Redshift

In physics, redshift is a phenomenon where electromagnetic radiation (such as light) from an object undergoes an increase in wavelength. Whether or not the radiation is visible, "redshift" means an increase in wavelength, equivalent to a decrease in wave frequency and photon energy, in accordance with, respectively, the wave and quantum theories of light.

Neither the emitted nor perceived light is necessarily red; instead, the term refers to the human perception of longer wavelengths as red, which is at the section of the visible spectrum with the longest wavelengths. Examples of redshifting are a gamma ray perceived as an X-ray, or initially visible light perceived as radio waves. The opposite of a redshift is a blueshift, where wavelengths shorten and energy increases. However, redshift is a more common term and sometimes blueshift is referred to as negative redshift.

There are three main causes of red (and blue shifts) in astronomy and cosmology:

  1. Objects move apart (or closer together) in space. This is an example of the Doppler effect.
  2. Space itself expands, causing objects to become separated without changing their positions in space. This is known as cosmological redshift. All sufficiently distant light sources (generally more than a few million light years away) show redshift corresponding to the rate of increase in their distance from Earth, known as Hubble's Law.
  3. Gravitational redshift is a relativistic effect observed due to strong gravitational fields, which distort spacetime and exert a force on light and other particles.

Knowledge of redshifts and blueshifts has been used to develop several terrestrial technologies such as Doppler radar and radar guns.[1] Redshifts are also seen in the spectroscopic observations of astronomical objects.[2] Its value is represented by the letter z.

A special relativistic redshift formula (and its classical approximation) can be used to calculate the redshift of a nearby object when spacetime is flat. However, in many contexts, such as black holes and Big Bang cosmology, redshifts must be calculated using general relativity.[3] Special relativistic, gravitational, and cosmological redshifts can be understood under the umbrella of frame transformation laws. There exist other physical processes that can lead to a shift in the frequency of electromagnetic radiation, including scattering and optical effects; however, the resulting changes are distinguishable from true redshift and are not generally referred to as such (see section on physical optics and radiative transfer).

Redshift blueshift
Redshift and blueshift
Redshift
Absorption lines in the visible spectrum of a supercluster of distant galaxies (right), as compared to absorption lines in the visible spectrum of the Sun (left). Arrows indicate redshift. Wavelength increases up towards the red and beyond (frequency decreases).

History

The history of the subject began with the development in the 19th century of wave mechanics and the exploration of phenomena associated with the Doppler effect. The effect is named after Christian Doppler, who offered the first known physical explanation for the phenomenon in 1842.[4] The hypothesis was tested and confirmed for sound waves by the Dutch scientist Christophorus Buys Ballot in 1845.[5] Doppler correctly predicted that the phenomenon should apply to all waves, and in particular suggested that the varying colors of stars could be attributed to their motion with respect to the Earth.[6] Before this was verified, however, it was found that stellar colors were primarily due to a star's temperature, not motion. Only later was Doppler vindicated by verified redshift observations.

The first Doppler redshift was described by French physicist Hippolyte Fizeau in 1848, who pointed to the shift in spectral lines seen in stars as being due to the Doppler effect. The effect is sometimes called the "Doppler–Fizeau effect". In 1868, British astronomer William Huggins was the first to determine the velocity of a star moving away from the Earth by this method.[7] In 1871, optical redshift was confirmed when the phenomenon was observed in Fraunhofer lines using solar rotation, about 0.1 Å in the red.[8] In 1887, Vogel and Scheiner discovered the annual Doppler effect, the yearly change in the Doppler shift of stars located near the ecliptic due to the orbital velocity of the Earth.[9] In 1901, Aristarkh Belopolsky verified optical redshift in the laboratory using a system of rotating mirrors.[10]

The earliest occurrence of the term red-shift in print (in this hyphenated form) appears to be by American astronomer Walter S. Adams in 1908, in which he mentions "Two methods of investigating that nature of the nebular red-shift".[11] The word does not appear unhyphenated until about 1934 by Willem de Sitter, perhaps indicating that up to that point its German equivalent, Rotverschiebung, was more commonly used.[12]

Beginning with observations in 1912, Vesto Slipher discovered that most spiral galaxies, then mostly thought to be spiral nebulae, had considerable redshifts. Slipher first reports on his measurement in the inaugural volume of the Lowell Observatory Bulletin.[13] Three years later, he wrote a review in the journal Popular Astronomy.[14] In it he states that "the early discovery that the great Andromeda spiral had the quite exceptional velocity of –300 km(/s) showed the means then available, capable of investigating not only the spectra of the spirals but their velocities as well."[15] Slipher reported the velocities for 15 spiral nebulae spread across the entire celestial sphere, all but three having observable "positive" (that is recessional) velocities. Subsequently, Edwin Hubble discovered an approximate relationship between the redshifts of such "nebulae" and the distances to them with the formulation of his eponymous Hubble's law.[16] These observations corroborated Alexander Friedmann's 1922 work, in which he derived the Friedmann-Lemaître equations.[17] They are today considered strong evidence for an expanding universe and the Big Bang theory.[18]

Measurement, characterization, and interpretation

High-redshift galaxy candidates in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2012
High-redshift galaxy candidates in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field 2012[19]

The spectrum of light that comes from a single source (see idealized spectrum illustration top-right) can be measured. To determine the redshift, one searches for features in the spectrum such as absorption lines, emission lines, or other variations in light intensity. If found, these features can be compared with known features in the spectrum of various chemical compounds found in experiments where that compound is located on Earth. A very common atomic element in space is hydrogen. The spectrum of originally featureless light shone through hydrogen will show a signature spectrum specific to hydrogen that has features at regular intervals. If restricted to absorption lines it would look similar to the illustration (top right). If the same pattern of intervals is seen in an observed spectrum from a distant source but occurring at shifted wavelengths, it can be identified as hydrogen too. If the same spectral line is identified in both spectra—but at different wavelengths—then the redshift can be calculated using the table below. Determining the redshift of an object in this way requires a frequency- or wavelength-range. In order to calculate the redshift one has to know the wavelength of the emitted light in the rest frame of the source, in other words, the wavelength that would be measured by an observer located adjacent to and comoving with the source. Since in astronomical applications this measurement cannot be done directly, because that would require travelling to the distant star of interest, the method using spectral lines described here is used instead. Redshifts cannot be calculated by looking at unidentified features whose rest-frame frequency is unknown, or with a spectrum that is featureless or white noise (random fluctuations in a spectrum).[20]

Redshift (and blueshift) may be characterized by the relative difference between the observed and emitted wavelengths (or frequency) of an object. In astronomy, it is customary to refer to this change using a dimensionless quantity called z. If λ represents wavelength and f represents frequency (note, λf = c where c is the speed of light), then z is defined by the equations:[21]

Calculation of redshift,
Based on wavelength Based on frequency

After z is measured, the distinction between redshift and blueshift is simply a matter of whether z is positive or negative. See the formula section below for some basic interpretations that follow when either a redshift or blueshift is observed. For example, Doppler effect blueshifts (z < 0) are associated with objects approaching (moving closer to) the observer with the light shifting to greater energies. Conversely, Doppler effect redshifts (z > 0) are associated with objects receding (moving away) from the observer with the light shifting to lower energies. Likewise, gravitational blueshifts are associated with light emitted from a source residing within a weaker gravitational field as observed from within a stronger gravitational field, while gravitational redshifting implies the opposite conditions.

Redshift formulae

In general relativity one can derive several important special-case formulae for redshift in certain special spacetime geometries, as summarized in the following table. In all cases the magnitude of the shift (the value of z) is independent of the wavelength.[2]

Redshift summary
Redshift type Geometry Formula[22]
Relativistic Doppler Minkowski space (flat spacetime)

For motion completely in the radial or line-of-sight direction:

for small
For motion completely in the transverse direction:

Cosmological redshift FLRW spacetime (expanding Big Bang universe)
Gravitational redshift Any stationary spacetime (e.g. the Schwarzschild geometry)
For the Schwarzschild geometry,

Doppler effect

Suzredshift
Doppler effect, yellow (~575 nm wavelength) ball appears greenish (blueshift to ~565 nm wavelength) approaching observer, turns orange (redshift to ~585 nm wavelength) as it passes, and returns to yellow when motion stops. To observe such a change in color, the object would have to be traveling at approximately 5200 km/s, or about 75 times faster than the speed record for the fastest manmade space probe.

If a source of the light is moving away from an observer, then redshift (z > 0) occurs; if the source moves towards the observer, then blueshift (z < 0) occurs. This is true for all electromagnetic waves and is explained by the Doppler effect. Consequently, this type of redshift is called the Doppler redshift. If the source moves away from the observer with velocity v, which is much less than the speed of light (vc), the redshift is given by

    (since )

where c is the speed of light. In the classical Doppler effect, the frequency of the source is not modified, but the recessional motion causes the illusion of a lower frequency.

A more complete treatment of the Doppler redshift requires considering relativistic effects associated with motion of sources close to the speed of light. A complete derivation of the effect can be found in the article on the relativistic Doppler effect. In brief, objects moving close to the speed of light will experience deviations from the above formula due to the time dilation of special relativity which can be corrected for by introducing the Lorentz factor γ into the classical Doppler formula as follows (for motion solely in the line of sight):

This phenomenon was first observed in a 1938 experiment performed by Herbert E. Ives and G.R. Stilwell, called the Ives–Stilwell experiment.[23]

Since the Lorentz factor is dependent only on the magnitude of the velocity, this causes the redshift associated with the relativistic correction to be independent of the orientation of the source movement. In contrast, the classical part of the formula is dependent on the projection of the movement of the source into the line-of-sight which yields different results for different orientations. If θ is the angle between the direction of relative motion and the direction of emission in the observer's frame[24] (zero angle is directly away from the observer), the full form for the relativistic Doppler effect becomes:

and for motion solely in the line of sight (θ = 0°), this equation reduces to:

For the special case that the light is approaching at right angles (θ = 90°) to the direction of relative motion in the observer's frame,[25] the relativistic redshift is known as the transverse redshift, and a redshift:

is measured, even though the object is not moving away from the observer. Even when the source is moving towards the observer, if there is a transverse component to the motion then there is some speed at which the dilation just cancels the expected blueshift and at higher speed the approaching source will be redshifted.[26]

Expansion of space

In the early part of the twentieth century, Slipher, Hubble and others made the first measurements of the redshifts and blueshifts of galaxies beyond the Milky Way. They initially interpreted these redshifts and blueshifts as due to random motions, but later Hubble discovered a rough correlation between the increasing redshifts and the increasing distance of galaxies. Theorists almost immediately realized that these observations could be explained by a mechanism for producing redshifts seen in certain cosmological solutions to Einstein's equations of general relativity. Hubble's law of the correlation between redshifts and distances is required by all such models that have a metric expansion of space.[18] As a result, the wavelength of photons propagating through the expanding space is stretched, creating the cosmological redshift.

There is a distinction between a redshift in cosmological context as compared to that witnessed when nearby objects exhibit a local Doppler-effect redshift. Rather than cosmological redshifts being a consequence of the relative velocities that are subject to the laws of special relativity (and thus subject to the rule that no two locally separated objects can have relative velocities with respect to each other faster than the speed of light), the photons instead increase in wavelength and redshift because of a global feature of the spacetime metric through which they are traveling. One interpretation of this effect is the idea that space itself is expanding.[27] Due to the expansion increasing as distances increase, the distance between two remote galaxies can increase at more than 3×108 m/s, but this does not imply that the galaxies move faster than the speed of light at their present location (which is forbidden by Lorentz covariance).

Mathematical derivation

The observational consequences of this effect can be derived using the equations from general relativity that describe a homogeneous and isotropic universe.

To derive the redshift effect, use the geodesic equation for a light wave, which is

where

For an observer observing the crest of a light wave at a position r = 0 and time t = tnow, the crest of the light wave was emitted at a time t = tthen in the past and a distant position r = R. Integrating over the path in both space and time that the light wave travels yields:

In general, the wavelength of light is not the same for the two positions and times considered due to the changing properties of the metric. When the wave was emitted, it had a wavelength λthen. The next crest of the light wave was emitted at a time

The observer sees the next crest of the observed light wave with a wavelength λnow to arrive at a time

Since the subsequent crest is again emitted from r = R and is observed at r = 0, the following equation can be written:

The right-hand side of the two integral equations above are identical which means

Using the following manipulation:

we find that:

For very small variations in time (over the period of one cycle of a light wave) the scale factor is essentially a constant (a = anow today and a = athen previously). This yields

which can be rewritten as

Using the definition of redshift provided above, the equation

is obtained. In an expanding universe such as the one we inhabit, the scale factor is monotonically increasing as time passes, thus, z is positive and distant galaxies appear redshifted.

Using a model of the expansion of the Universe, redshift can be related to the age of an observed object, the so-called cosmic time–redshift relation. Denote a density ratio as Ω0:

with ρcrit the critical density demarcating a universe that eventually crunches from one that simply expands. This density is about three hydrogen atoms per thousand liters of space.[28] At large redshifts one finds:

where H0 is the present-day Hubble constant, and z is the redshift.[29][30][31]

Distinguishing between cosmological and local effects

For cosmological redshifts of z < 0.01 additional Doppler redshifts and blueshifts due to the peculiar motions of the galaxies relative to one another cause a wide scatter from the standard Hubble Law.[32] The resulting situation can be illustrated by the Expanding Rubber Sheet Universe, a common cosmological analogy used to describe the expansion of space. If two objects are represented by ball bearings and spacetime by a stretching rubber sheet, the Doppler effect is caused by rolling the balls across the sheet to create peculiar motion. The cosmological redshift occurs when the ball bearings are stuck to the sheet and the sheet is stretched.[33][34][35]

The redshifts of galaxies include both a component related to recessional velocity from expansion of the Universe, and a component related to peculiar motion (Doppler shift).[36] The redshift due to expansion of the Universe depends upon the recessional velocity in a fashion determined by the cosmological model chosen to describe the expansion of the Universe, which is very different from how Doppler redshift depends upon local velocity.[37] Describing the cosmological expansion origin of redshift, cosmologist Edward Robert Harrison said, "Light leaves a galaxy, which is stationary in its local region of space, and is eventually received by observers who are stationary in their own local region of space. Between the galaxy and the observer, light travels through vast regions of expanding space. As a result, all wavelengths of the light are stretched by the expansion of space. It is as simple as that..."[38] Steven Weinberg clarified, "The increase of wavelength from emission to absorption of light does not depend on the rate of change of a(t) [here a(t) is the Robertson-Walker scale factor] at the times of emission or absorption, but on the increase of a(t) in the whole period from emission to absorption."[39]

Popular literature often uses the expression "Doppler redshift" instead of "cosmological redshift" to describe the redshift of galaxies dominated by the expansion of spacetime, but the cosmological redshift is not found using the relativistic Doppler equation[40] which is instead characterized by special relativity; thus v > c is impossible while, in contrast, v > c is possible for cosmological redshifts because the space which separates the objects (for example, a quasar from the Earth) can expand faster than the speed of light.[41] More mathematically, the viewpoint that "distant galaxies are receding" and the viewpoint that "the space between galaxies is expanding" are related by changing coordinate systems. Expressing this precisely requires working with the mathematics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric.[42]

If the Universe were contracting instead of expanding, we would see distant galaxies blueshifted by an amount proportional to their distance instead of redshifted.[43]

Gravitational redshift

In the theory of general relativity, there is time dilation within a gravitational well. This is known as the gravitational redshift or Einstein Shift.[44] The theoretical derivation of this effect follows from the Schwarzschild solution of the Einstein equations which yields the following formula for redshift associated with a photon traveling in the gravitational field of an uncharged, nonrotating, spherically symmetric mass:

where

This gravitational redshift result can be derived from the assumptions of special relativity and the equivalence principle; the full theory of general relativity is not required.[45]

The effect is very small but measurable on Earth using the Mössbauer effect and was first observed in the Pound–Rebka experiment.[46] However, it is significant near a black hole, and as an object approaches the event horizon the red shift becomes infinite. It is also the dominant cause of large angular-scale temperature fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (see Sachs-Wolfe effect).[47][48]

Observations in astronomy

The redshift observed in astronomy can be measured because the emission and absorption spectra for atoms are distinctive and well known, calibrated from spectroscopic experiments in laboratories on Earth. When the redshift of various absorption and emission lines from a single astronomical object is measured, z is found to be remarkably constant. Although distant objects may be slightly blurred and lines broadened, it is by no more than can be explained by thermal or mechanical motion of the source. For these reasons and others, the consensus among astronomers is that the redshifts they observe are due to some combination of the three established forms of Doppler-like redshifts. Alternative hypotheses and explanations for redshift such as tired light are not generally considered plausible.[49]

Spectroscopy, as a measurement, is considerably more difficult than simple photometry, which measures the brightness of astronomical objects through certain filters.[50] When photometric data is all that is available (for example, the Hubble Deep Field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field), astronomers rely on a technique for measuring photometric redshifts.[51] Due to the broad wavelength ranges in photometric filters and the necessary assumptions about the nature of the spectrum at the light-source, errors for these sorts of measurements can range up to δz = 0.5, and are much less reliable than spectroscopic determinations.[52] However, photometry does at least allow a qualitative characterization of a redshift. For example, if a Sun-like spectrum had a redshift of z = 1, it would be brightest in the infrared rather than at the yellow-green color associated with the peak of its blackbody spectrum, and the light intensity will be reduced in the filter by a factor of four, (1 + z)2. Both the photon count rate and the photon energy are redshifted. (See K correction for more details on the photometric consequences of redshift.)[53]

Local observations

In nearby objects (within our Milky Way galaxy) observed redshifts are almost always related to the line-of-sight velocities associated with the objects being observed. Observations of such redshifts and blueshifts have enabled astronomers to measure velocities and parametrize the masses of the orbiting stars in spectroscopic binaries, a method first employed in 1868 by British astronomer William Huggins.[7] Similarly, small redshifts and blueshifts detected in the spectroscopic measurements of individual stars are one way astronomers have been able to diagnose and measure the presence and characteristics of planetary systems around other stars and have even made very detailed differential measurements of redshifts during planetary transits to determine precise orbital parameters.[54] Finely detailed measurements of redshifts are used in helioseismology to determine the precise movements of the photosphere of the Sun.[55] Redshifts have also been used to make the first measurements of the rotation rates of planets,[56] velocities of interstellar clouds,[57] the rotation of galaxies,[2] and the dynamics of accretion onto neutron stars and black holes which exhibit both Doppler and gravitational redshifts.[58] Additionally, the temperatures of various emitting and absorbing objects can be obtained by measuring Doppler broadening – effectively redshifts and blueshifts over a single emission or absorption line.[59] By measuring the broadening and shifts of the 21-centimeter hydrogen line in different directions, astronomers have been able to measure the recessional velocities of interstellar gas, which in turn reveals the rotation curve of our Milky Way.[2] Similar measurements have been performed on other galaxies, such as Andromeda.[2] As a diagnostic tool, redshift measurements are one of the most important spectroscopic measurements made in astronomy.

Extragalactic observations

The most distant objects exhibit larger redshifts corresponding to the Hubble flow of the Universe. The largest observed redshift, corresponding to the greatest distance and furthest back in time, is that of the cosmic microwave background radiation; the numerical value of its redshift is about z = 1089 (z = 0 corresponds to present time), and it shows the state of the Universe about 13.8 billion years ago,[60] and 379,000 years after the initial moments of the Big Bang.[61]

The luminous point-like cores of quasars were the first "high-redshift" (z > 0.1) objects discovered before the improvement of telescopes allowed for the discovery of other high-redshift galaxies.

For galaxies more distant than the Local Group and the nearby Virgo Cluster, but within a thousand megaparsecs or so, the redshift is approximately proportional to the galaxy's distance. This correlation was first observed by Edwin Hubble and has come to be known as Hubble's law. Vesto Slipher was the first to discover galactic redshifts, in about the year 1912, while Hubble correlated Slipher's measurements with distances he measured by other means to formulate his Law. In the widely accepted cosmological model based on general relativity, redshift is mainly a result of the expansion of space: this means that the farther away a galaxy is from us, the more the space has expanded in the time since the light left that galaxy, so the more the light has been stretched, the more redshifted the light is, and so the faster it appears to be moving away from us. Hubble's law follows in part from the Copernican principle.[62] Because it is usually not known how luminous objects are, measuring the redshift is easier than more direct distance measurements, so redshift is sometimes in practice converted to a crude distance measurement using Hubble's law.

Gravitational interactions of galaxies with each other and clusters cause a significant scatter in the normal plot of the Hubble diagram. The peculiar velocities associated with galaxies superimpose a rough trace of the mass of virialized objects in the Universe. This effect leads to such phenomena as nearby galaxies (such as the Andromeda Galaxy) exhibiting blueshifts as we fall towards a common barycenter, and redshift maps of clusters showing a Fingers of God effect due to the scatter of peculiar velocities in a roughly spherical distribution.[62] This added component gives cosmologists a chance to measure the masses of objects independent of the mass to light ratio (the ratio of a galaxy's mass in solar masses to its brightness in solar luminosities), an important tool for measuring dark matter.[63]

The Hubble law's linear relationship between distance and redshift assumes that the rate of expansion of the Universe is constant. However, when the Universe was much younger, the expansion rate, and thus the Hubble "constant", was larger than it is today. For more distant galaxies, then, whose light has been travelling to us for much longer times, the approximation of constant expansion rate fails, and the Hubble law becomes a non-linear integral relationship and dependent on the history of the expansion rate since the emission of the light from the galaxy in question. Observations of the redshift-distance relationship can be used, then, to determine the expansion history of the Universe and thus the matter and energy content.

While it was long believed that the expansion rate has been continuously decreasing since the Big Bang, recent observations of the redshift-distance relationship using Type Ia supernovae have suggested that in comparatively recent times the expansion rate of the Universe has begun to accelerate.

Highest redshifts

Distance compared to z
Plot of distance (in giga light-years) vs. redshift according to the Lambda-CDM model. dH (in solid black) is the comoving distance from Earth to the location with the Hubble redshift z while ctLB (in dotted red) is the speed of light multiplied by the lookback time to Hubble redshift z. The comoving distance is the physical space-like distance between here and the distant location, asymptoting to the size of the observable universe at some 47 billion light years. The lookback time is the distance a photon traveled from the time it was emitted to now divided by the speed of light, with a maximum distance of 13.8 billion light years corresponding to the age of the universe.

Currently, the objects with the highest known redshifts are galaxies and the objects producing gamma ray bursts. The most reliable redshifts are from spectroscopic data, and the highest confirmed spectroscopic redshift of a galaxy is that of GN-z11,[64] with a redshift of z = 11.1, corresponding to 400 million years after the Big Bang. The previous record was held by UDFy-38135539[65] at a redshift of z = 8.6, corresponding to 600 million years after the Big Bang. Slightly less reliable are Lyman-break redshifts, the highest of which is the lensed galaxy A1689-zD1 at a redshift z = 7.5[66][67] and the next highest being z = 7.0.[68] The most distant observed gamma-ray burst with a spectroscopic redshift measurement was GRB 090423, which had a redshift of z = 8.2.[69] The most distant known quasar, ULAS J1342+0928, is at z = 7.54.[70][71] The highest known redshift radio galaxy (TN J0924-2201) is at a redshift z = 5.2[72] and the highest known redshift molecular material is the detection of emission from the CO molecule from the quasar SDSS J1148+5251 at z = 6.42[73]

Extremely red objects (EROs) are astronomical sources of radiation that radiate energy in the red and near infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These may be starburst galaxies that have a high redshift accompanied by reddening from intervening dust, or they could be highly redshifted elliptical galaxies with an older (and therefore redder) stellar population.[74] Objects that are even redder than EROs are termed hyper extremely red objects (HEROs).[75]

The cosmic microwave background has a redshift of z = 1089, corresponding to an age of approximately 379,000 years after the Big Bang and a comoving distance of more than 46 billion light years.[76] The yet-to-be-observed first light from the oldest Population III stars, not long after atoms first formed and the CMB ceased to be absorbed almost completely, may have redshifts in the range of 20 < z < 100.[77] Other high-redshift events predicted by physics but not presently observable are the cosmic neutrino background from about two seconds after the Big Bang (and a redshift in excess of z > 1010)[78] and the cosmic gravitational wave background emitted directly from inflation at a redshift in excess of z > 1025.[79]

In June 2015, astronomers reported evidence for Population III stars in the Cosmos Redshift 7 galaxy at z = 6.60. Such stars are likely to have existed in the very early universe (i.e., at high redshift), and may have started the production of chemical elements heavier than hydrogen that are needed for the later formation of planets and life as we know it.[80][81]

Redshift surveys

2dfgrs
Rendering of the 2dFGRS data

With advent of automated telescopes and improvements in spectroscopes, a number of collaborations have been made to map the Universe in redshift space. By combining redshift with angular position data, a redshift survey maps the 3D distribution of matter within a field of the sky. These observations are used to measure properties of the large-scale structure of the Universe. The Great Wall, a vast supercluster of galaxies over 500 million light-years wide, provides a dramatic example of a large-scale structure that redshift surveys can detect.[82]

The first redshift survey was the CfA Redshift Survey, started in 1977 with the initial data collection completed in 1982.[83] More recently, the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey determined the large-scale structure of one section of the Universe, measuring redshifts for over 220,000 galaxies; data collection was completed in 2002, and the final data set was released 30 June 2003.[84] The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), is ongoing as of 2013 and aims to measure the redshifts of around 3 million objects.[85] SDSS has recorded redshifts for galaxies as high as 0.8, and has been involved in the detection of quasars beyond z = 6. The DEEP2 Redshift Survey uses the Keck telescopes with the new "DEIMOS" spectrograph; a follow-up to the pilot program DEEP1, DEEP2 is designed to measure faint galaxies with redshifts 0.7 and above, and it is therefore planned to provide a high redshift complement to SDSS and 2dF.[86]

Effects from physical optics or radiative transfer

The interactions and phenomena summarized in the subjects of radiative transfer and physical optics can result in shifts in the wavelength and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. In such cases, the shifts correspond to a physical energy transfer to matter or other photons rather than being by a transformation between reference frames. Such shifts can be from such physical phenomena as coherence effects or the scattering of electromagnetic radiation whether from charged elementary particles, from particulates, or from fluctuations of the index of refraction in a dielectric medium as occurs in the radio phenomenon of radio whistlers.[2] While such phenomena are sometimes referred to as "redshifts" and "blueshifts", in astrophysics light-matter interactions that result in energy shifts in the radiation field are generally referred to as "reddening" rather than "redshifting" which, as a term, is normally reserved for the effects discussed above.[2]

In many circumstances scattering causes radiation to redden because entropy results in the predominance of many low-energy photons over few high-energy ones (while conserving total energy).[2] Except possibly under carefully controlled conditions, scattering does not produce the same relative change in wavelength across the whole spectrum; that is, any calculated z is generally a function of wavelength. Furthermore, scattering from random media generally occurs at many angles, and z is a function of the scattering angle. If multiple scattering occurs, or the scattering particles have relative motion, then there is generally distortion of spectral lines as well.[2]

In interstellar astronomy, visible spectra can appear redder due to scattering processes in a phenomenon referred to as interstellar reddening[2] – similarly Rayleigh scattering causes the atmospheric reddening of the Sun seen in the sunrise or sunset and causes the rest of the sky to have a blue color. This phenomenon is distinct from redshifting because the spectroscopic lines are not shifted to other wavelengths in reddened objects and there is an additional dimming and distortion associated with the phenomenon due to photons being scattered in and out of the line-of-sight.

For a list of scattering processes, see Scattering.

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  13. ^ Slipher, Vesto (1912). "The radial velocity of the Andromeda Nebula". Lowell Observatory Bulletin. 1: 2.56–2.57. Bibcode:1913LowOB...2...56S. The magnitude of this velocity, which is the greatest hitherto observed, raises the question whether the velocity-like displacement might not be due to some other cause, but I believe we have at present no other interpretation for it
  14. ^ Slipher, Vesto (1915). "Spectrographic Observations of Nebulae". Popular Astronomy. 23: 21–24. Bibcode:1915PA.....23...21S.
  15. ^ Slipher, Vesto (1915). "Spectrographic Observations of Nebulae". Popular Astronomy. 23: 22. Bibcode:1915PA.....23...21S.
  16. ^ Hubble, Edwin (1929). "A Relation between Distance and Radial Velocity among Extra-Galactic Nebulae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 15 (3): 168–173. Bibcode:1929PNAS...15..168H. doi:10.1073/pnas.15.3.168. PMC 522427. PMID 16577160.
  17. ^ Friedman, A. A. (1922). "Über die Krümmung des Raumes". Zeitschrift für Physik. 10 (1): 377–386. Bibcode:1922ZPhy...10..377F. doi:10.1007/BF01332580. English translation in Friedman, A. (1999). "On the Curvature of Space". General Relativity and Gravitation. 31 (12): 1991–2000. Bibcode:1999GReGr..31.1991F. doi:10.1023/A:1026751225741.)
  18. ^ a b This was recognized early on by physicists and astronomers working in cosmology in the 1930s. The earliest layman publication describing the details of this correspondence is Eddington, Arthur (1933). The Expanding Universe: Astronomy's 'Great Debate', 1900–1931. Cambridge University Press. (Reprint: ISBN 978-0-521-34976-5)
  19. ^ "Hubble census finds galaxies at redshifts 9 to 12". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 13 December 2012.
  20. ^ See, for example, this 25 May 2004 press release from NASA's Swift space telescope that is researching gamma-ray bursts: "Measurements of the gamma-ray spectra obtained during the main outburst of the GRB have found little value as redshift indicators, due to the lack of well-defined features. However, optical observations of GRB afterglows have produced spectra with identifiable lines, leading to precise redshift measurements."
  21. ^ See [1] for a tutorial on how to define and interpret large redshift measurements.
  22. ^ Where z = redshift; v|| = velocity parallel to line-of-sight (positive if moving away from receiver); c = speed of light; γ = Lorentz factor; a = scale factor; G = gravitational constant; M = object mass; r = radial Schwarzschild coordinate, gtt = t,t component of the metric tensor
  23. ^ Ives, H.; Stilwell, G. (1938). "An Experimental study of the rate of a moving atomic clock". J. Opt. Soc. Am. 28 (7): 215–226. doi:10.1364/josa.28.000215.
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  25. ^ Ditchburn, R (1961). Light. Dover. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-12-218101-6.
  26. ^ See "Photons, Relativity, Doppler shift Archived 2006-08-27 at the Wayback Machine Archived 2006-08-27 at the Wayback Machine" at the University of Queensland
  27. ^ The distinction is made clear in Harrison, Edward Robert (2000). Cosmology: The Science of the Universe (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 306ff. ISBN 978-0-521-66148-5.
  28. ^ Steven Weinberg (1993). The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe (2nd ed.). Basic Books. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-465-02437-7.
  29. ^ Lars Bergström; Ariel Goobar (2006). Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (2nd ed.). Springer. p. 77, Eq.4.79. ISBN 978-3-540-32924-4.
  30. ^ M.S. Longair (1998). Galaxy Formation. Springer. p. 161. ISBN 978-3-540-63785-1.
  31. ^ Yu N Parijskij (2001). "The High Redshift Radio Universe". In Norma Sanchez (ed.). Current Topics in Astrofundamental Physics. Springer. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-7923-6856-4.
  32. ^ Measurements of the peculiar velocities out to 5 Mpc using the Hubble Space Telescope were reported in 2003 by Karachentsev; et al. (2003). "Local galaxy flows within 5 Mpc". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 398 (2): 479–491. arXiv:astro-ph/0211011. Bibcode:2003A&A...398..479K. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20021566.
  33. ^ Theo Koupelis; Karl F. Kuhn (2007). In Quest of the Universe (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 557. ISBN 978-0-7637-4387-1.
  34. ^ "It is perfectly valid to interpret the equations of relativity in terms of an expanding space. The mistake is to push analogies too far and imbue space with physical properties that are not consistent with the equations of relativity." Geraint F. Lewis; Francis, Matthew J.; Barnes, Luke A.; Kwan, Juliana; et al. (2008). "Cosmological Radar Ranging in an Expanding Universe". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 388 (3): 960–964. arXiv:0805.2197. Bibcode:2008MNRAS.388..960L. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13477.x.
  35. ^ Michal Chodorowski (2007). "Is space really expanding? A counterexample". Concepts Phys. 4 (1): 17–34. arXiv:astro-ph/0601171. Bibcode:2007ONCP....4...15C. doi:10.2478/v10005-007-0002-2.
  36. ^ Bedran,M.L. (2002)"A comparison between the Doppler and cosmological redshifts" Am.J.Phys. 70, 406–408
  37. ^ Edward Harrison (1992). "The redshift-distance and velocity-distance laws". Astrophysical Journal, Part 1. 403: 28–31. Bibcode:1993ApJ...403...28H. doi:10.1086/172179.. A pdf file can be found here [2].
  38. ^ Harrison 2000, p. 315.
  39. ^ Steven Weinberg (2008). Cosmology. Oxford University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-852682-7.
  40. ^ Odenwald & Fienberg 1993
  41. ^ Speed faster than light is allowed because the expansion of the spacetime metric is described by general relativity in terms of sequences of only locally valid inertial frames as opposed to a global Minkowski metric. Expansion faster than light is an integrated effect over many local inertial frames and is allowed because no single inertial frame is involved. The speed-of-light limitation applies only locally. See Michal Chodorowski (2007). "Is space really expanding? A counterexample". Concepts Phys. 4: 17–34. arXiv:astro-ph/0601171. Bibcode:2007ONCP....4...15C. doi:10.2478/v10005-007-0002-2.
  42. ^ M. Weiss, What Causes the Hubble Redshift?, entry in the Physics FAQ (1994), available via John Baez's website
  43. ^ This is only true in a universe where there are no peculiar velocities. Otherwise, redshifts combine as
    which yields solutions where certain objects that "recede" are blueshifted and other objects that "approach" are redshifted. For more on this bizarre result see Davis, T. M., Lineweaver, C. H., and Webb, J. K. "Solutions to the tethered galaxy problem in an expanding universe and the observation of receding blueshifted objects", American Journal of Physics (2003), 71 358–364.
  44. ^ Chant, C. A. (1930). "Notes and Queries (Telescopes and Observatory Equipment – The Einstein Shift of Solar Lines)". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 24: 390. Bibcode:1930JRASC..24..390C.
  45. ^ Einstein, A (1907). "Über das Relativitätsprinzip und die aus demselben gezogenen Folgerungen". Jahrbuch der Radioaktivität und Elektronik. 4: 411–462. See p. 458 The influence of a gravitational field on clocks
  46. ^ Pound, R.; Rebka, G. (1960). "Apparent Weight of Photons". Physical Review Letters. 4 (7): 337–341. Bibcode:1960PhRvL...4..337P. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.4.337.. This paper was the first measurement.
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  49. ^ When cosmological redshifts were first discovered, Fritz Zwicky proposed an effect known as tired light. While usually considered for historical interests, it is sometimes, along with intrinsic redshift suggestions, utilized by nonstandard cosmologies. In 1981, H. J. Reboul summarised many alternative redshift mechanisms that had been discussed in the literature since the 1930s. In 2001, Geoffrey Burbidge remarked in a review that the wider astronomical community has marginalized such discussions since the 1960s. Burbidge and Halton Arp, while investigating the mystery of the nature of quasars, tried to develop alternative redshift mechanisms, and very few of their fellow scientists acknowledged let alone accepted their work. Moreover, Goldhaber et al. 2001; "Timescale Stretch Parameterization of Type Ia Supernova B-Band Lightcurves", ApJ 558:359–386, 2001 September 1 pointed out that alternative theories are unable to account for timescale stretch observed in type Ia supernovae
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  53. ^ A pedagogical overview of the K-correction by David Hogg and other members of the SDSS collaboration can be found at astro-ph.
  54. ^ The Exoplanet Tracker is the newest observing project to use this technique, able to track the redshift variations in multiple objects at once, as reported in Ge, Jian; Van Eyken, Julian; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Dewitt, Curtis; et al. (2006). "The First Extrasolar Planet Discovered with a New‐Generation High‐Throughput Doppler Instrument". The Astrophysical Journal. 648 (1): 683–695. arXiv:astro-ph/0605247. Bibcode:2006ApJ...648..683G. doi:10.1086/505699.
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  61. ^ An accurate measurement of the cosmic microwave background was achieved by the COBE experiment. The final published temperature of 2.73 K was reported in this paper: Fixsen, D. J.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Isaacman, R. B.; Mather, J. C.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.; Shafer, R. A.; Weiss, R.; Wright, E. L.; Bennett, C. L.; Boggess, N. W.; Kelsall, T.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.; Smoot, G. F.; Wilkinson, D. T.. (1994). "Cosmic microwave background dipole spectrum measured by the COBE FIRAS instrument", Astrophysical Journal, 420, 445. The most accurate measurement as of 2006 was achieved by the WMAP experiment.
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  63. ^ Binney, James; Scott Treimane (1994). Galactic dynamics. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-08445-9.
  64. ^ Oesch, P. A.; Brammer, G.; van Dokkum, P.; et al. (March 1, 2016). "A Remarkably Luminous Galaxy at z=11.1 Measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism Spectroscopy". The Astrophysical Journal. 819 (2): 129. arXiv:1603.00461. Bibcode:2016ApJ...819..129O. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/2/129.
  65. ^ M.D.Lehnert; Nesvadba, NP; Cuby, JG; Swinbank, AM; et al. (2010). "Spectroscopic Confirmation of a galaxy at redshift z = 8.6". Nature. 467 (7318): 940–942. arXiv:1010.4312. Bibcode:2010Natur.467..940L. doi:10.1038/nature09462. PMID 20962840.
  66. ^ Watson, Darach; Christensen, Lise; Knudsen, Kirsten Kraiberg; Richard, Johan; Gallazzi, Anna; Michałowski, Michał Jerzy (2015). "A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization". Nature. 519 (7543): 327–330. arXiv:1503.00002. Bibcode:2015Natur.519..327W. doi:10.1038/nature14164. PMID 25731171.
  67. ^ Bradley, L.; et al. (2008). "Discovery of a Very Bright Strongly Lensed Galaxy Candidate at z ~ 7.6". The Astrophysical Journal. 678 (2): 647–654. arXiv:0802.2506. Bibcode:2008ApJ...678..647B. doi:10.1086/533519.
  68. ^ Egami, E.; et al. (2005). "Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescope Constraints on the Physical Properties of the z~7 Galaxy Strongly Lensed by A2218". The Astrophysical Journal. 618 (1): L5–L8. arXiv:astro-ph/0411117. Bibcode:2005ApJ...618L...5E. doi:10.1086/427550.
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  70. ^ "Scientists observe supermassive black hole in infant universe". phys.org.
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  72. ^ Klamer, I. J.; Ekers, R. D.; Sadler, E. M.; Weiss, A.; et al. (2005). "CO (1-0) and CO (5-4) Observations of the Most Distant Known Radio Galaxy atz = 5.2". The Astrophysical Journal. 621 (1): L1–L4. arXiv:astro-ph/0501447. Bibcode:2005ApJ...621L...1K. doi:10.1086/429147.
  73. ^ Walter, Fabian; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Cox, Pierre; et al. (2003). "Molecular gas in the host galaxy of a quasar at redshift z = 6.42". Nature. 424 (6947): 406–8. arXiv:astro-ph/0307410. Bibcode:2003Natur.424..406W. doi:10.1038/nature01821. PMID 12879063.
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Sources

Articles

  • Odenwald, S. & Fienberg, RT. 1993; "Galaxy Redshifts Reconsidered" in Sky & Telescope Feb. 2003; pp31–35 (This article is useful further reading in distinguishing between the 3 types of redshift and their causes.)
  • Lineweaver, Charles H. and Tamara M. Davis, "Misconceptions about the Big Bang", Scientific American, March 2005. (This article is useful for explaining the cosmological redshift mechanism as well as clearing up misconceptions regarding the physics of the expansion of space.)

Books

  • Nussbaumer, Harry; Lydia Bieri (2009). Discovering the Expanding Universe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51484-2.
  • Binney, James; Michael Merrifeld (1998). Galactic Astronomy. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-02565-0.
  • Carroll, Bradley W. & Dale A. Ostlie (1996). An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-201-54730-6.
  • Feynman, Richard; Leighton, Robert; Sands, Matthew (1989). Feynman Lectures on Physics. Vol. 1. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-51003-4.
  • Grøn, Øyvind; Hervik, Sigbjørn (2007). Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. New York: Springer. ISBN 978-0-387-69199-2.
  • Kutner, Marc (2003). Astronomy: A Physical Perspective. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-52927-3.
  • Misner, Charles; Thorne, Kip S.; Wheeler, John Archibald (1973). Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0.
  • Peebles, P. J. E. (1993). Principles of Physical Cosmology. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-01933-8.
  • Taylor, Edwin F.; Wheeler, John Archibald (1992). Spacetime Physics: Introduction to Special Relativity (2nd ed.). W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-2327-1.
  • Weinberg, Steven (1971). Gravitation and Cosmology. John Wiley. ISBN 978-0-471-92567-5.
  • See also physical cosmology textbooks for applications of the cosmological and gravitational redshifts.

External links

2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey

In astronomy, the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Survey), 2dF or 2dFGRS is a redshift survey conducted by the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) with the 3.9m Anglo-Australian Telescope between 1997 and 11 April 2002. The data from this survey were made public on 30 June 2003. The survey determined the large-scale structure in two large slices of the Universe to a depth of around 2.5 billion light years (redshift ~ 0.2). It was the world's largest redshift survey between 1998 (overtaking Las Campanas Redshift Survey) and 2003 (overtaken by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey). Matthew Colless, Richard Ellis, Steve Maddox and John Peacock were in charge of the project. Team members Shaun Cole and John Peacock were awarded a share of the 2014 Shaw Prize in astronomy for results from the 2dFGRS.

6dF Galaxy Survey

The 6dF Galaxy Survey (Six-degree Field Galaxy Survey), 6dF or 6dFGS is a redshift survey conducted by the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) with the 1.2m UK Schmidt Telescope between 2001 and 2009. The data from this survey were made public on 31 March, 2009. The survey has mapped the nearby universe over nearly half the sky. Its 136,304 spectra have yielded 110,256 new extragalactic redshifts and a new catalog of 125,071 galaxies. For a subsample of 6dF a peculiar velocity survey is measuring mass distribution and bulk motions of the local Universe. As of July 2009, it is the third largest redshift survey next to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS).

Amazon Redshift

Amazon Redshift is an Internet hosting service and data warehouse product which forms part of the larger cloud-computing platform Amazon Web Services. It is built on top of technology from the massive parallel processing (MPP) data warehouse company ParAccel (later acquired by Actian), to handle large scale data sets and database migrations. Redshift differs from Amazon's other hosted database offering, Amazon RDS, in its ability to handle analytic workloads on big data data sets stored by a column-oriented DBMS principle.

Amazon Redshift is based on an older version of PostgreSQL 8.0.2, and Redshift has made changes to that version. An initial preview beta was released in November 2012 and a full release was made available on February 15, 2013. The service can handle connections from most other applications using ODBC and JDBC connections.According to Cloud Data Warehouse report published by Forrester in Q4 2018, Amazon Redshift has the largest Cloud data warehouse deployments, with more than 6,500 deployments.Amazon has listed a number of business intelligence software proprietors as partners and tested tools in their "APN Partner" program, including Actian, Actuate Corporation, Alteryx, Dundas Data Visualization, IBM Cognos, InetSoft, Infor, Logi Analytics, Looker (company), MicroStrategy, Pentaho, Qlik, SiSense, Tableau Software, and Yellowfin. Partner companies providing data integration tools include Informatica and SnapLogic. System integration and consulting partners include Accenture, Deloitte, Capgemini and DXC Technology.

Blueshift

A blueshift is any decrease in wavelength (increase in energy), with a corresponding increase in frequency, of an electromagnetic wave; the opposite effect is referred to as redshift. In visible light, this shifts the color from the red end of the spectrum to the blue end.

Cosmos Redshift 7

Cosmos Redshift 7 (also known as COSMOS Redshift 7, Galaxy Cosmos Redshift 7, Galaxy CR7 or CR7) is a high-redshift Lyman-alpha emitter galaxy. At a redshift z = 6.6, the galaxy is observed as it was about 800 million years after the Big Bang, during the epoch of reionisation. With a light travel time of 12.9 billion years, it is one of the oldest, most distant galaxies known.

CR7 shows some of the expected signatures of Population III stars i.e. the first generation of stars produced during early galaxy formation. These signatures were detected in a bright pocket of blue stars; the rest of the galaxy contains redder Population II stars.

Distance measures (cosmology)

Distance measures are used in physical cosmology to give a natural notion of the distance between two objects or events in the universe. They are often used to tie some observable quantity (such as the luminosity of a distant quasar, the redshift of a distant galaxy, or the angular size of the acoustic peaks in the CMB power spectrum) to another quantity that is not directly observable, but is more convenient for calculations (such as the comoving coordinates of the quasar, galaxy, etc.). The distance measures discussed here all reduce to the common notion of Euclidean distance at low redshift.

In accord with our present understanding of cosmology, these measures are calculated within the context of general relativity, where the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker solution is used to describe the universe.

Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the wave source. It is named after the Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, who described the phenomenon in 1842.

A common example of Doppler shift is the change of pitch heard when a vehicle sounding a horn approaches and recedes from an observer. Compared to the emitted frequency, the received frequency is higher during the approach, identical at the instant of passing by, and lower during the recession.The reason for the Doppler effect is that when the source of the waves is moving towards the observer, each successive wave crest is emitted from a position closer to the observer than the crest of the previous wave. Therefore, each wave takes slightly less time to reach the observer than the previous wave. Hence, the time between the arrival of successive wave crests at the observer is reduced, causing an increase in the frequency. While they are traveling, the distance between successive wave fronts is reduced, so the waves "bunch together". Conversely, if the source of waves is moving away from the observer, each wave is emitted from a position farther from the observer than the previous wave, so the arrival time between successive waves is increased, reducing the frequency. The distance between successive wave fronts is then increased, so the waves "spread out".

For waves that propagate in a medium, such as sound waves, the velocity of the observer and of the source are relative to the medium in which the waves are transmitted. The total Doppler effect may therefore result from motion of the source, motion of the observer, or motion of the medium. Each of these effects is analyzed separately. For waves which do not require a medium, such as light or gravity in general relativity, only the relative difference in velocity between the observer and the source needs to be considered.

GN-z11

GN-z11 is a high-redshift galaxy found in the constellation Ursa Major. GN-z11 is currently the oldest and most distant known galaxy in the observable universe. GN-z11 has a spectroscopic redshift of z = 11.09, which corresponds to a proper distance of approximately 32 billion light-years (9.8 billion parsecs).The object's name is derived from its location in the GOODS-North field of galaxies and its high cosmological redshift number (GN + z11). GN-z11 is observed as it existed 13.4 billion years ago, just 400 million years after the Big Bang; as a result, GN-z11's distance is sometimes inappropriately reported as 13.4 billion light years, its light travel distance measurement.

Gravitational redshift

In Einstein's general theory of relativity, the gravitational redshift

is the phenomenon that clocks in a gravitational field tick slower when observed by a distant observer. More specifically the term refers to the shift of wavelength of a photon to longer wavelength (the red side in an optical spectrum) when observed from a point in a lower gravitational field. In the latter case the 'clock' is the frequency of the photon and a lower frequency is the same as a longer ("redder") wavelength.

The gravitational redshift is a simple consequence of

Einstein's equivalence principle ("all bodies fall with the same acceleration,

independent of their composition") and was found by Einstein eight years before

the full theory of relativity.

Observing the gravitational redshift in the solar system is one of the classical tests of general relativity.

Gravitational redshifts are an important effect in satellite-based navigation systems such as GPS. If the effects of general relativity were not taken into account, such systems would not work at all.

Hubble's law

Hubble's law, also known as the Hubble–Lemaître law, is the observation in physical cosmology that:

Hubble's law is considered the first observational basis for the expansion of the universe and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang model. The motion of astronomical objects due solely to this expansion is known as the Hubble flow.

Although widely attributed to Edwin Hubble, the notion of the universe expanding at a calculable rate was first derived from the general relativity equations in 1922 by Alexander Friedmann. Friedmann published a set of equations, now known as the Friedmann equations, showing that the universe might expand, and presenting the expansion speed if this was the case. Then Georges Lemaître, in a 1927 article, independently derived that the universe might be expanding, observed the proportionality between recessional velocity of and distance to distant bodies, and suggested an estimated value of the proportionality constant, which when corrected by Hubble became known as the Hubble constant. Though the Hubble constant is roughly constant in the velocity-distance space at any given moment in time, the Hubble parameter , which the Hubble constant is the current value of, varies with time, so the term 'constant' is sometimes thought of as somewhat of a misnomer. Moreover, two years later Edwin Hubble confirmed the existence of cosmic expansion, and determined a more accurate value for the constant that now bears his name. Hubble inferred the recession velocity of the objects from their redshifts, many of which were earlier measured and related to velocity by Vesto Slipher in 1917.

The law is often expressed by the equation v = H0D, with H0 the constant of proportionality—Hubble constant—between the "proper distance" D to a galaxy, which can change over time, unlike the comoving distance, and its velocity v, i.e. the derivative of proper distance with respect to cosmological time coordinate. (See uses of the proper distance for some discussion of the subtleties of this definition of 'velocity'.) Also, the SI unit of H0 is s−1, but it is most frequently quoted in (km/s)/Mpc, thus giving the speed in km/s of a galaxy 1 megaparsec (3.09×1019 km) away. The Hubble constant is about 70 (km/s)/Mpc. The reciprocal of H0 is the Hubble time.


List of galaxies

The following is a list of notable galaxies.

There are about 51 galaxies in the Local Group (see list of nearest galaxies for a complete list), on the order of 100,000 in our Local Supercluster and an estimated number of about one to two trillion in all of the observable universe.

The discovery of the nature of galaxies as distinct from other nebulae (interstellar clouds) was made in the 1920s. The first attempts at systematic catalogues of galaxies were made in the 1960s, with the Catalogue of Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies listing 29,418 galaxies and galaxy clusters, and with the Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies, a putatively complete list of galaxies with photographic magnitude above 15, listing 30,642. In the 1980s, the Lyons Groups of Galaxies listed 485 galaxy groups with 3,933 member galaxies. Galaxy Zoo is a project aiming at a more comprehensive list: launched in July 2007, it has classified over one million galaxy images from The Sloan Digital Sky Survey, The Hubble Space Telescope and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey.There is no universal naming convention for galaxies, as they are mostly catalogued before it is established whether the object is or isn't a galaxy. Mostly they are identified by their celestial coordinates together with the name of the observing project (HUDF, SDSS, 3C, CFHQS, NGC/IC, etc.)

List of quasars

This is a list of quasars.

Proper naming of quasars are by Catalogue Entry, Qxxxx±yy using B1950 coordinates, or QSO Jxxxx±yyyy using J2000 coordinates. They may also use the prefix QSR. There are currently no quasars that are visible to the naked eye.

List of the most distant astronomical objects

This article documents the most distant astronomical objects so far discovered, and the time periods in which they were so classified.

Distances to remote objects, other than those in nearby galaxies, are nearly always inferred by measuring the cosmological redshift of their light. By their nature, very distant objects tend to be very faint, and these distance determinations are difficult and subject to errors. An important distinction is whether the distance is determined via spectroscopy or using a photometric redshift technique. The former is generally both more precise and also more reliable, in the sense that photometric redshifts are more prone to being wrong due to confusion with lower redshift sources that have unusual spectra. For that reason, a spectroscopic redshift is conventionally regarded as being necessary for an object's distance to be considered definitely known, whereas photometrically determined redshifts identify "candidate" very distant sources. Here, this distinction is indicated by a "p" subscript for photometric redshifts.

Lyman-alpha emitter

A Lyman-alpha emitter (LAE) is a type of distant galaxy that emits Lyman-alpha radiation from neutral hydrogen.

Most known LAEs are extremely distant, and because of the finite travel time of light they provide glimpses into the history of the universe. They are thought to be the progenitors of most modern Milky Way type galaxies. These galaxies can be found nowadays rather easily in narrow-band searches by an excess of their narrow-band flux at a wavelength which may be interpreted as their redshift:

where z is the redshift, is the observed wavelength, and 1215.67 Å is the wavelength of Lyman-alpha emission. The Lyman-alpha line in most LAEs is thought to be caused by recombination of interstellar hydrogen that is ionized by an ongoing burst of star-formation. Such Lyman alpha emission was first suggested as a signature of young galaxies by Bruce Partridge and P. J. E. Peebles in 1967. Experimental observations of the redshift of LAEs are important in cosmology because they trace dark matter halos and subsequently the evolution of matter distribution in the universe.

Non-standard cosmology

A non-standard cosmology is any physical cosmological model of the universe that was, or still is, proposed as an alternative to the then-current standard model of cosmology. The term non-standard is applied to any theory that does not conform to the scientific consensus. Because the term depends on the prevailing consensus, the meaning of the term changes over time. For example, hot dark matter would not have been considered non-standard in 1990, but would be in 2010. Conversely, a non-zero cosmological constant resulting in an accelerating universe would have been considered non-standard in 1990, but is part of the standard cosmology in 2010.

Several major cosmological disputes have occurred throughout the history of cosmology. One of the earliest was the Copernican Revolution, which established the heliocentric model of the Solar System. More recent was the Great Debate of 1920, in the aftermath of which the Milky Way's status as but one of the Universe's many galaxies was established. From the 1940s to the 1960s, the astrophysical community was equally divided between supporters of the Big Bang theory and supporters of a rival steady state universe; this was eventually decided in favour of the Big Bang theory by advances in observational cosmology in the late 1960s. The current standard model of cosmology is the Lambda-CDM model, wherein the Universe is governed by General Relativity, began with a Big Bang and today is a nearly-flat universe that consists of approximately 5% baryons, 27% cold dark matter, and 68% dark energy.Lambda-CDM has been an extremely successful model, but retains some weaknesses (such as the dwarf galaxy problem). Research on extensions or modifications to Lambda-CDM, as well as fundamentally different models, is ongoing. Topics investigated include quintessence, Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and its relativistic generalization TeVeS, and warm dark matter.

Quasar

A quasar () (also known as a QSO or quasi-stellar object) is an extremely luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been theorized that most large galaxies contain a supermassive central black hole with mass ranging from millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun. In quasars and other types of AGN, the black hole is surrounded by a gaseous accretion disk. As gas falls toward the black hole, energy is released in the form of electromagnetic radiation, which can be observed across the electromagnetic spectrum. The power radiated by quasars is enormous: the most powerful quasars have luminosities thousands of times greater than a galaxy such as the Milky Way.The term "quasar" originated as a contraction of quasi-stellar [star-like] radio source, because quasars were first identified during the 1950s as sources of radio-wave emission of unknown physical origin, and when identified in photographic images at visible wavelengths they resembled faint star-like points of light. High-resolution images of quasars, particularly from the Hubble Space Telescope, have demonstrated that quasars occur in the centers of galaxies, and that some host-galaxies are strongly interacting or merging galaxies. As with other categories of AGN, the observed properties of a quasar depend on many factors including the mass of the black hole, the rate of gas accretion, the orientation of the accretion disk relative to the observer, the presence or absence of a jet, and the degree of obscuration by gas and dust within the host galaxy.

Quasars are found over a very broad range of distances, and quasar discovery surveys have demonstrated that quasar activity was more common in the distant past. The peak epoch of quasar activity was approximately 10 billion years ago. As of 2017, the most distant known quasar is ULAS J1342+0928 at redshift z = 7.54; light observed from this quasar was emitted when the universe was only 690 million years old. The supermassive black hole in this quasar, estimated at 800 million solar masses, is the most distant black hole identified to date.

Redshift quantization

Redshift quantization, also referred to as redshift periodicity, redshift discretization, preferred redshifts and redshift-magnitude bands, is the hypothesis that the redshifts of cosmologically distant objects (in particular galaxies and quasars) tend to cluster around multiples of some particular value.

In standard inflationary cosmological models, the redshift of cosmological bodies is ascribed to the expansion of the universe, with greater redshift indicating greater cosmic distance from the Earth (see Hubble's Law). This is referred to as cosmological redshift. Ruling out errors in measurement or analysis, quantized redshift of cosmological objects would either indicate that they are physically arranged in a quantized pattern around the Earth, or that there is an unknown mechanism for redshift unrelated to cosmic expansion, referred to as "intrinsic redshift" or "non-cosmological redshift".

In 1973, astronomer William G. Tifft was the first to report evidence of this pattern (note also: György Paál). Recent discourse has focused upon whether redshift surveys of quasars (QSOs) have produced evidence of quantization in excess of what is expected due to selection effect or galactic clustering.Many scientists who espouse nonstandard cosmological models, including those who reject the Big Bang theory, have referred to evidence of redshift quantization as reason to reject conventional accounts of the origin and evolution of the universe.Redshift quantization is a fringe topic with no support from mainstream astronomers in recent times. Although there are a handful of published articles in the last decade in support of quantization, those views are rejected by the rest of the field.

Tests of general relativity

Tests of general relativity serve to establish observational evidence for the theory of general relativity. The first three tests, proposed by Einstein in 1915, concerned the "anomalous" precession of the perihelion of Mercury, the bending of light in gravitational fields, and the gravitational redshift. The precession of Mercury was already known; experiments showing light bending in line with the predictions of general relativity was found in 1919, with increasing precision measurements done in subsequent tests, and astrophysical measurement of the gravitational redshift was claimed to be measured in 1925, although measurements sensitive enough to actually confirm the theory were not done until 1954. A program of more accurate tests starting in 1959 tested the various predictions of general relativity with a further degree of accuracy in the weak gravitational field limit, severely limiting possible deviations from the theory.

In the 1970s, additional tests began to be made, starting with Irwin Shapiro's measurement of the relativistic time delay in radar signal travel time near the sun. Beginning in 1974, Hulse, Taylor and others have studied the behaviour of binary pulsars experiencing much stronger gravitational fields than those found in the Solar System. Both in the weak field limit (as in the Solar System) and with the stronger fields present in systems of binary pulsars the predictions of general relativity have been extremely well tested locally.

In February 2016, the Advanced LIGO team announced that they had directly detected gravitational waves from a black hole merger. This discovery, along with additional detections announced in June 2016 and June 2017, tested general relativity in the very strong field limit, observing to date no deviations from theory.

Tired light

Tired light is a class of hypothetical redshift mechanisms that was proposed as an alternative explanation for the redshift-distance relationship. These models have been proposed as alternatives to the models that require metric expansion of space of which the Big Bang and the Steady State cosmologies are the most famous examples. The concept was first proposed in 1929 by Fritz Zwicky, who suggested that if photons lost energy over time through collisions with other particles in a regular way, the more distant objects would appear redder than more nearby ones. Zwicky himself acknowledged that any sort of scattering of light would blur the images of distant objects more than what is seen. Additionally, the surface brightness of galaxies evolving with time, time dilation of cosmological sources, and a thermal spectrum of the cosmic microwave background have been observed — these effects should not be present if the cosmological redshift was due to any tired light scattering mechanism. Despite periodic re-examination of the concept, tired light has not been supported by observational tests and has lately been consigned to consideration only in the fringes of astrophysics.

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