Red phalarope

The red phalarope (called grey phalarope in Europe), Phalaropus fulicarius, is a small wader. This phalarope breeds in the Arctic regions of North America and Eurasia. It is migratory, and, unusually for a wader, migrating mainly on oceanic routes and wintering at sea on tropical oceans.

Red phalarope
Phalaropus fulicarius 10
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Scolopacidae
Genus: Phalaropus
P. fulicarius
Binomial name
Phalaropus fulicarius
Phalaropus fulicarius distribution
Breeding distribution of P. fulicarius
Phalaropus fulicarius distribution 2
Wintering range of P. fulicarius
  • Tringa fulicaria Linnaeus, 1758
  • Crymophilus fulicarius (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Phalaropus fulicaria (lapsus)


The red phalarope was one of the many bird species originally described by Linnaeus in the landmark 1758 10th edition of his Systema Naturae, where it was given the binomial name of Tringa fulicaria.[2]

The English and genus names for phalaropes come through French phalarope and scientific Latin Phalaropus from Ancient Greek phalaris, "coot", and pous, "foot". The specific fulicarius is from Latin fulica, "coot". Coots and phalaropes both have lobed toes.[3][4]


Nonbreeding in Bodega Bay, California. November 2016.

The red phalarope is about 21 cm (8.3 in) in length, with lobed toes and a straight bill, somewhat thicker than that of red-necked phalarope. The breeding female is predominantly dark brown and black above, with red underparts and white cheek patches. The bill is yellow, tipped black. The breeding male is a duller version of the female. Young birds are light grey and brown above, with buff underparts and a dark patch through the eye. In winter, the plumage is essentially grey above and white below, but the black eyepatch is always present. The bill is black in winter. Their call is a short beek.

Standard Measurements[5][6]
length 200–230 mm (7.7–9 in)
weight 55 g (1.9 oz)
wingspan 430 mm (17 in)
wing 121–132 mm (4.8–5.2 in)
tail 58.5–67.1 mm (2.30–2.64 in)
culmen 21–23 mm (0.83–0.91 in)
tarsus 21.8–23 mm (0.86–0.91 in)


The typical avian sex roles are reversed in the three phalarope species. Females are larger and more brightly coloured than males. The females pursue males, compete for nesting territory, and will aggressively defend their nests and chosen mates. Once the females lay their olive-brown eggs, they begin their southward migration, leaving the males to incubate the eggs and care for the young. Three to six eggs are laid in a ground nest near water. Incubation lasts 18 or 19 days.[5] The young mainly feed themselves and are able to fly within 18 days of birth.


When feeding, a red phalarope will often swim in a small, rapid circle, forming a small whirlpool. This behaviour is thought to aid feeding by raising food from the bottom of shallow water. The bird will reach into the outskirts of the vortex with its bill, plucking small insects or crustaceans caught up therein. They sometimes fly up to catch insects in flight. On the open ocean, they are found in areas where converging ocean currents produce upwellings and are often found near groups of whales. Outside of the nesting season they often travel in flocks.

This species is often very tame and approachable.

Status and conservation

The red phalarope is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Phalaropus fulicarius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema Naturae per Regna Tria Naturae, Secundum Classes, Ordines, Genera, Species, cum Characteribus, Differentiis, Synonymis, Locis (in Latin). Vol. I (10th revised ed.). Holmiae: (Laurentii Salvii). p. 148 – via The Internet Archive.
  3. ^ "Phalarope". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  4. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 165, 301. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  5. ^ a b Godfrey, W. Earl (1966). The Birds of Canada. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada. p. 166.
  6. ^ Sibley, David Allen (2000). The Sibley Guide to Birds. New York: Knopf. p. 195. ISBN 0-679-45122-6.

External links

Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge

Bandon Marsh National Wildlife Refuge is a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge on Oregon's coast. It is one of six National Wildlife Refuges comprising the Oregon Coast National Wildlife Refuge Complex and is renowned among bird watchers for being able to view rare shorebirds including ruff, Hudsonian godwit, and Mongolian plover.

The refuge was last expanded in 1999, it now has 889 acres (3.60 km2) in two units: Bandon Marsh and Ni-les'tun.

Birds of North American boreal forests

The boreal forest or taiga of the North American continent stretches through a majority of Canada and most of central Alaska, extending spottily into the beginning of the Rocky Mountain range in Northern Montana and into New England and the Adirondack Mountains of New York. This habitat extends as far north as the tree line (replaced by the High Arctic tundra) and discontinues in mixed deciduous-coniferous forests to the south. The "taiga", as it is called there, of Eurasia occupies a similar range on those continents. Throughout the Northern Hemisphere, the boreal forest covers 2.3 million square miles, a larger area than the remaining Brazilian Amazon rain forest. Although it is largely forest, the boreal forests include a network of lakes, river valleys, wetlands, peat lands and semi-open tundra.

Only 8% of the Canadian boreal forest is protected and over 30% has already been designated for logging, energy and other development, much of it within the last decade. The U.S. is the leading importer of Canadian wood products as well as oil and gas, having purchased 20 billion dollars (approximately 80% of Canada's timber exports) worth of Canadian forest products in 2001. Presently trees being logged in the Boreal are primarily pulped and turned into disposable products such as toilet tissue, junk mail, and catalogs. Decisions will be made in the next several years regarding the remaining lands and where development will take place.

Historically, this wilderness has long remained vast and little-known to birding and naturalist groups, who have placed their attentions southwards. Although, the wintering grounds of many North American migratory birds also requires attention, now it has become apparent that our attention must be focused north on the Boreal breeding grounds of many of these birds. It is estimated that about 60% of the American bird population found North of the Mexican border nests in the boreal forest. About half of North America's breeding species (over 300) make their home there. The following is a list of the North American birds reliant on the boreal forests.

Boas River

Boas River is also a name for the Çoruh River in northeast Anatolia.The Boas is a river on Southampton Island in Nunavut, Canada. The river rises at 64°49′58″N 084°23′34″W and its mouth is located at the Bay of Gods Mercy. Proceeding inland, the river becomes braided and is about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) wide.It is named after anthropologist Franz Boas.

Constance Bay

Constance Bay is a population centre in West Carleton-March Ward in the rural northwest of the city of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Prior to amalgamation in 2001, the community was part of West Carleton Township. It is situated 25 km northwest of the suburb of Kanata. The community surrounds the Torbolton Forest (a protected and managed green-space) and is located on a peninsula between Constance and Buckham's Bay on the Ottawa River. According to the Canada 2016 Census, the population of the community was 2,314. 86% of dwellings are occupied by usual residentsThe community has services of a (licensed) general store, 2 restaurants, a bar/lounge, and a chapel. The Royal Canadian Legion, Branch 616 is also located in the village.

During the summer months the community offers 2 beaches, recreational boating, water skiing, canoeing, hiking, horseback riding, and cycling. During the winter months there is ice fishing, snowmobiling, cross-country skiing, ice skating and horseback riding.

A Community Centre is located in the centre of the community, the centre's operation is overseen by the Constance & Buckham's Bay Community Association. The Community Centre includes a free skateboard park along with 2 baseball diamonds (both fully illuminated for night play), soccer fields (full and mini), play-structure, outdoor ice rink, and a concession stand operated by community volunteers.

Creswell Bay

Creswell Bay is an Arctic waterway in Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut, Canada. It is an arm of western Prince Regent Inlet in eastern Somerset Island. Its northeastern landmark, Fury Point, is approximately 100 km (62 mi) west of Baffin Island.

While the bay does not have any permanent settlements, it remains an important Inuit habitation site.

East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary

The East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary is a migratory bird sanctuary in Kivalliq, Nunavut, Canada. It is located in East Bay, an arm of Hudson Bay, in southeast Southampton Island. The nearest community is Coral Harbour, 44 mi (71 km) to the west. It is one of two bird sanctuaries on the island, the other being the Harry Gibbons Migratory Bird Sanctuary, situated 87 mi (140 km) to the southwest.Established 1 January 1959, and consisting of 113,800 hectares it is rated Category IV by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Of its 1,138 km2 (439 sq mi)

in overall size, 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi) is a marine area with marine, intertidal, and subtidal components.

Fauna of Illinois

The fauna of Illinois include a wide variety of mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, fish and insects (not listed).

The state bird is the Northern cardinal.

The state insect is the monarch butterfly.

The state animal is the white-tailed deer.

The state fish is the bluegill.

The state fossil is the tully monster.

The state amphibian is the eastern tiger salamander.

The state reptile is the painted turtle.

Gibson Lake (Indiana)

Gibson Lake is the cooling pond for Duke Energy Indiana's Gibson Generating Station. Measuring at around 3,500 acres (14 km2), it is the largest lake in Indiana built completely above ground, its shores consisting of rock levees on all but two of the lake's six sides both of which were also built up to build the power plant. Opened to fishing in 1978, Gibson Lake had been a prime source of bass and several types of catfish, bluegill, and carp. The lake was closed to fishing in 2007, due to elevated levels of selenium found in the water of the lake. The only entrance to Gibson Lake is the lake's boat ramp, located due southeast of the plant on Gibson County Road 975 South.

Gibson Lake, due to it never getting colder than 40 °F (4 °C), caused by the hot outflows from the plant's condensers, is known to produce a little dusting of snow every now and then.

Great Plain of the Koukdjuak

The Great Plain of the Koukdjuak is located in the Qikiqtaaluk Region, Nunavut within the Canadian Arctic. It is the namesake of the Koukdjuak River in western Baffin Island on the southeastern coast of Foxe Basin. It stretches from Cory Bay to Hantzsch Bay, and then inland.

Kirby Lake

Kirby Lake is a 740-acre man-made reservoir located on the south side of Abilene, Texas, just east of Highway 83, in the northeastern portion of Taylor County. Management is under the City of Abilene.

List of birds of Aleutian Islands

This list of birds of the Aleutian Islands is a comprehensive listing of all bird species known from the Aleutian Islands, as documented by Gibson and Byrd (2007) and eBird.The known avifauna of the Aleutian Islands total 300 species as of January 2019. Of that number, 44 (15%) are year-round residents and breeders, 27 (9%) migrate to the Aleutians to breed, 18 (6%) migrate to the Aleutians to winter, 6 (2%) are non-breeding summer residents, 37 (12%) are annual through-migrants, and the remaining 168 (56%) are vagrants of less-than-annual occurrence. Several of the vagrants have only a single record.

This list is presented in the taxonomic sequence of the Check-list of North American Birds, 7th edition through the 59th Supplement, published by the American Ornithological Society (AOS). Common and scientific names are also those of the Check-list.

The following terms used to denote the annual and seasonal status of each species are from Gibson and Byrd (2007):

Accidental – one or two records

Casual – recorded in <30% of years in the appropriate season, but in at least three calendar years

Intermittent – recorded in ≥30% of years in the appropriate season, but not annually

Migrant – annual through-migrant in spring or fall

Resident – substantial numbers present throughout the year

Summer – migrates to the Aleutians to breed or to summer offshore

Winter – migrates to the Aleutians to winter

Annual breeders are designated with an asterisk (*), as in Resident* or Summer*.

List of birds of Greece

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Greece. The avifauna of Greece include a total of 453 species according to the Hellenic Rarities Committee of the Hellenic Ornithological Society (Ελληνική Ορνιθολογική Εταιρεία). Of them, four have not been recorded since 1950 and two have been introduced by humans.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (English and scientific names) are those of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence. Species without tags are regularly occurring residents, migrants, or seasonal visitors which have been recorded since 1 January 1950.

(*) Rare in Greece; reports of these 120 species require submission to the Hellenic Rarities Committee for inclusion in the official record.

(B) Species which have not occurred in Greece since 1 January 1950.

(C) Species that do not occur naturally in Greece, although breeding populations have been introduced by humans.

List of birds of North America (Charadriiformes)

The birds listed below all belong to the biological order Charadriiformes, and are native to North America.

List of birds of Santa Cruz County, California

List of birds of Santa Cruz County, California. The county is in Northern California, located on the California coast, including northern Monterey Bay, and west of the San Francisco Bay and Silicon Valley. It includes the southwestern Santa Cruz Mountains.Avian habitats include: coastal prairie, Northern coastal scrub, Maritime Ponderosa Pine forests, Coast redwood forests, Interior chaparral and woodlands, and mixed evergreen forests.

Included are: common (C), fairly common (F), and uncommon (U) sightings/occurrences. Not included are: rare, casual, and irregular sightings.


A phalarope is any of three living species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae.

Phalaropes are close relatives of the shanks and tattlers, the Actitis and Terek sandpipers, and also of the turnstones and calidrids. They are especially notable for two things: their unusual nesting behavior, and their unique feeding technique.

Two species, the red phalarope (Phalaropus fulicarius, called grey phalarope in Europe) and red-necked phalarope (P. lobatus) breed around the Arctic Circle and winter on tropical oceans. Wilson's phalarope (P. tricolor) breeds in western North America and migrates to South America. All are 6–10 in (15–25 cm) in length, with lobed toes and a straight, slender bill. Predominantly grey and white in winter, their plumage develops reddish markings in summer.

Promise Island

Promise Island (Inuktitut: Nannuyuma; meaning: "polar bear") is located near the western shore of Hudson Bay. It is barely a square kilometer in area and rises 300 ft (91 m) in elevation on its northern side. It is located about 9 km (5.6 mi) from the community of Chesterfield Inlet, Nunavut, Canada, and is part of a loose chain of small islands running along the coast, including the Wag Islands and Pitsiulartok (Fairway Island).

The island is home to a wide range of wildlife, including the Arctic fox (alopex lagopus innuitus), the harbor seal (phoca hispida), the polar bear, the brown lemming (lemmus t. trimucronatus), the barren-ground caribou (rangifer arcticus), and the red phalarope.

Sibley-Monroe checklist 7

The Sibley-Monroe checklist was a landmark document in the study of birds. It drew on extensive DNA-DNA hybridisation studies to reassess the relationships between modern birds.

Wilson's phalarope

The Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor) is a small wader. This bird, the largest of the phalaropes, breeds in the prairies of North America in western Canada and the western United States. It is migratory, wintering in inland salt lakes near the Andes in Argentina. They are passage migrants through Central America around March/April and again during September/October. The species is a rare vagrant to western Europe.

This species is often very tame and approachable. Sometimes it is placed in a monotypic genus Steganopus.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.