Referee

A referee or simply ref is the person of authority in a variety of sports who is responsible for presiding over the game from a neutral point of view and making on-the-fly decisions that enforce the rules of the sport, including sportsmanship decisions such as ejection. The official tasked with this job may be known, in addition to referee, by a variety of other titles as well (often depending on the sport), including official, umpire, judge, arbiter, arbitrator, linesman, commissaire, timekeeper, touch judge or Technical Official (by the International Olympic Committee).

Matt Reis Carlos Ruiz yellow card
A referee (right) issues a yellow card to a player during a game of association football.

Origin

The term "referee" originated in association football. Originally the team captains would consult with each other in order to resolve any dispute on the pitch. Eventually this role was delegated to an umpire. Each team would bring their own partisan umpire allowing the team captains to concentrate on the game. Later, the referee, a third "neutral" official was added; this referee would be "referred to" if the umpires could not resolve a dispute. The referee did not take his place on the pitch until 1891, when the umpires became linesmen (now assistant referees). Today, in many amateur football matches, each side will still supply their own partisan assistant referees (still commonly called club linesmen) to assist the neutral referee appointed by the governing football association if one or both assistant referees are not provided. In this case, the role of the linesmen is limited to indicating out of play and cannot decide off side.

Examples

Australian rules football

An umpire is an official in the sport of Australian rules football. Games are overseen by one to three field umpires, two to four boundary umpires, and two goal umpires.

Bandy

Hammarby vs GAIS 2012-02-11 (14)
Referee in bandy

A game of bandy is officiated by a referee, the authority and enforcer of the rules, whose decisions are final. The referee may be assisted by one or two assistant referees.

Baseball and softball

In baseball and softball, there is commonly a head umpire (also known as a plate umpire) who is in charge of calling balls and strikes from behind the plate, who is assisted by one, two, three, or five field umpires who make calls on their specific bases (or with five umpires the bases and the outfield). On any question, the head umpire has the final call.

Basketball

In international basketball and in college basketball, the referee is the lead official in a game, and is assisted by either one or two umpires. In the National Basketball Association, the lead official is referred to by the term crew chief and the two other officials are referees. All of the officials in a basketball game are generally accepted to have the same authority as the lead official and therefore they are collectively known as the officials or referees.

Boxing

In boxing a referee is the person who enforces the rules during the fight. He gives instructions to the fighters, starts and stops the count when a competitor is down, and makes the determination to stop a fight when a competitor cannot continue without endangering his health.

Cricket

In cricket, the match referee is an off-field official who makes judgements concerning the reputable conduct of the game and hands out penalties for breaches of the ICC Cricket Code of Conduct. On-field decisions relevant to the play and outcome of the game itself are handled by two on-field umpires, although an off-field third umpire may help with certain decisions.

Cue sports

In cue sports, such as billiards and snooker, matches are presided over by a referee. The referee will determine all matters of fact relating to the rules, maintain fair playing conditions, call fouls, and take other action as required by these rules. (Source: World Pool-Billiard Association)

Cycling

A commissaire is an official in competitive cycling.

Fencing

A fencing match is presided over by a referee.

Field hockey

An umpire in field hockey is a person with the authority to make decisions on a hockey field in accordance with the laws of the game. Each match is controlled by two such umpires, where it is typical for umpires to aid one another and correct each other when necessary .

Figure skating

A referee in figure skating sits in the middle of the judges panel and manages and has full control over the entire event.The referee represents the International Skating Union at international events. Referees for international events are trained by the International Skating Union. There are two levels of referee, International Referee and ISU Referee, with ISU Referees ranking higher.

In Synchronized Ice Skating, there are two Referees. One, sits with the Judges as with ordinary competition and operates a touch screen computer, inputing deductions and marking the skaters. The other, known as the Assistant Referee — Ice, stands by the barrier where the teams enter the ice. The ARI monitors ice conditions, communicates with the event Referee and supervises teams.

Floorball

A floorball game is controlled by two referees with equal power.

Football (American and Canadian)

An American football (or Canadian football) referee is responsible for the general supervision of the game and has the final authority on all rulings. The referee is assisted by up to six other officials on the field. These officials are commonly referred to as "referees" but each has a title based on position and responsibilities during the game: referee, head linesman ("down judge" in the NFL), line judge, umpire, back judge, side judge, and field judge.

Football (association)

An association football (soccer) match is presided over by a referee, whom the Laws of the Game give "full authority to enforce the Laws of the Game in connection with the match to which he has been appointed" (Law 5). The referee is oftentimes assisted by two assistant referees, and sometimes by a fourth official. In UEFA football 2 additional assistant referees are used, each one standing next to a goal post and directly behind the goal line, to watch for fouls occurring within the penalty area and to see if the ball enters the goal.

Football (Gaelic)

Referee (GAA)
Gaelic football referee (in blue shirt)

There are usually 7 officials in Gaelic football. A main referee follows the play around the field and has the final authority on decisions such as fouls, throws and card-issuing, un-desputable by players. The main play referee is assisted by two linesmen, who make decisions on who gains possession when the ball goes out of the field of play, and can also advise the referee on off-the-ball events such as a fight or an illegal tackle. As well as the referee and two linesmen, there are two umpires at each end of the field of play who stand on either side of the goal post and raise a white flag for a point, or a green flag for a goal respectively, also calling wides and square-balls. An umpire can also advise the referee on off-the-ball incidents, but does not hold as much authority as a linesman. In recent times, technology called 'Hawk-eye' can be used if both the umpires and referee are unsure of whether a point has been scored or not, though this technology is not widely available.

Golf

Golf is often played without referees. According to the Middle Atlantic Section of the PGA of America, "few golfers are fully qualified to serve as referees." A golf referee must remain alert during matches and enforce the rules of golf.[1]

Handball

According to the International Handball Association, team handball games are officiated by two referees with equal authority who are in charge of each match. They are assisted by a timekeeper and a scorekeeper. (Source: International Handball Association, Rules of the Game, 1 August 2005).

Hurling

Croke Park referees
Hurling refereeing team. The referee, linesmen and sideline official wear blue shirts and black shorts, while the umpires wear white coats.

There are usually 7 officials in hurling. A main referee follows the play around the field and has the final authority on decisions such as fouls, throws and card-issuing, un-desputable by players. The main play referee is assisted by two linesmen, who make decisions on who gains possession when the ball goes out of the field of play, and can also advise the referee on off-the-ball events such as a fight or an illegal tackle. As well as the referee and two linesmen, there are two umpires at each end of the field of play who stand on either side of the goal post and raise a white flag for a point, or a green flag for a goal respectively, also calling wides. Any umpire can also advise the referee on off-the-ball incidents, but does not hold as much authority as a linesman. At inter-county senior games and other important matches, an eighth official, the "Sideline Official", receive substitution notes and holds up the number of substituted players and the amount of additional time, similar to a soccer fourth official.[2] In recent times, technology called Hawk-Eye can be used if both the umpires and referee are unsure of whether a point has been scored or not, although this technology is not widely available.

Ice hockey

Games of ice hockey are presided over by on-ice referees, who are generally assisted by on-ice linesmen. The combination of referees and linesman varies from league to league. A few leagues, including the NCAA, are starting to refer to linesmen as assistant referees. In addition, off-ice officials administer to specific functions such as goal judge, penalty timekeeper, game timekeeper, statistician, official scorer and, at the highest professional levels, instant replay official.

Korfball

In korfball, it is the referee's responsibility to control the game and its environment, to enforce the rules and to take action against misbehaviour. He is assisted by an assistant referee, who alerts the referee to out balls and fouls and may have other tasks determined by the referee, and where possible by a timekeeper and scorer.

Lacrosse

A lacrosse match is presided over by a crew of either two, three, or in some cases four on-field officials. In two-man crew, a Referee and an Umpire are utilized. In a three-man crew, a Referee, Umpire, and Field Judge are utilized. The Referee shall always have the final ruling on any and all matters. For games of significance a four-man crew can be used which includes a three-man crew plus a Chief Bench Official who has jurisdiction over the bench area including the timekeeper. The professional outdoor league in the United States utilizes four on-field officials in order to be able to better keep up with the increased pace of play.

Lawn bowls

A lawn bowls match is presided over by a bowls umpire or technical official. In games where single players compete, a marker is required to direct play and assist players with questions relating to the position of their bowls.

Mixed martial arts

Rules in mixed martial arts (MMA) bouts are enforced by a referee who can give warnings and disqualifications should the rules be broken. The referee is also in charge of stopping fights when a fighter "cannot intelligently defend himself" in order to prevent him from incurring further damage, as well as making sure that submissions are released following a tapout and to pull fighters off an unconscious opponent. The referee is advised by a doctor and assistant referee who sit ringside.

The primary concern and job of an MMA referee is the safety of the fighters.

Motorsport

Aside the race control who are responsible for the start, running and timekeeping of the race, each section of the circuit is presided by a team of marshals led by an observer, who also report incidents and technical mishap of the race.

Netball

In the game of Netball the match at hand is Presided over by 2 umpires, typically female, with a comprehensive knowledge of the rules. There are also 2 timekeepers and 2 scorekeepers who inform the umpires, and players of time remaining, and scores.

Quidditch

Quidditch is governed by a Head Referee, who issues penalties for fouls and misconduct and has the final say over any dispute of the rules. The head referee is assisted by up to 7 assistant referees, each with specific responsibilities. 2 Goal Referees, one behind each set of hoops, are to rule whether a goal has been scored or not, as well as to watch for proper substitutions. Up to 3 Bludger Referees position themselves around the action and rule on beats by Bludgers. 1 Snitch Referee follows the Seekers and rules on catching of the Snitch, ruling the Snitch Runner down, and counting off a 3-second head start when necessary. In the absence of a snitch referee the Snitch Runner should act as the Snitch Referee. The Head Referee is also assisted by a scorekeeper who keeps track of match time, penalty time, goals scored, and time of Snitch snatch.

Roller derby

The game of roller derby is governed by a team of up to seven skating referees. (Only three are required due to the grass-roots nature of the sport, though the full seven are used whenever possible). The required referees are a head referee, who oversees the running of the entire game and has final say in any disputes, and who doubles as an inside pack referee, following alongside the main pack of skaters from inside the track and issuing and enforcing penalties for fouls or infringements of the rules; and two jammer referees who follow the two point-scoring players known as jammers. Additional referees fill the roles of a second inside pack ref and up to three outside pack refs, who perform similar duties to the inside pack refs, but from the outside of the track, and who rotate active duty in a relay-race style to avoid fatigue caused by the extra speed needed to keep pace with the pack from the outside. Non-skating officials complete the team by recording and communicating points and penalties and ensuring skaters serve their time accordingly. Only the team captains may engage in discussions with the referees by way of the head referee, over calls made. Referees are also responsible for ensuring the skaters are correctly wearing all regulation safety equipment.[3]

Rowing

In a regatta an umpire is the on-the-water official appointed to enforce the rules of racing and to ensure safety. In some cases an umpire may be designated specifically as starter, or otherwise the umpire starts the race from a launch and follows it to its end, ensuring that crews follow their proper course. If no infringements occur, the result is decided by a judge or judges on the waterside who determine the finish order of the crews.

Rugby league

Rugby league games are controlled by an on field referee assisted by two touch judges, and often a video referee during televised games. With non-televised games in rugby league, the referee has 2 touch judges and 2 in-goal judges to assist. The referee and the touch judges cannot be contradicted by any player, but captains may discuss calls with them. In some rugby league competitions, most notably Australia's National Rugby League, public criticism of officials by players or coaching staff can result in fines being levied against the offending club.

The National Rugby League is also experimenting with a two-referee system: the control referee is primarily in charge of the play and calling penalties, and the assist referee, who communicates with the control referee but should not blow the whistle. The two referees exchange roles on changes of possession.

Touch football

Touch football/touch rugby (commonly known as "touch") has a unique refereeing concept. As in most team sports, there is an on-field referee and referees on each of the two sideline. However, in touch football, the referees may interchange, similar to players, at appropriate times. Appropriate times may include when the play has moved close enough to the sideline for the referees to swap without the interrupting the play. This may occur during a set of six or during a change of possession. Other times that referees may interchange include after the awarding of touchdowns and penalties.

Touch is also one of the few remaining sports where referees wear metal badges on their chests to represent their official level within their governing organisation. In Australia, the highest referee level is 6, the lowest being 1. In New Zealand, the highest level is 4, the lowest being 1. Prior to level 1, there is an elementary level beginners. In Europe, the highest level is 5, the lowest being 1.

Rugby union

Rugby union games are controlled by an on field referee assisted by two Assistant Referees (AR's), and often a Television Match Official (TMO) during televised games. The referee and the touch judges cannot be contradicted by any player, but captains may discuss calls with them.

Sailing

Referee are rarely present during sailing races as decisions are normally referred to a jury-style protest committee after the race. However, sometimes in match race and in team racing an "umpire" is an on-the-water referee appointed to directly enforce the Racing Rules of Sailing. An umpire is also used in fleet racing to enforce Racing Rule 42 which limits the use of kinetics to drive the boat rather than the wind.

Sumo

A sumo match is overseen by a referee (行司 gyōji) in the ring and five judges (勝負審判 shōbu shimpan) seated around the ring. All dress in traditional Japanese clothing, with higher-ranked referees wearing elaborate silk outfits. The referee oversees the pre-match rituals and the bout itself, including ruling on the winner of the bout and the winning technique used. If one of the umpires disagrees, then all the umpires confer to determine the winner of the bout.

Tradition holds that if one of the two top ranked gyōji has his decision overturned, he is expected to tender his resignation, although the Chairman of the Japan Sumo Association usually rejects the resignation.

Tennis

In tennis an umpire is an on-court official, while a referee is an off-court official.

Underwater hockey

An Octopush or underwater hockey match is presided over by two or three water referees in the pool, a chief referee on deck, and at least one timekeeper and one scorekeeper. Additional timekeepers can be used to track penalty times in highly contested matches. A tournament referee will arbitrate for chief referees, whilst protests will be adjudicated by at least three independent referees.

Volleyball

A volleyball match is presided over by a first referee, who observes action from a stand, providing a clear view of action above the net and looking down into the court. The second referee, who assists the first referee, is at floor level on the opposite side of the net—and in front of the scorers' table. They are often referred to informally as the "up referee" and "down referee," respectively. While the first referee watches over actions involving the ball (and thus the attacking team), the second referee usually judges errors committed by the defending team, like touching the net.

Wrestling (amateur)

The international styles of amateur wrestling use a three-official system in which a referee conducts the action in the center of the mat while a judge and a mat chairman remain seated and evaluate the action from their stationary vantage points.

Collegiate wrestling uses a single referee in the center of the mat, or a head referee and an assistant.

Wrestling (professional)

In professional wrestling, the referee's on-stage purpose is similar to that of referees in combat sports such as boxing or mixed martial arts. However, in reality referees are participants in executing a match in accordance with its pre-determined outcome as well as any other events that are scripted to take place during the match. They also function as a conduit for communication between the wrestlers and backstage officials during matches.

Other uses

Military

In a military exercise or field training exercise, the umpire (or observer) is a non-participating officer tasked with monitoring personnel in the field. The umpire does not give orders to the soldiers being observed, nor does the umpire provide any information as to unreleased details of the exercise. Their role is strictly to observe and provide reviews of actions taken, especially where military personnel performed in an innovative way or showed selfless effort.

Attire

Referee hockey ahl 2004
An ice hockey referee, wearing vertical black and white stripes

Referees typically wear clothing to distinguish themselves from the players. Such uniforms may be distinctive, and some traditional uniforms have come to be symbolically associated with the position (even if newer, alternative uniforms are increasingly used). Notable examples include the traditional black uniform worn by association football referees, or the vertical black and white stripes worn by referees in many North American sports.[4][5] These two traditional uniforms have led to the informal terms "the man in black"[6][7] and "zebra,"[8][9] respectively.[10] It is also not uncommon for referees to wear bright reflective shirts.[11]

See also

References

  1. ^ "How to Referee" (PDF). PGA of America, Middle Atlantic Section. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  2. ^ https://www.gaa.ie/my-gaa/match-officials/sideline-officials
  3. ^ "The Rules of Flat Track Roller Derby - Women's Flat Track Derby Association". Wftda.com. Retrieved 2016-07-18.
  4. ^ "Football: The Men in the Striped Shirts". Time. Letters. 3 January 1969. Retrieved 7 January 2015.
  5. ^ Kennedy, Pagan (1 November 2013). "Who Made That Referee Shirt?". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 January 2015. When Olds first wore the black-and-white-striped shirt in 1921, he “received plenty of boos from the crowd,” he told an interviewer.
  6. ^ Hyde, Marina (26 March 2014). "Andre Marriner debacle highlights Fifa aversion to video technology". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  7. ^ O'Hagan, Simon (28 January 1996). "Rosy future for man in black". The Independent. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
  8. ^ Gruley, Bryan (24 October 2014). "Better Referees: Why College Football Needs to Herd Its Own Zebras". Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  9. ^ Lukas, Paul (10 March 2004). "Uni Watch: How the zebra got its stripes". Slate.com. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
  10. ^ Andy Griffith, in his routine "What It Was, Was Football," derisively and laughably referred to them as "convicts" for that reason.
  11. ^ Alex Yannis (1 March 1994). "Soccer: The Name Game". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 January 2015. Another first for World Cup '94 will be a change in the color of the officials' uniforms from basic black to lighter colors
2010–11 FA Cup

The 2010–11 FA Cup (known as The FA Cup sponsored by E.ON for sponsorship reasons) was the 130th season of the world's oldest football knockout competition; the FA Cup. A total of 806 clubs applied to enter of which 759 were accepted, a slight drop compared to the 762 clubs accepted into the 2009–10 competition.

The competition commenced on 14 August 2010 with the Extra preliminary round and concluded on 14 May 2011 with the Final, held at Wembley Stadium. Unusually, this was not the last game of the English domestic season nor the only game played on that day. Wembley Stadium was also hosting the 2011 Champions League Final on 28 May, forcing the FA Cup Final to be played at least two weeks earlier. This meant the Final was played on the penultimate weekend of the Premier League season and, apart from the finalists who were scheduled to play a league match against each other, a full programme of matches was played.

The defending champions were Chelsea, who retained their title in the 2010 final against Portsmouth, but they lost to Everton in the fourth round. The tournament winners were Manchester City, who defeated Stoke City in the final with Yaya Touré scoring the only goal of the match in the 74th minute.

The FA Cup winners are normally entitled to a place in the next season's UEFA Europa League unless they have already qualified for that tournament or for the UEFA Champions League; because Manchester City qualified for the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League via their top-four finish in the 2010–11 Premier League, Stoke qualified for the 2011–12 UEFA Europa League as runners-up.

2012–13 FA Cup

The 2012–13 FA Cup was the 132nd season of the FA Cup, the main domestic cup competition in English football, and the oldest football knock-out competition in the world. It was sponsored by Budweiser for a second consecutive season, thus the competition name was The FA Cup with Budweiser.

A total of 833 clubs applied to enter, with 758 clubs being accepted into the competition.

The preliminary rounds commenced on 11 August 2012, with the first round proper played on 3 November 2012. The final was played on 11 May 2013 at Wembley Stadium in London between Manchester City and Wigan Athletic, with Wigan Athletic winning 1–0.As a result, Wigan Athletic participated in the group stage of the following season's UEFA Europa League. Chelsea were the defending champions, having beaten Liverpool 2–1 in last season's final, but were eliminated in the semi-finals by Manchester City.

Three days after winning the cup, Wigan made history by becoming the first side to win the cup and get relegated in the same season, after they lost 4–1 to Arsenal, which sealed their relegation to the Football League Championship.

2014 FIFA World Cup

The 2014 FIFA World Cup was the 20th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men's national football teams organised by FIFA. It took place in Brazil from 12 June to 13 July 2014, after the country was awarded the hosting rights in 2007. It was the second time that Brazil staged the competition, the first being in 1950, and the fifth time that it was held in South America. It is considered one of the greatest World Cups ever.Thirty-one national teams advanced through qualification competitions to join the host nation in the final tournament (with Bosnia and Herzegovina as only debutant). A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues located in as many host cities across Brazil. For the first time at a World Cup finals, match officials used goal-line technology, as well as vanishing spray for free kicks. FIFA Fan Fests in each host city gathered a total of 5 million people, and the country received 1 million visitors from 202 countries. Every World Cup-winning team since the first tournament in 1930 – Argentina, Brazil, England, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Uruguay – qualified for this tournament. Spain, the title holders, were eliminated at the group stage, along with England and Italy. Uruguay were eliminated in the round of 16, and France exited in the quarter-finals. Host nation Brazil, who had won the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, lost to Germany 7–1 in the semi-finals and eventually finished in fourth place.

In the final, Germany defeated Argentina 1–0 to win the tournament and secure the country's fourth world title, the first after the German reunification in 1990, when as West Germany they also beat Argentina in the World Cup final. Germany became the first European team to win a World Cup staged in the Americas, and this result marked the third consecutive title won by a European team, after Italy in 2006 and Spain in 2010.

2014–15 FA Cup

The 2014–15 FA Cup, also called the 2014–15 FA Challenge Cup, was the 134th occurrence of the FA Cup, the main domestic cup in English football and the oldest knockout competition in the world. It was the first season when the BBC and BT Sport hosted televised matches, seven years after the BBC lost the rights to ITV. The 2014–15 season's Cup also marked the first time that 3G (third generation) artificial pitches were allowed in all rounds of the competition, designed to lower costs for maintenance. After Queens Park Rangers (the first English artificial pitch, from 1981 to 1988), Luton Town, Oldham Athletic and Preston North End trialled artificial pitches in the 1980s, they were made illegal in 1995.The defending champions were Premier League side Arsenal, after they beat Hull City 3–2 in the previous final on 17 May 2014.The semi-finals took place at Wembley Stadium, as they have since 2008, to offset the cost of the new stadium, despite protestations from some supporters. The stadium also hosted the final.

The winner of the FA Cup earns automatic qualification to the 2015–16 UEFA Europa League group stages. However, as Arsenal qualified for the UEFA Champions League via their league position, Southampton, the highest placed team in the 2014–15 Premier League not already Europe-qualified took this Europa League place. In a change to Europa League rules, qualifying slots for national cup winners no longer pass to the runners-up if the winners have already qualified through their league.Arsenal retained the trophy, beating Aston Villa 4–0 in the final.

2015–16 FA Cup

The 2015–16 FA Cup (also known as the FA Challenge Cup) was the 135th edition of the oldest recognised football tournament in the world. It was sponsored by Emirates, and known as The Emirates FA Cup for sponsorship purposes. It began with the Extra Preliminary Round on 15 August 2015, and concluded with the final on 21 May 2016. The FA Cup winner qualifies for the 2016–17 UEFA Europa League group stage.

Premier League side Arsenal were the defending champions after they beat Aston Villa 4–0 in the previous final on 30 May 2015, but were eliminated by Watford in the sixth round.

The winners were Manchester United, who defeated Crystal Palace 2–1 in the final after extra time.

2016–17 FA Cup

The 2016–17 FA Cup (also known as the FA Challenge Cup) was the 136th edition of the oldest recognised football tournament in the world. It was sponsored by Emirates, and known as The Emirates FA Cup for sponsorship purposes. 736 clubs were accepted into the tournament, and it began with the Extra Preliminary Round on 6 August 2016, and concluded with the final on 27 May 2017. The winner qualified for the 2017–18 UEFA Europa League group stage.

Premier League side Manchester United were the defending champions, but were eliminated in the quarter-finals by Chelsea.

Arsenal won a record 13th title following a 2–1 win over Chelsea in the final, winning their 3rd FA Cup in 4 seasons.

This edition of the FA Cup was the first in which quarter-final matches were played to a result on the day, instead of being subject to replay in case of a draw. However, all four matches were settled without the need for extra time.

2017–18 FA Cup

The 2017–18 FA Cup (also known as the FA Challenge Cup) was the 137th edition of the oldest recognised football tournament in the world. It was sponsored by Emirates, and known as The Emirates FA Cup for sponsorship purposes. 737 clubs were accepted into the tournament. It began with the Extra Preliminary Round on 5 August 2017, and concluded with the final on 19 May 2018. The winners qualified for the 2018–19 UEFA Europa League group stage.

The third round match between Brighton & Hove Albion and Crystal Palace on 8 January 2018 was the first competitive game in England where video assistant referee (VAR) technology was available, although it was not used.Kelechi Iheanacho of Leicester City became the first player to score a goal awarded by a video assistant referee (VAR) in competitive English football as Leicester beat Fleetwood Town 2–0 in the FA Cup third-round replay on 16 January 2018. Referee Jon Moss initially disallowed the goal for offside but he consulted with video official Mike Jones, who told him Nathan Pond's trailing foot was keeping Iheanacho onside. The goal was awarded 67 seconds after it hit the back of the net.

Craig Pawson became the first referee in English football to watch a video recording at the sideline in the fourth round tie between Liverpool and West Bromwich Albion on 27 January 2018. He awarded a penalty to Liverpool.

Premier League side Arsenal were the defending champions, but they were eliminated by Nottingham Forest in the third round on 7 January 2018.

2018 FIFA World Cup

The 2018 FIFA World Cup was the 21st FIFA World Cup, an international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA once every four years. It took place in Russia from 14 June to 15 July 2018. It was the first World Cup to be held in Eastern Europe, and the 11th time that it had been held in Europe. At an estimated cost of over $14.2 billion, it was the most expensive World Cup. It was also the first World Cup to use the video assistant referee (VAR) system.The finals involved 32 teams, of which 31 came through qualifying competitions, while the host nation qualified automatically. Of the 32 teams, 20 had also appeared in the previous tournament in 2014, while both Iceland and Panama made their first appearances at a FIFA World Cup. A total of 64 matches were played in 12 venues across 11 cities.Germany were the defending champions, but were eliminated in the group stage.

The final took place on 15 July at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, between France and Croatia. France won the match 4–2 to claim their second World Cup title, marking the fourth consecutive title won by a European team.

2018–19 Copa del Rey

The 2018–19 Copa del Rey is the 117th staging of the Copa del Rey. The winners will be assured a place for the 2019–20 UEFA Europa League group stage.

Barcelona are the four-time defending champions. Times up to 27 October 2018 and from 31 March 2019 are CEST (UTC+2). Times from 28 October 2018 to 30 March 2019 are CET (UTC+1).

2018–19 EFL Cup

The 2018–19 EFL Cup was the 59th season of the EFL Cup. Also known as the Carabao Cup for sponsorship reasons, the competition was open to all 92 clubs participating in the Premier League and the English Football League. The first round was played on 14 August 2018, ten days after the start of the Football League season. Manchester City successfully defended their title, their first step in becoming the first English team to complete a domestic treble for the football season, as they later won the 2018–19 Premier League and the 2018–19 FA Cup. The final was held at Wembley Stadium in London on 24 February 2019.

2018–19 FA Cup

The 2018–19 FA Cup (also known as the Football Association Challenge Cup) was the 138th edition of the oldest football tournament in the world. It was sponsored by Emirates and known as The Emirates FA Cup for sponsorship purposes. It started with the Extra Preliminary Round on the weekend of 11 August 2018 and concluded with the final on 18 May 2019.

Premier League side Chelsea were the defending champions, but they were eliminated by Manchester United in the fifth round on 18 February 2019 in a rematch of the previous year's final. Manchester City won their sixth FA Cup title and their first since 2011, making them the first English club to complete a domestic treble, having earlier won the EFL Cup and the Premier League.

2019 English Football League play-offs

The English Football League play-offs for the 2018–19 season will be held in May 2019 with all finals being staged at Wembley Stadium in London. The play-offs will begin in each league with two semi-finals played over two legs. The teams who finish in 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th place in the Championship and League One and the 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th-placed teams in League Two are set to compete. The winners of the semi-finals advance to the finals, with the winners gaining promotion for the following season.

2019 UEFA European Under-17 Championship

The 2019 UEFA European Under-17 Championship (also known as UEFA Under-17 Euro 2019) was the 18th edition of the UEFA European Under-17 Championship (37th edition if the Under-16 era is also included), the annual international youth football championship organised by UEFA for the men's under-17 national teams of Europe. The Republic of Ireland, which was selected by UEFA on 9 December 2016, is hosting the tournament.A total of 16 teams played in the tournament, with players born on or after 1 January 2002 eligible to participate. Starting from this season, up to five substitutions are permitted per team in each match. Moreover, each match has a regular duration of 90 minutes, instead of 80 minutes in previous seasons.

Same as previous editions held in odd-numbered years, the tournament acted as the UEFA qualifiers for the FIFA U-17 World Cup. The top five teams of the tournament qualified for the 2019 FIFA U-17 World Cup in Brazil as the UEFA representatives.

The Netherlands were the defending champions and successfully defended their title after beating Italy in the final 4–2.

Assistant referee (association football)

In association football, an assistant referee (AR, known as a linesman or lineswoman before 1996, expressions which are still in common unofficial use) is an official empowered with assisting the referee in enforcing the Laws of the Game during a match. Although assistants are not required under the Laws, at most organised levels of football the match officiating crew consists of the referee and at least two assistant referees. The responsibilities of the various assistant referees are listed in Law 6, "The Other Match Officials". In the current Laws the term "assistant referee" technically refers only to the two officials who generally patrol the touchlines, with the wider range of assistants to the referee given other titles.

The assistant referees' duties generally consist of judging when the ball has left the field of play – including which team is entitled to return the ball to play, judging when an offside offence has occurred, and advising the referee when an infringement of the Laws has occurred out of his or her view. These two officials are typically positioned on opposite touchlines, and each stay beside different halves of the pitch.

At higher levels of play the referee is also assisted by a fourth official. The fourth official's duties are usually administrative in nature, such as supervising the substitution procedures, and he or she will generally spend the game in the vicinity of the teams' technical areas.

Competition rules will mandate procedures for replacing officials who are unable to continue. Often, the fourth official will replace the referee or one of the assistant referees if they are unable to continue. The Laws also allow for designed reserve assistant referees who have no other responsibilities unless called upon to replace a member of the officiating team who is unable to continue.At very high-level games there may be further assistant referees. Additional assistant referees are positioned to observe incidents near the two goals. Video assistant referees view footage of the game and can advise the referee to review decisions that may have been incorrect.The referee is the sole arbiter of the Laws during the match. Assistants' calls and judgements are considered to be advisory and can be overruled by the referee.

Elite Panel of ICC Referees

The Emirates Elite Panel of ICC Referees is composed of former international cricket players who are appointed by the ICC to oversee all Test match, One Day International and Twenty20 International cricket matches in the capacity of Match referee. The referees are ultimately in charge of all international cricket matches, and act as the ICC's representative at the grounds. In addition they are responsible for imposing penalties for infringements of the ICC Code of Conduct, and so being ex-international cricketers they can ensure that the punishments dealt out are just. The referees also form part of the ICC's umpire performance review, submitting reports about the umpires after each match.

Mike Dean (referee)

Michael Dean (born 2 June 1968) is an English professional football referee who officiates primarily in the Premier League. He is based in Heswall, Wirral, and is a member of the Cheshire County Football Association.

Since his appointment as a Select Group referee in 2000, Dean has officiated a number of notable matches, including the FA Community Shield and the finals of the FA Cup, Football League Cup and FA Trophy.

Referee (association football)

In association football, the referee is the person responsible for enforcing the Laws of the Game during the match. He or she is the final decision-making authority on all facts connected with play, and is the only official on the pitch with the authority to start and stop play and impose disciplinary action against players during a match. At most levels of play the referee is assisted by two assistant referees (formerly known as linesmen), who are empowered to advise the referee in certain situations such as the ball leaving play or infringements of the Laws of the Game occurring out of the view of the referee; however, the assistant referees' decisions are not binding and the referee has authority to overrule an assistant referee. At higher levels of play the referee may also be assisted by a fourth official who supervises the teams' technical areas and assists the referee with administrative tasks, and, at the very highest levels, additional assistant referees and/or video assistant referees.

Referees' remuneration for their services varies between leagues. Many are wholly amateur, some may be paid a small fee or reimbursed for expenses, and, in some countries, a limited number of referees – mainly those who officiate in their country's top league – are employed full-time by their national associations and receive a retainer at the start of every season plus match fees.

Referees are licensed and trained by the same national organisations that are members of FIFA. Each national organisation recommends its top officials to FIFA to have the additional honour of being included on the FIFA International Referees List. International games between national teams require FIFA officials. Otherwise, the local national organisation determines the manner of training, ranking and advancement of officials from the youngest youth games through professional matches.

Referee (professional wrestling)

In professional wrestling, a referee is an authority figure present in or near the ring during matches. The referee's on-stage (kayfabe) purpose is similar to that of referees in combat sports such as boxing or mixed martial arts, that is, as an arbiter of the rules and the person charged with rendering decisions. In reality, the referee is, like the wrestlers, a participant in executing a match in accordance with its script including its pre-determined outcome, and is responsible for controlling the flow of the match and for relaying information or instructions from backstage officials to the wrestlers. Like wrestlers, referees are also responsible for maintaining kayfabe, and must render decisions in accordance with the promotion's kayfabe rules.

UEFA Euro 2016

The 2016 UEFA European Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2016 or simply Euro 2016, was the 15th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA. It was held in France from 10 June to 10 July 2016. Spain were the two-time defending champions, having won the 2008 and 2012 tournaments, but were eliminated in the round of 16 by Italy. Portugal won the tournament for the first time, following a 1–0 victory after extra time over the host team, France, in the final played at the Stade de France.

For the first time, the European Championship final tournament was contested by 24 teams, having been expanded from the 16-team format used since 1996. Under the new format, the finalists contested a group stage consisting of six groups of four teams, followed by a knockout phase including three rounds and the final. Nineteen teams – the top two from each of the nine qualifying groups and the best third-placed team – joined France in the final tournament, who qualified automatically as host; a series of two-legged play-off ties between the remaining third-placed teams in November 2015 decided the last four finalist spots.

France was chosen as the host nation on 28 May 2010, after a bidding process in which they beat Italy and Turkey for the right to host the 2016 finals. The matches were played in ten stadiums in ten cities: Bordeaux, Lens, Lille Métropole, Décines-Charpieu, Marseille, Nice, Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Étienne, and Toulouse. It was the third time that France hosted the finals, after the inaugural tournament in 1960 and the 1984 finals.

As the winners, Portugal earned the right to compete at the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup in Russia.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.