November 2008, a Lockheed Martin Canada-led team including Saab AB, Elisra, IBM Canada, CAE Professional Services, L-3 Electronic Systems and xwave, was awarded the contract. The construction phase of the program was completed in November 2016. The Halifax-class modernization program is currently underway and is scheduled to complete the refit and modernization of all twelve ships of the class by 2018.

In October 2011 the Canadian government launched the National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy which aims to replace the Halifax class, as well as the capabilities of the Iroquois-class destroyers, with up to 15 new warships under the Canadian Surface Combatant. This replacement class is currently in the design stage and construction is anticipated to begin in the early 2020s.

Holy Loch

The Holy Loch (Scottish Gaelic: An Loch Sianta/Seunta) is a sea loch, a part of the Cowal peninsula coast of the Firth of Clyde, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.

The "Holy Loch" name is believed to date from the 6th century, when Saint Munn landed there after leaving Ireland. Kilmun Parish Church and Argyll Mausoleum is said to stand where Saint Munn's church was once located.

Robertson's Yard at Sandbank, a village on the loch, was a major wooden boat building company in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

During World War II, the loch was used as a British Royal Navy submarine base. From 1961 to 1992, it was used as a United States Navy Ballistic missile submarine base. In 1992, the Holy Loch base was deemed unnecessary following the demise of the Soviet Union and subsequently closed.

INS Sindhukirti (S61)

INS Sindhukirti (S61) is the seventh Sindhughosh-class diesel-electric submarine of the Indian Navy. She was built at the Admiralty Shipyard and Sevmash in the Soviet Union.

Sindukirti was commissioned on 4 January 1990 in the Soviet Union, with Cdr. Ramdas signing her commissioning orders. She underwent a protracted "medium refit" from June 2006 until May 2015 at the Hindustan Shipyard at Visakhapatnam. The midlife upgrade was projected to be completed in 3 years but numerous delays postponed the submarine's return. Having spent one third of her life in refit, she finally returned to service on 23 May 2015.

INS Viraat

INS Viraat (Sanskrit: Virāṭa meaning Giant) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy. INS Viraat was the flagship of the Indian Navy before INS Vikramaditya was commissioned in 2013. The ship was completed and commissioned in 1959 as the Royal Navy's HMS Hermes, and decommissioned in 1984. It was sold to India in 1987. INS Viraat was commissioned into the Indian Navy on 12 May 1987, and served for almost 30 years.

In February 2015, the Navy stated that Viraat would be decommissioned the following year. The last British-built ship serving with the Indian Navy, she was the oldest aircraft carrier in service in the world. On 23 July 2016, Viraat sailed for the last time under her own power from Mumbai to Kochi, where she was dry-docked and prepared for decommissioning. She was towed out of Kochi on 23 October, returning to Mumbai on 28 October, where she was laid up. Viraat was formally decommissioned on 6 March 2017. It is proposed that the carrier be converted to a museum.

List of Eastern Fleet ships

The Eastern Fleet was a World War II formation of the British Royal Navy. It was formed from the ships and installations of the East Indies Station and the China Station (which are included in this list), with headquarters at Singapore, moving between Trincomalee and Kilindini after the Japanese advances in south east Asia made Singapore untenable as a naval base. See main article for details.

The following lists the warships and support ships of the Fleet, with dates served, fate and nationality.

Retrofitting

Retrofitting refers to the addition of new technology or features to older systems.

power plant retrofit, improving power plant efficiency / increasing output / reducing emissions

home energy retrofit, the improving of existing buildings with energy efficiency equipment

seismic retrofit, the process of strengthening older buildings in order to make them earthquake resistant

Naval vessels often undergo retrofitting in dry dock to incorporate new technologies, change their operational designation, or compensate for perceived weaknesses in their design or gun plan.

Seaward-class defense boats

The Seaward-class defence boats are large patrol craft designed by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) and built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) for the Indian Navy. All of these vessels have been decommissioned, due to the large maintenance overhead they require.

Sindhughosh-class submarine

Sindhughosh-class submarines are Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines in active service with the Indian Navy. Their names are in Sanskrit, but in their Roman-alphabet forms sometimes a final short -a is dropped.

The Sindhughosh submarines, designated 877EKM, were designed as part of Project 877, and built under a contract between Rosvooruzhenie and the Ministry of Defence (India).

The submarines have a displacement of 3,000 tonnes, a maximum diving depth of 300 meters, top speed of 18 knots, and are able to operate solo for 45 days with a crew of 53. The final unit was the first to be equipped with the 3M-54 Klub (SS-N-27) antiship cruise missiles with a range of 220 km.

USS Enterprise (NCC-1701)

USS Enterprise (NCC-1701) is a starship in the Star Trek media franchise. It is the main setting of the original Star Trek television series (1966–1969) and several Star Trek films, and it has been depicted in various spinoffs, films, books, products, and fan-created media. Under the command of Captain James T. Kirk, the Enterprise carries its crew on a mission "to explore strange, new worlds; to seek out new life and new civilizations; to boldly go where no man has gone before".

Matt Jefferies designed the Enterprise for television, and its core design components — a saucer-shaped primary hull, two outset engine nacelles, and a cylindrical secondary hull — have persisted across several television and film redesigns. After the Enterprise's destruction in the third franchise film, that vessel's filming model was redressed and depicted as its successor starship, the USS Enterprise, NCC-1701-A.

Initially a vision of the potential for human spaceflight, the original Enterprise became a popular culture icon. The vessel's original appearance influenced the design of subsequent franchise spacecraft. The model filmed for Star Trek has been on display for decades at the National Air and Space Museum. The Enterprise has repeatedly been identified as one of the best-designed and most influential science fiction spacecraft.

USS Enterprise (NCC-1701-D)

USS Enterprise - NCC-1701-D (or Enterprise-D) is a 24th-century starship in the fictional Star Trek universe and the principal setting of the Star Trek: The Next Generation television series. The Enterprise-D also appears in the pilot episode of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine ("Emissary"), the series finale of Star Trek: Enterprise ("These Are the Voyages..."), and the movie Star Trek Generations.

The Enterprise-D is a Galaxy-class ship and the fifth Federation starship in the Star Trek universe to carry the name Enterprise. Enterprise-D is the flagship of Starfleet. For majority of the ship's service in the Star Trek universe, the commanding officer of Enterprise-D is Captain Jean-Luc Picard.

In Star Trek Generations, after combat with the Duras sisters' ship, the ship's stardrive section was destroyed and the saucer section crash-landed on the surface of the planet Veridian III and had to be abandoned, resulting in its "destroyed" status.

Voima (1952 icebreaker)

Voima is a Finnish state-owned icebreaker. Built by Wärtsilä Hietalahti shipyard in Helsinki in 1954, she was the first icebreaker in the world to be equipped with two bow propellers and generated widespread publicity that helped the Finnish shipbuilding industry to become the world leader in icebreaker design.

Voima was extensively refitted in 1978–1979. As of 2019, she is the oldest and smallest state-owned icebreaker in service in Finland. Originally, Voima was scheduled to be replaced by a new icebreaker by the winter of 2015–16. However, in 2016 it was decided to extend her operational lifetime by at least ten years with another refit.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.