Red Fort

The Red Fort is a historic fort in the city of Delhi in India. It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal dynasty for nearly 200 years, until 1856.[1] It is located in the centre of Delhi and houses a number of museums. In addition to accommodating the emperors and their households, it was the ceremonial and political center of the Mughal state and the setting for events critically impacting the region.[2]

Constructed in 1639 by the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan as the palace of his fortified capital Shahjahanabad, the Red Fort is named for its massive enclosing walls of red sandstone and is adjacent to the older Salimgarh Fort, built by Islam Shah Suri in 1546 AD. The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions, connected by a water channel known as the Stream of Paradise (Nahr-i-Bihisht). The fort complex is considered to represent the zenith of Mughal creativity under Shah Jahan, and although the palace was planned according to Islamic prototypes, each pavilion contains architectural elements typical of Mughal buildings that reflect a fusion of Persian, Timurid and Hindu traditions.[3] The Red Fort's innovative architectural style, including its garden design, influenced later buildings and gardens in Delhi, Rajasthan, Punjab, Kashmir, Braj, Rohilkhand and elsewhere.[2]

The fort was plundered of its artwork and jewels during Nadir Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire in 1747. Most of the fort's precious marble structures were subsequently destroyed by the British following the Revolt of 1857.[4] The forts's defensive walls were largely spared, and the fortress was subsequently used as a garrison.[4] The Red Fort was also the site where the British put the last Mughal Emperor on trial before exiling him to Yangon in 1858.[5]

Every year on the Independence day of India (15 August), the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the main gate of the fort and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts.[6]

It was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2007 as part of the Red Fort Complex.[2][7]

Red Fort
Redfortdelhi1
A view of the Red Fort's Lahori Gate
LocationOld Delhi, India
Coordinates28°39′22″N 77°14′28″E / 28.656°N 77.241°ECoordinates: 28°39′22″N 77°14′28″E / 28.656°N 77.241°E
Height18–33 metres
Built12 May 1639 – 6 April 1648
(8 years, 10 months and 25 days)
ArchitectUstad Ahmad Lahori
Architectural style(s)Indo-Islamic, Mughal
Owner
Official name: Red Fort Complex
TypeCultural
Criteriaii, iii, vi
Designated2007 (31st session)
Reference no.231rev
State PartyIndia
RegionAsia-Pacific
Red Fort is located in Delhi
Red Fort
Location in Delhi, India, Asia
Red Fort Independence Day
Every year on the Independence day of India (15 August), the Prime Minister hoists the Indian "tricolour flag" at the main gate of the fort and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts here.

Etymology

Its English name red fort is a translation of the Hindustani Lāl Qila,[8][9] deriving from its red-sandstone walls. As the residence of the imperial family, the fort was originally known as the "Blessed Fort" (Qila-i-Mubārak).[10][11] Agra Fort is also known as Lāl Qila.

History

Red Fort Delhi 1785
1785 view of the Red Fort from Jharoka in the centre and the Moti Masjid on the far right.
Ghulam Ali Khan 003b
View of the Red Fort from the river (by Ghulam Ali Khan, between c. 1852–1854
Ghulam Ali Khan, Bahadur Shah II enthroned with Mirza Fakhruddin 1837–38 Arthur M. Sackler Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington
Bahadur Shah II in the 'Khas Mahal, underneath the Scales of Justice

Emperor Shah Jahan commissioned construction of the Red Fort on 12 May 1638, when he decided to shift his capital from Agra to Delhi. Originally red and white, the Shah's favourite colours,[12] its design is credited to architect Ustad Ahmad Lahouri, who also constructed the Taj Mahal.[13][14] The fort lies along the Yamuna River, which fed the moats surrounding most of the walls.[15] Construction began in the sacred month of Muharram, on 13 May 1638.[16]:01 Supervised by Shah Jahan, it was completed on 6 April 1648.[17][18] Unlike other Mughal forts, the Red Fort's boundary walls are asymmetrical to contain the older Salimgarh Fort.[16]:04 The fortress-palace was a focal point of the medieval city of Shahjahanabad, which is present-day Old Delhi. Its planning and aesthetics represent the zenith of Mughal creativity prevailing during Shah Jahan's reign. His successor Aurangzeb added the Pearl Mosque to the emperor's private quarters, constructing barbicans in front of the two main gates to make the entrance to the palace more circuitous.[16]:08

The administrative and fiscal structure of the Mughal dynasty declined after Aurangzeb, and the 18th century saw a degeneration of the palace. When Jahandar Shah took over the Red Fort in 1712, it had been without an emperor for 30 years. Within a year of beginning his rule, Shah was murdered and replaced by Farrukhsiyar. To raise money, the silver ceiling of the Rang Mahal was replaced by copper during this period. Muhammad Shah, known as 'Rangila' (the Colourful) for his interest in art, took over the Red Fort in 1719. In 1739, Persian emperor Nadir Shah easily defeated the Mughal army, plundering the Red Fort including the Peacock Throne. Nadir Shah returned to Persia after three months, leaving a destroyed city and a weakened Mughal empire to Muhammad Shah.[16]:09 The internal weakness of the Mughal empire made the Mughals titular heads of Delhi, and a 1752 treaty made the Marathas protectors of the throne at Delhi.[19][20] The 1758 Maratha conquest of Lahore and Peshawar[21] placed them in conflict with Ahmad Shah Durrani.[22][23] In 1760, the Marathas removed and melted the silver ceiling of the Diwan-i-Khas to raise funds for the defence of Delhi from the armies of Ahmed Shah Durrani.[24][25] In 1761, after the Marathas lost the third battle of Panipat, Delhi was raided by Ahmed Shah Durrani. Ten years later, Shah Alam ascended the throne in Delhi with Maratha support.[16]:10 In 1783 the Sikh Misl Karorisinghia, led by Baghel Singh Dhaliwal, conquered Delhi and the Red Fort briefly.[26] In 1788, a Maratha garrison permanently occupied Red fort and Delhi and ruled on north India for next two decades until they were usurped by the British East India Company following the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803.[26]

During the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803, forces of British East India Company defeated Maratha forces in the Battle of Delhi; this ended Maratha rule of the city and their control of the Red Fort.[27] After the battle, the British took over the administration of Mughal territories and installed a Resident at the Red Fort.[16]:11 The last Mughal emperor to occupy the fort, Bahadur Shah II, became a symbol of the 1857 rebellion against the British in which the residents of Shahjahanbad participated.[16]:15

Despite its position as the seat of Mughal power and its defensive capabilities, the Red Fort was not defended during the 1857 uprising against the British. After the rebellion failed, Bahadur Shah II left the fort on 17 September and was apprehended by British forces. He returned to Red Fort as a prisoner of the British, was tried in 1858 and exiled to Rangoon on 7 October of that year.[28] With the end of Mughal reign, the British sanctioned the systematic plunder of valuables from the fort's palaces. All furniture was removed or destroyed; the harem apartments, servants' quarters and gardens were destroyed, and a line of stone barracks built.[4] Only the marble buildings on the east side at the imperial enclosure escaped complete destruction, but were looted and damaged. While the defensive walls and towers were relatively unharmed, more than two-thirds of the inner structures were destroyed by the British. Lord Curzon, Viceroy of India from 1899 to 1905, ordered repairs to the fort including reconstruction of the walls and the restoration of the gardens complete with a watering system.[29]

Most of the jewels and artworks of the Red Fort were looted and stolen during Nadir Shah's invasion of 1747 and again after the failed Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British. They were eventually sold to private collectors or the British Museum, British Library and the Victoria and Albert Museum. For example, the Koh-i-Noor diamond, the jade wine cup of Shah Jahan and the crown of Bahadur Shah II are all currently located in London. Various requests for restitution have so far been rejected by the British government.[30]

1911 saw the visit of the British king and queen for the Delhi Durbar. In preparation of the visit, some buildings were restored. The Red Fort Archaeological Museum was also moved from the drum house to the Mumtaz Mahal.

The INA trials, also known as the Red Fort Trials, refer to the courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army. The first was held between November and December 1945 at the Red Fort.

On 15 August 1947, the first Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru raised the Indian national flag above the Lahore Gate. On each subsequent Independence Day, the prime minister has raised the flag and given a speech that is broadcast nationally.[31]

After Indian Independence, the site experienced few changes, and the Red Fort continued to be used as a military cantonment. A significant part of the fort remained under Indian Army control until 22 December 2003, when it was given to the Archaeological Survey of India for restoration.[32][33] In 2009 the Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (CCMP), prepared by the Archaeological Survey of India under Supreme Court directions to revitalise the fort, was announced.[34][35][36]

Today

Every year on India's Independence Day (15 August), the Prime Minister of India hoists the national flag at the Red Fort and delivers a nationally broadcast speech from its ramparts.[6] The Red Fort, the largest monument in Delhi,[37] is one of its most popular tourist destinations[38] and attracts thousands of visitors every year.[39] A sound and light show describing Mughal history is a tourist attraction in the evenings. The major architectural features are in mixed condition; the extensive water features are dry. Some buildings are in fairly-good condition, with their decorative elements undisturbed; in others, the marble inlaid flowers have been removed by looters. The tea house, although not in its historical state, is a working restaurant. The mosque and hamam or public baths are closed to the public, although visitors can peer through their glass windows or marble latticework. Walkways are crumbling, and public toilets are available at the entrance and inside the park.

The Lahore Gate entrance leads to a mall with jewellery and craft stores. There is also a museum of "blood paintings", depicting young 20th-century Indian martyrs and their stories, an archaeological museum and an Indian war-memorial museum.

The Red fort appears on the back of the 500 note of the Mahatma Gandhi New Series of the Indian rupee.[40]

Security

To prevent terrorist attacks, security is especially strict around the Red Fort on the eve of Indian Independence Day. Delhi Police and paramilitary personnel keep watch on neighbourhoods around the fort, and National Security Guard sharpshooters are deployed on high-rises near the fort.[41][42] The airspace around the fort is a designated no-fly zone during the celebration to prevent air attacks,[43] and safe houses exist in nearby areas to which the Prime Minister and other Indian leaders may retreat in the event of an attack.[41]

The fort was the site of a terrorist attack on 22 December 2000, carried out by six Lashkar-e-Toiba members. Two soldiers and a civilian were killed in what the news media described as an attempt to derail India-Pakistan peace talks.[44][45]

Architecture

The Red Fort has an area of 254.67 acres (103.06 ha) enclosed by 2.41 kilometres (1.50 mi) of defensive walls,[46] punctuated by turrets and bastions and varying in height from 18 metres (59 ft) on the river side to 33 metres (108 ft) on the city side. The fort is octagonal, with the north-south axis longer than the east-west axis. The marble, floral decorations and double domes in the fort's buildings exemplify later Mughal architecture.[47]

It showcases a high level of ornamentation, and the Kohinoor diamond was reportedly part of the furnishings. The fort's artwork synthesises Persian, European and Indian art, resulting in a unique Shahjahani style rich in form, expression and colour. Red Fort is one of the building complexes of India encapsulating a long period of history and its arts. Even before its 1913 commemoration as a monument of national importance, efforts were made to preserve it for posterity.

The Lahori and Delhi Gates were used by the public, and the Khizrabad Gate was for the emperor.[16]:04 The Lahori Gate is the main entrance, leading to a domed shopping area known as the Chatta Chowk (covered bazaar).

Major structures

The most important surviving structures are the walls and ramparts, the main gates, the audience halls and the imperial apartments on the eastern riverbank.[48]

Lahori Gate

Red Fort in Delhi 03-2016 img1
The Delhi Gate, which is almost identical in appearance to the Lahori Gate

The Lahori Gate is the main gate to the Red Fort, named for its orientation towards the city of Lahore. During Aurangzeb's reign, the beauty of the gate was spoiled by the addition of bastions, which Shahjahan described as "a veil drawn across the face of a beautiful woman".[49][50][51] Every Indian Independence Day since 1947, the national flag is unfurled and the Prime Minister makes a speech from its ramparts.

Delhi Gate

The Delhi Gate is the southern public entrance and in layout and appearance similar to the Lahori Gate. Two life-size stone elephants on either side of the gate face each other.[52]

Chhatta Chowk

Adjacent to the Lahori Gate is the Chhatta Chowk, where silk, jewellery and other items for the imperial household were sold during the Mughal period. The bazaar leads to an open outer court, where it crosses the large north-south street which originally divided the fort's military functions (to the west) from the palaces (to the east). The southern end of the street is the Delhi Gate.

Naubat Khana

Naubat Khana Red Fort 1857
Naubat Khana and the courtyard before its destruction by the British, in an 1858 photograph

The vaulted arcade of the Chhatta Chowk ends in the centre of the outer court, which measured 540 by 360 feet (160 m × 110 m).[53] The side arcades and central tank were destroyed after the 1857 rebellion.

In the east wall of the court stands the now-isolated Naubat Khana (also known as Nakkar Khana), the drum house. Music was played daily, at scheduled times and everyone, except royalty, was required to dismount.

Diwan-i-Aam

Diwan-i-Aam, Red Fort, Delhi
The Diwan-i-Aam audience hall

The inner main court to which the Nakkar Khana led was 540 feet (160 m) wide and 420 feet (130 m) deep, surrounded by guarded galleries.[53] On the far side is the Diwan-i-Aam, the Public Audience Hall.

The hall's columns and engrailed arches exhibit fine craftsmanship, and the hall was originally decorated with white chunam stucco.[53] In the back in the raised recess the emperor gave his audience in the marble balcony (jharokha).

The Diwan-i-Aam was also used for state functions.[47] The courtyard (mardana) behind it leads to the imperial apartments.

Nahr-i-Bihisht

The imperial apartments consist of a row of pavilions on a raised platform along the eastern edge of the fort, overlooking the Yamuna. The pavilions are connected by a canal, known as the Nahr-i-Bihisht ("Stream of Paradise"), running through the centre of each pavilion. Water is drawn from the Yamuna via a tower, the Shahi Burj, at the northeast corner of the fort. The palace is designed to emulate paradise as described in the Quran. In the riverbed below the imperial apartments and connected buildings was a space known as zer-jharokha ("beneath the latticework").[53]

Mumtaz Mahal

The two southernmost pavilions of the palace are zenanas (women's quarters), consisting of the Mumtaz Mahal and the larger Rang Mahal. The Mumtaz Mahal houses the Red Fort Archaeological Museum.

Rang Mahal

The Rang Mahal housed the emperor's wives and mistresses. Its name means "Palace of Colours", since it was brightly painted and decorated with a mosaic of mirrors. The central marble pool is fed by the Nahr-i-Bihisht.

Khas Mahal

The Khas Mahal was the emperor's apartment. Connected to it is the Muthamman Burj, an octagonal tower where he appeared before the people waiting on the riverbank. This was done by most kings at the time.

Diwan-i-Khas

A gate on the north side of the Diwan-i-Aam leads to the innermost court of the palace (Jalau Khana) and the Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience). It is constructed of white marble, inlaid with precious stones. The once-silver ceiling has been restored in wood. François Bernier described seeing the jewelled Peacock Throne here during the 17th century. At either end of the hall, over the two outer arches, is an inscription by Persian poet Amir Khusrow:

If heaven can be on the face of the earth,

It is this, it is this, it is this.

— "World Heritage Site – Red Fort, Delhi; Diwan-i-Khas". Archaeological Survey of India. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
Panoramic view of the imperial enclosure. From left: Moti Masjid, the hammam, Divan-i-Khas, Khas Mahal and the 'Rang Mahal
Panoramic view of the imperial enclosure. From left: Moti Masjid, the hammam, Divan-i-Khas, Khas Mahal and the 'Rang Mahal

Hammam

The hammam were the imperial baths, consisting of three domed rooms floored with white marble.

Baoli

Red Fort Baoli
The baoli (step-well) at the Red Fort, Delhi

The baoli or step-well, believed to pre-date Red Fort, is one of the few monuments that were not demolished by the British after the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The chambers within the baoli were converted into a prison. During the Indian National Army Trials (Red Fort Trials) in 1945–46, it housed Indian National Army officers Colonel Shah Nawaz Khan, Colonel Prem Kumar Sahgal, and Colonel Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon. The Red Fort Baoli is uniquely designed with two sets of staircases leading down to the well.[54]

Moti Masjid

West of the hammam is the Moti Masjid, the Pearl Mosque. A later addition, it was built in 1659 as a private mosque for Aurangzeb. It is a small, three-domed mosque carved in white marble, with a three-arched screen leading down to the courtyard.[55]

Hira Mahal

The Hira Mahal is a pavilion on the southern edge of the fort, built under Bahadur Shah II and at the end of the Hayat Baksh garden. The Moti Mahal on the northern edge, a twin building, was destroyed during (or after) the 1857 rebellion.

Fuerte Rojo-Delhi-India62
Shahi Burj and its pavilion

The Shahi Burj was the emperor's main study of the; its name means "Emperor's Tower", and it originally had a chhatri on top. Heavily damaged, the tower is undergoing reconstruction. In front of it is a marble pavilion added by Aurangzeb.

Hayat Bakhsh Bagh

Fuerte Rojo-Delhi-India69
Red Zafar Mahal and white Sawan/Bhadon pavilion behind it in the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh

The Hayat Bakhsh Bagh is the "Life-Bestowing Garden" in the northeast part of the complex. It features a reservoir, which is now dry, and channels through which the Nahr-i-Bihisht flows. At each end is a white marble pavilion, called the Sawan and Bhadon Pavilions, named after the Hindu months, Sawan and Bhadon. In the centre of the reservoir is the red-sandstone Zafar Mahal, added in around 1842 by Bahadur Shah Zafar, and named after him.[56]

Smaller gardens (such as the Mehtab Bagh or Moonlight Garden) existed west of it, but were destroyed when the British barracks were built.[16] There are plans to restore the gardens. Beyond these, the road to the north leads to an arched bridge and the Salimgarh Fort.

Princes' quarter

North of the Hayat Bakhsh Bagh and the Shahi Burj is the quarter of the imperial princes. This was used by member of the Mughal royal family and was largely destroyed by the British forces after the rebellion. One of the palaces was converted into a tea house for the soldiers.

See also

References

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  3. ^ "Red Fort Complex". whc.unesco.org. UNESCO. Retrieved 2019-01-01. each pavilion reveals architectural elements typical of Mughal building, reflecting a fusion of Persian, Timurid and Hindu traditions
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  17. ^ Controversy: Though this fort was thought to have been built in 1639, there are documents and a painting available of Shah Jahan receiving the Persian ambassador in 1638 at the jharokha in the Diwan-i-Aam in the Red fort. This painting preserved in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, was reproduced in the Illustrated Weekly of India (page 32) of 14 March 1971. However the painting shows the jharokha at Lahore, and not Delhi. See R. Nath's History of Mughal Architecture; Abhinav Publications, 2006..
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  56. ^ "World Heritage Site – Red Fort, Delhi; Hayat-Bakhsh Garden and Pavilions". Archaeological Survey of India. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2012.

External links

Agra Fort

Agra Fort is a historical fort in the city of Agra in India. It was the main residence of the emperors of the Mughal Dynasty until 1638, when the capital was shifted from Agra to Delhi. Before capture by the British, the last Indian rulers to have occupied it were the Marathas. In 1983, the Agra fort has been inscribed as UNESCO World Heritage site. It is about 2.5 km northwest of its more famous sister monument, the Taj Mahal. The fort can be more accurately described as a walled city.

Agra Fort is the only fort in India where all early Mughal emperors lived. The Fort stands on an ancient site and was traditionally known as Badalgarh. It was captured by Ghaznavi for some time but in 15th century A.D. the Chahman Rajputs occupied it. Soon after Agra assumed the status of capital when Sikandar Lodi (A.D. 1487-1517) shifted his capital from Delhi and constructed few buildings in the pre-existing Fort at Agra. After the first battle of Panipat (A.D. 1526) Mughals captured the fort and ruled from here. In A.D. 1530, Humayun was coronated here. The Fort got its present look during the reign of Akbar (A.D. 1556-1605).

Bahadur Shah Zafar

Bahadur Shah Zafar (Persian: بهادرشاه ظفر‎) (born as Mirza Abu Zafar Siraj-ud-din Muhammad) (24 October 1775 – 7 November 1862) was the last Mughal emperor. He was the second son of and became the successor to his father, Akbar II, upon his death on 28 September 1837. He was a nominal Emperor, as the Mughal Empire existed in name only and his authority was limited only to the walled city of Old Delhi (Shahjahanbad). Following his involvement in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British exiled him to Rangoon in British-controlled Burma (now in Myanmar), after convicting him on conspiracy charges.

Zafar's father, Akbar II had been imprisoned by the British and he was not his father's preferred choice as his successor. One of Akbar Shah's queens, Mumtaz Begum, pressured him to declare her son, Mirza Jahangir, as his successor. However, The East India Company exiled Jahangir after he attacked their resident, in the Red Fort, paving the way for Zafar to assume the throne.

Battle of Spanish Fort

The Battle of Spanish Fort took place from March 27 to April 8, 1865 in Baldwin County, Alabama, as part of the Mobile Campaignof the Western Theater of the American Civil War.

After the Union victory in the Battle of Mobile Bay, Mobile nevertheless remained in Confederate hands. Spanish Fort was heavily fortified as an eastern defense to the city of Mobile. Fort Huger, Fort (Battery) Tracey, Fort (Battery) McDermott, Fort Alexis, Red Fort, and Old Spanish Fort were all part of the Mobile defenses at Spanish Fort.

Bismillah Khan

Ustad Qamruddin "Bismillah" Khan (21 March 1916 – 21 August 2006) (born as Qamaruddin Khan), often referred to by the title Ustad, was an Indian musician credited with popularizing the shehnai, a subcontinental wind instrument of the oboe class. While the shehnai had long held importance as a folk instrument played primarily schooled intraditional ceremonies, Khan is credited with elevating its status and bringing it to the concert stage.He was awarded India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 2001, becoming the third classical musician after M. S. Subbalakshmi and Ravi Shankar to be accorded this distinction. On his 102nd birthday, Google honored Bismillah Khan with a Google doodle.

Chandni Chowk

The Chandni Chowk (Moonlight Square) is one of the oldest and busiest markets in Old Delhi, India. Chandni Chowk is located close to Old Delhi Railway Station. The Red Fort monument is located within the market. It was built in the 17th century by Mughal Emperor of India Shah Jahan and designed by his daughter Jahanara. The market was once divided by canals (now closed) to reflect moonlight and remains one of India's largest wholesale markets.

Fatehpuri Mosque

Fatehpuri Masjid is a 17th-century mosque located at the western end of the oldest street of Delhi, Chandni Chowk. It is opposite the Red Fort on the opposite end of Chandni Chowk.

Gates of Delhi

The Gates of Delhi were city gates in Delhi, India, built under dynastic rulers in the period that could be dated from the 8th century to the 20th century. They are the gates in

the ancient city of Lal Kot or Qila Rai Pithora, also called the first city of Delhi (period 731-1311) in Mehrauli – Qutb Complex;

the second city of Siri Fort (1304);

the third city Tughlaqabad (1321–23);

the fourth city of Jahanpanah’s of (mid-14th century);

the fifth city of Feruzabad (1354);

the sixth city of Dilli Sher Shahi (Shergarh) (1534), near Purana Qila;

the seventh city Shahjahanabad of (mid 17th century); and

the eighth modern city New Delhi of British Raj (1931s) in Lutyens' Delhi of the British rule.In 1611, the European merchant William Finch described Delhi as the city of seven castles (forts) and 52 gates. More gates were built after that period during the Mughal rule and during the British rule. Only 13 gates exist in good condition, while all others are in ruins or have been demolished. Like all gates denote, the direction of the destination station is the starting name of the gate.

Golden Mosque (Red Fort)

The Golden Mosque (سنهرى مسجد, Sunehri Masjid) is a mosque in Old Delhi. It is located outside the southwestern corner of Delhi Gate of the Red Fort, opposite the Netaji Subhash Park.

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon

Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (18 March 1914 – 6 February 2006) was an officer in the Indian National Army (INA) who was charged with "waging war against His Majesty the King Emperor". Along with Shah Nawaz Khan and Prem Kumar Sahgal, he was tried at the end of World War II in the INA trials that began on 5 November 1945 at Red Fort. Dhillon also played an important role in the Indian independence negotiations.

Indian National Army trials

The Indian National Army trials (INA trials), which are also called the Red Fort trials, were the British Indian trial by courts-martial of a number of officers of the Indian National Army (INA) between November 1945 and May 1946, for charges variously for treason, torture, murder and abetment to murder during World War II. The first, and most famous, of the approximately ten trials held in the Red Fort in Delhi. In total, approximately ten courts-martial were held. The first of these, and the most celebrated one, was the joint court-martial of Colonel Prem Sahgal, Colonel Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, and Major General Shah Nawaz Khan. The three had been officers in the British Indian Army and were taken as prisoners of war in Malaya, Singapore and Burma. They had, like a large number of other troops and officers of the British Indian Army, joined the Indian National Army and later fought in Imphal and Burma alongside the Japanese forces in allegiance to Azad Hind. These three came to be the only defendants in the INA trials who were charged with "waging war against the King-Emperor" (the Indian Army Act, 1911 did not provide for a separate charge for treason) as well as murder and abetment of murder. Those charged later only faced trial for torture and murder or abetment of murder.

The trials covered arguments based on Military Law, Constitutional Law, International Law, and Politics. These trials attracted much publicity, and public sympathy for the defendants who were considered patriots of India and fought for the freedom of India from the British Empire. Outcry over the grounds of the trial, as well as a general emerging unease and unrest within the troops of the Raj, ultimately forced the then Army Chief Field Marshal Claude Auchinleck to commute the sentences of the three defendants in the first trial.

Indo-Islamic architecture

Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced for Islamic patrons and purposes. Despite an earlier Muslim presence in Sindh in modern Pakistan, its main history begins when Muhammad of Ghor made Delhi a Muslim capital in 1193. Both the Delhi Sultans and the Mughal dynasty that succeeded them came from Central Asia via Afghanistan, and were used to a Central Asian style of Islamic architecture that largely derived from Iran.The types and forms of large buildings required by Muslim elites, with mosques and tombs much the most common, were very different from those previously built in India. The exteriors of both were very often topped by large domes, and made extensive use of arches. Both of these features were hardly used in Hindu temple architecture and other native Indian styles. Both types of building essentially consisted of a single large space under a high dome, and completely avoided the figurative sculpture so important to Hindu temples.Islamic buildings initially had to adapt the skills of a workforce trained in earlier Indian traditions to their own designs. Unlike most of the Islamic world, where brick tended to predominate, India had highly skilled builders very well used to producing stone masonry of extremely high quality. As well as the main style developed in Delhi and later Mughal centres, a variety of regional styles grew up, especially where there were local Muslim rulers. By the Mughal period, generally agreed to represent the peak of the style, aspects of Islamic style began to influence architecture made for Hindus, with even temples using scalloped arches, and later domes. This was especially the case in palace architecture.

Indo-Islamic architecture has left influences on modern Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi architecture, and was the main influence on the so-called Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture introduced in the last century of the British Raj. Both secular and religious buildings are influenced by Indo-Islamic architecture. The style includes influences from Indian, Islamic, Persian, Central Asian, Arabic and Ottoman Turkish architecture.

Kuwait Red Fort

The Kuwait Red Fort (Arabic: القصرالأحمر‎)(Arabic phonetics :Qasr al Ahmar), or Red Palace, lies about 32 kilometres west of Kuwait City in Al-Jahra.

The fort was the location of the Battle of Jahra in 1920.

Madras Medical College

The Madras Medical College is an educational institution located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. It was established on 2 February 1835. It is the third oldest medical college in India, established after Ecole de Médicine de Pondichéry and Medical College Kolkata and is one of the foremost centres of post-graduate medical education in the country with 425 seats. At any point of time, more than 2500 medical and paramedical students study there.

Moti Masjid (Red Fort)

The Moti Masjid is a white marble mosque inside the Red Fort complex in Delhi, India. The name translates into English as "Pearl Mosque." Located to the west of the Hammam and close to the Diwan-e-Khas, it was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb from 1659-1660.

Mughal architecture

Mughal Architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent. It developed the styles of earlier Muslim dynasties in India as an amalgam of Islamic, Persian, Turkish and Indian architecture. Mughal buildings have a uniform pattern of structure and character, including large bulbous domes, slender minarets at the corners, massive halls, large vaulted gateways, and delicate ornamentation. Examples of the style can be found in modern-day India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, and Pakistan.

The Mughal dynasty was established after the victory of Babur at Panipat in 1526. During his five-year reign, Babur took considerable interest in erecting buildings, though few have survived. His grandson Akbar built widely, and the style developed vigorously during his reign. Among his accomplishments were Agra Fort, the fort-city of Fatehpur Sikri, and the Buland Darwaza. Akbar's son Jahangir commissioned the Shalimar Gardens in Kashmir.

Mughal architecture reached its zenith during the reign of Shah Jahan, who constructed the Taj Mahal, the Jama Masjid, the Red Fort, and the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore. The end of his reign corresponded with the decline of Mughal architecture and the Empire itself.

Pavilion

In architecture, a pavilion (from French pavillon, from Latin papilio) has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a subsidiary building that is either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building. Often its function makes it an object of pleasure.In the traditional architecture of Asia, palaces or other large houses may have one or more subsidiary pavilions that are either freestanding or connected by covered walkways, as in the Forbidden City, Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, and in the Red Fort and other buildings of Mughal architecture.

In another more specific meaning applied to large palaces, it refers to symmetrically placed subsidiary building blocks that appear to be attached to each end of a main building block or to the outer ends of wings that extend from both sides of a central building block – the corps de logis. Such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends.

Salimgarh Fort

Salimgarh Fort (Hindi: सलीमगढ़ किला, Urdu: سلیم گڑھ ‎،literally "Salim’s Fort") was built in 1546 AD, in Delhi, in a former island of the Yamuna River, by Salim Shah Suri, son of Sher Shah Suri. There was a pause in Mughal rule when in 1540 AD Sher Shah Suri defeated the Mughal Emperor Humayun (and ousted him from Delhi) and established the Sur dynasty rule in Delhi. Sur dynasty rule lasted till 1555 AD when Humayun regained his kingdom by defeating Sikander Suri, the last ruler of the dynasty. During the Mughal period, in later years, while building the Red Fort and Shahjahanbad, several Mughal rulers including Emperor Shahjahan who is credited with completing Shahjahanabad in 1639 AD had camped at this fort. It is said that Humayun had camped at this fort for three days before launching his successful attack for recapturing Delhi.Aurangzeb, the Mughal Emperor, converted the fort into a prison, which practice was perpetuated by the British who took control of the fort in 1857. The Fort is part of the Red Fort Complex. The complex was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2007, which obligates Archaeological Survey of India (ASl) to ensure well planned conservation measures for the heritage monuments.

Sri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir

Shri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir (Śrī Digambar Jain Lāl Mandir) is the oldest and best-known Jain temple in Delhi, India. It is directly across from the Red Fort in the historical Chandni Chowk area.

The temple is known for an avian veterinary hospital, called the Jain Birds Hospital, in a second building behind the main temple.Located just opposite the massive Red Fort at the intersection of Netaji Subhas Marg and Chandni Chowk, Digambar Jain Temple is the oldest Jain temple in the capital. According to Jain scholar Balbhadra Jain's compendium of Digambar Jain shrines in India, it was built in 1656.

Sunehri Masjid (Chandni Chowk)

The Sunehri Masjid (سنهرى مسجد, lit. Golden Mosque) is a mosque in Old Delhi.

It is located near the Gurudwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, once an imperial boulevard leading to the Red Fort. The mosque was built by Roshan-ud-Daula Zafar Khan in 1721.Apparently the Persian invader Nadir Shah spent several hours on the top of the mosque on 11 March 1739 to observe the Katl-e-Aam (the killing of everyone in sight) that he had ordered, which resulted in the massacre of 30,000 inhabitants.

The mosque's original appearance has been altered as extensions to accommodate the faithful have been constructed. The mosque is also under threat from encroachment.

It is not to be confused with the Sunehri Masjid (Red Fort) nearby, or Lahore's Sunehri Masjid.

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