Red-spotted toad

The red-spotted toad (Anaxyrus punctatus, formerly Bufo punctatus) is a toad in the family Bufonidae found in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico.[1][2][3]

Red-spotted toad
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Anaxyrus
A. punctatus
Binomial name
Anaxyrus punctatus
(Baird and Girard, 1852)

Bufo punctatus Baird and Girard, 1852


It is a small toad species growing to 3.7 to 7.5 cm (1.5 to 3.0 in) in length. It has a flattened head and body, and a light grey, olive or reddish brown dorsum with reddish or orange skin glands. It has a whitish or buff venter with or without faint dark spotting, and round parotoid glands. The snout is pointed. The juvenile toad looks similar to the adult, but has more prominent ventral spotting and the undersides of its feet are yellow. The male red-spotted toad has a dusky throat and develops nuptial pads during the breeding season.[4]

It may hybridize with the western toad (Anaxyrus boreas) in some locations, possibly with other toad species too.[3] It is docile and easily handled with little or no skin gland secretions.[4]

Red Spotted Toad Duquesne Arizona 2014.jpeg
A red-spotted toad in the Patagonia Mountains of southeastern Arizona.

Distribution and habitat

This toad is native to the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, especially Baja California. It occurs primarily along rocky streams and riverbeds, often in arid or semi-arid regions. It is very localized on the coastal slope, but widespread in the deserts. In dry areas it needs seasonal pools or even temporary rain puddles to use for breeding. Eggs hatch in three days and the tadpole can transform in 6–8 weeks, taking advantage of the ephemeral water bodies. It spends dry periods in burrows or beneath rocks or moist plant matter, and becomes suddenly active during rainfall when multitudes of individuals emerge.[5]


  1. ^ a b Hammerson, Geoffrey & Georgina Santos-Barrera (2010). "Anaxyrus punctatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T54739A11197415. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T54739A11197415.en.
  2. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2016). "Anaxyrus punctatus (Baird and Girard, 1852)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Anaxyrus punctatus". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  4. ^ a b Robert Fisher & Ted J. Case. "Anaxyrus punctatus Red-Spotted Toad". A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Coastal Southern California. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  5. ^ Grismer, L. L. (2002). Amphibians and Reptiles of Baja California. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 71.

Anaxyrus is a genus of true toads in the family Bufonidae. The genus is endemic to North America and Central America.

Arizona toad

The Arizona toad (Anaxyrus microscaphus) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to the southwestern United States, where its natural habitats are temperate lowland forests, rivers and streams, swamps, freshwater marshes, freshwater springs, ponds, open excavations, irrigated land, and seasonally flooded agricultural land.

Black Mesa (Oklahoma)

Black Mesa is a mesa in the U.S. states of Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. It extends from Mesa de Maya, Colorado southeasterly 28 miles (45 km) along the north bank of the Cimarron River, crossing the northeast corner of New Mexico to end at the confluence of the Cimarron River and Carrizo Creek near Kenton in the Oklahoma panhandle. Its highest elevation is 5,705 feet (1,739 m) in Colorado. The highest point of Black Mesa within New Mexico is 5,239 feet (1,597 m). In northwestern Cimarron County, Oklahoma, Black Mesa reaches 4,973 feet (1,516 m), the highest point in the state of Oklahoma. The plateau that formed at the top of the mesa has been known as a "geological wonder" of North America. There is abundant wildlife in this shortgrass prairie environment, including mountain lions, butterflies, and the Texas horned lizard.

Canyonlands National Park

Canyonlands National Park is an American national park located in southeastern Utah near the town of Moab. The park preserves a colorful landscape eroded into countless canyons, mesas, and buttes by the Colorado River, the Green River, and their respective tributaries. Legislation creating the park was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on September 12, 1964.The park is divided into four districts: the Island in the Sky, the Needles, the Maze, and the combined rivers—the Green and Colorado—which carved two large canyons into the Colorado Plateau. While these areas share a primitive desert atmosphere, each retains its own character. Author Edward Abbey, a frequent visitor, described the Canyonlands as "the most weird, wonderful, magical place on earth—there is nothing else like it anywhere."

Colorado River toad

The Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius), also known as the Sonoran Desert toad, is found in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. Its toxin, as an exudate of glands within the skin, contains 5-MeO-DMT and bufotenin.

East Potrillo Mountains

The East Potrillo Mountains are a mountain range in south central Doña Ana County, New Mexico. They are located approximately 25 miles (40 km) west of El Paso, Texas, 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Las Cruces, New Mexico, and 30 miles east of Columbus, New Mexico. The southern tip of the range is less than 5 miles (8 km) from the Mexican border. The mountains and most of the surrounding acreage are located on land owned by the Bureau of Land Management. Access to the general vicinity is through New Mexico State Road 9, and several unpaved county roads.

Joshua Tree National Park

Joshua Tree National Park is an American national park in southeastern California, east of Los Angeles, near San Bernardino and Palm Springs. The park is named for the Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) native to the Mojave Desert. Originally declared a national monument in 1936, Joshua Tree was redesignated as a national park in 1994 when the U.S. Congress passed the California Desert Protection Act. Encompassing a total of 790,636 acres (1,235.4 sq mi; 3,199.6 km2)—an area slightly larger than the state of Rhode Island—the park includes 429,690 acres (671.4 sq mi; 1,738.9 km2) of designated wilderness. Straddling the border between San Bernardino County and Riverside County, the park includes parts of two deserts, each an ecosystem whose characteristics are determined primarily by elevation: the higher Mojave Desert and the lower Colorado Desert. The Little San Bernardino Mountains traverse the southwest edge of the park.

List of Arizona state symbols

The following is a list of symbols of the U.S. state of Arizona. The majority of the items in the list are officially recognized after a law passed by the state legislature. Most of the symbols were adopted in the 20th century. The first symbol was the motto, which was made official in 1864 for the Arizona Territory. The newest adopted symbol of Arizona is

Wulfenite in 2017. Arizona became the second state to adopt a "state firearm" after Utah adopted the Browning M1911. Fifteen of the state symbols are on display on the Arizona Capitol Museum.

List of amphibians of Colorado

List of Colorado amphibians lists the wild salamanders, frogs, and toads found in the U.S. state of Colorado.

List of amphibians of New Mexico

This is a list of New Mexico amphibians: all frogs, toads, and salamanders native to the U.S. state of New Mexico.

New Mexico is a locale of extreme biomes, having mountain ranges down the east and west sides of the state, with forests in the west, desert in the central and eastern regions, and grasslands in the northeast near the border of Oklahoma. Despite its relatively, overall arid climate, it is home to a variety of amphibians.

New Mexico only protects a single species of amphibian, the Chiricahua Leopard Frog, Rana chiricahuensis. It is considered to be a threatened species.

List of amphibians of Texas

This is a list of Texas amphibians, all frogs, toads, and salamanders native to the state of Texas.

The state of Texas has a large variety of habitats, from swamps, pine forests in the east, rocky hills and limestone karst in the center, desert in the south and west, mountains in the far west, and grassland prairie in the north. This vast contrast in biomes makes Texas home to a wide variety of herpetofauna. Its central position in the United States means that species found primarily in either the western or eastern reaches of the country often have their ranges meeting in the state. Its proximity to Mexico is such that many species found there and into Central American also range as far north as Texas. Also, the karst topography of central Texas is home to several endemic species. The abundance of amphibians makes the state a prime area for research, and most species in the state are well documented.

Texas state law protects several amphibian species; threatened species denoted as (T) and endangered species denoted as (E).

Mojave Desert

The Mojave Desert ( mo-HAH-vee) is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the southwestern United States, primarily within southeastern California and southern Nevada, and it occupies 47,877 sq mi (124,000 km2). Very small areas also extend into Utah and Arizona. Its boundaries are generally noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, and it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Barstow, Lancaster, Palmdale, Victorville, and St. George.

The Mojave Desert is bordered by the Great Basin Desert to its north and the Sonoran Desert to its south and east. Topographical boundaries include the Tehachapi Mountains to the west, and the San Gabriel Mountains and San Bernardino Mountains to the south. The mountain boundaries are distinct because they are outlined by the two largest faults in California – the San Andreas and Garlock faults. The Mojave Desert displays typical basin and range topography. Higher elevations above 2,000 ft (610 m) in the Mojave are commonly referred to as the High Desert; however, Death Valley is the lowest elevation in North America at 280 ft (85 m) below sea level and is one of the Mojave Desert's more notorious places. The Mojave Desert occupies less than 50,000 sq mi (130,000 km2), making it the smallest of the North American deserts.The Mojave Desert is often referred to as the "high desert", in contrast to the "low desert", the Sonoran Desert to the south. The Mojave Desert, however, is generally lower than the Great Basin Desert to the north. The spelling Mojave originates from the Spanish language while the spelling Mohave comes from modern English. Both are used today, although the Mojave Tribal Nation officially uses the spelling Mojave; the word is a shortened form of Hamakhaave, their endonym in their native language, which means 'beside the water'.

Padre Canyon

Padre Canyon is adjacent to Red Mountain in Ivins, Utah, USA, featuring a 3 sided canyon and scenic sentinels carved from the red Navajo Sandstone. Padre Canyon is at the merging of three great ecosystems, the Mojave Desert, the Colorado Plateau and the Great Basin. The area is biologically rich with a unique combination of plants and animals rarely seen in one place. Other geological features of the canyon include Padre Rock, the Padre Arch, pillared rock formations and sand dunes. During the rainy season, waterfalls are present on the rocky western aspect.

Paria Canyon-Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness

The Paria Canyon-Vermilion Cliffs Wilderness is a 112,500 acres (455 km2) wilderness area located in northern Arizona and southern Utah, United States, within the arid Colorado Plateau region. The wilderness is composed of broad plateaus, tall escarpments, and deep canyons.

The Paria River flows through the wilderness before joining the Colorado River at Lee's Ferry, Arizona.

The U.S. Congress designated the wilderness area in 1984 and it was largely incorporated into the new Vermilion Cliffs National Monument proclaimed in 2000 by executive order of President Bill Clinton.

Both the wilderness area and the National Monument are administered by the federal Bureau of Land Management.

The Colorado Plateau and its river basins are of immense value in the Earth sciences, specifically chronostratigraphy, as the region contains multiple terrain features exposing miles-thick contiguous rock columns that geologists and paleobiologists use as reference strata of the geologic record.

Rhinella rubropunctata

Rhinella rubropunctata (common name: red-spotted toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is found in southern Chile and Argentina. Its natural habitats are humid to xeric temperate forests and open environments. It tolerates a certain degree of disturbance. Breeding takes place in shallow temporary ponds near rivers, reservoirs and lakes. It is threatened by habitat degradation and fragmentation.

San Antonio Zoo

The San Antonio Zoo is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums-accredited zoo in Midtown San Antonio, Texas, United States. It is located in the city's Brackenridge Park. The 35-acre (14 ha) zoo has a collection of over 3,500 animals representing 750 species. The zoo's annual attendance exceeds 1,000,000. It also runs non-animal attractions, such as the 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge San Antonio Zoo Eagle train ride, which first opened in 1956 and utilizes three Chance Rides C.P. Huntington locomotives.The Richard Friedrich Aquarium was opened in 1948. It was the only aquarium in the city until SeaWorld San Antonio was opened in 1988.

Snow Canyon State Park

Snow Canyon State Park is a state park of Utah, USA, featuring a canyon carved from the red and white Navajo sandstone in the Red Mountains. The park is located near Ivins, Utah and St. George in Washington County. Other geological features of the state park include extinct cinder cones, lava tubes, lava flows, and sand dunes.

West Potrillo Mountains

The West Potrillo Mountains are a mountain range in south central Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. They are located approximately 40 miles (65 km) northwest of El Paso, Texas, 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Las Cruces, New Mexico, and 35 miles (55 km) southeast of Deming, New Mexico Most of the mountains are located on land managed by the Bureau of Land Management as part of the Organ Mountains-Desert Peaks National Monument. Access to the vicinity is through Doña Ana County Road B-4 South from NM 549, which may be accessed from Interstate 10 Exit 116.

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