The red-rumped swallow (Cecropis daurica) is a small passerine bird in the swallow family. It breeds in open hilly country of temperate southern Europe and Asia from Portugal and Spain to Japan, India, Sri Lanka and tropical Africa. The Indian and African birds are resident, but European and other Asian birds are migratory. They winter in Africa or India and are vagrants to Christmas Island and northern Australia.
Red-rumped swallows are somewhat similar in habits and appearance to the other aerial insectivores, such as the related swallows and the unrelated swifts (order Apodiformes). They have blue upperparts and dusky underparts.
They resemble barn swallows, but are darker below and have pale or reddish rumps, face and neck collar. They lack a breast band, but have black undertails. They are fast fliers and they swoop on insects while airborne. They have broad but pointed wings.
Red-rumped swallows build quarter-sphere nests with a tunnel entrance lined with mud collected in their beaks, and lay 3 to 6 eggs. They normally nest under cliff overhangs in their mountain homes, but will readily adapt to buildings such as mosques and bridges.
They do not normally form large breeding colonies, but are gregarious outside the breeding season. Many hundreds can be seen at a time on the plains of India.
|H. daurica |
Mangaon, Maharashtra, India
|Range of C. daurica Breeding Resident Non-breeding Vagrant (seasonality uncertain)|
The red-rumped swallow was formally described by Finnish-Swedish clergyman, explorer and natural scientist Erik Laxmann in 1769 as Hirundo daurica, using a specimen from Mount Schlangen near Zmeinogorsk Russia. It is now usually placed in the genus Cecropis created by German scientist Friedrich Boie in 1826, although it is arguable how distinct this genus is from Hirundo, and some authorities retain it in that genus. Boie's genus name Cecropis is from the Ancient Greek for an Athenian woman. The specific daurica is derived from Dauria, a mountainous region to the east of Lake Baikal in Russia. the alternative genus Hirundo is the Latin word for "swallow". Some authorities consider the West African swallow to be a subspecies of the red-rumped swallow.
This species is believed to form a superspecies complex with Hirundo striolata. The widely distributed population shows a lot of variation and several have been named as subspecies. Many of these are migratory and overlap in their wintering ranges and field identification of these forms is not reliable. The Sri Lankan breeding population hyperythra is a resident, and are now usually considered a distinct species, the Sri Lanka swallow. The underparts are deep chestnut and the nuchal collar is not well marked.
The populations in mainland India, erythropygia has the rump patch uniform dark chestnut without any dark shaft-streaks. The tail fork is shallow and the white patch on the inner web of the outer-tail feathers is indistinct. Populations of japonica breed in eastern Asia and winter in Thailand, Burma, India and northern Australia. They are heavily streaked on the underside and have faint streaks on the rump. The populations along the Himalayas nipalensis migrate to peninsular India in winter and breed from Kulu in the west to Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh in the east. This population has the rump paler with dark shaft streaks. Subspecies rufula of Southern Europe, the Iberian Peninsula east to Baluchistan and Kashmir is resident and winters further south. The chestnut of rump fades to white towards the tail base. The nominate population breeds in Mongolia and Trans-Baikailia wintering in South and Southeast Asia. Subspecies gephyra of inner Mongolia is considered indistinguishable from the nominate subspecies. The African populations include kumboensis from the highlands of Sierra Leone and Cameroon; melanocrissus of the Ethiopian highlands and emini of Sudan, Uganda, Kenya and Zambia. Many of the variations are separable only on tail and wing lengths and these vary with overlap across populations.
The red-rumped swallow breeds across southern Europe and Asia east to southern Siberia and Japan, These populations, along with Moroccan birds, are migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa or south Asia. There are resident races in Africa in a broad belt from West Africa east to Ethiopia and then south to Tanzania, and most Indian and Sri Lanka breeders are also year-round residents. The African and Asian subspecies may undertake local seasonal movements. This species is a regular vagrant outside its breeding range.
It is thought that the sequence "open-nest" to "closed nest" to "retort nest" represents the evolutionary development in the mud-building swallows, and individual species follow this order of construction. A retort builder like red-rumped swallow starts with an open cup, closes it, and then builds the entrance tunnel. It has been proposed that the development of closed nests reduced competition between males for copulations with the females. Since mating occurs inside the nest, the difficulty of access means other males are excluded. This reduction in competition permits the dense breeding colonies typical of the Delichon and Petrochelidon genera, but colonial breeding is not inevitable; most Cecropis species are solitary nesters.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the organisation responsible for assessing the conservation status of species. A species is assessed as subject to varying levels of threat if it has a small, fragmented or declining range, or if the total population is less than 10,000 mature individuals, or numbers have dropped by more than 10% in ten years or with a continuing decline generations. Red-rumped swallow has a huge range and a population numbered in millions. It is not known to be seriously declining in range or numbers, so it is classed as Least Concern.
The red-rumped swallow is extending its range northward in Europe, colonising France and Romania in recent decades. The European population is estimated as 100,000 to 430,000 breeding pairs or 300,000 to 1,290,000 individuals.
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Atticora is a genus of bird in the swallow family Hirundinidae. These species are found in South America.
It contains the following two species:
White-banded swallow (Atticora fasciata)
Black-collared swallow (Atticora melanoleuca)Forest swallow
The forest swallow (Petrochelidon fuliginosa) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.
It is found in Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria.Galápagos martin
The Galápagos martin (Progne modesta) is a species of bird in the Hirundinidae family, endemic to the Galápagos Islands.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, pastureland, and heavily degraded former forest.Hirundo
The bird genus Hirundo is a group of passerines in the family Hirundinidae (swallows and martins). The genus name is Latin for a swallow. These are the typical swallows, including the widespread barn swallow. Many of this group have blue backs, red on the face and sometimes the rump or nape, and whitish or rufous underparts. With fifteen species this genus is the largest in its family.List of birds of Islamabad
This is a list of birds found in Islamabad, Pakistan. Seventy-two species of birds have been found in this area. The best places to watch are Margalla Hills and Rawal Lake.
Little grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis
Little cormorant, Microcarbo niger
Great cormorant, Phalacrocorax carbo
Black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax
Indian pond heron (Paddybird), Ardeola grayii
Cattle egret, Bubulcus ibis
Little egret, Egretta garzetta
Intermediate egret, Egretta intermedia
Grey heron, Ardea cinerea
Purple heron, Ardea purpurea
Common teal, Anas crecca
Black kite, Milvus migrans
Shikra, Accipiter badius
Long-legged buzzard, Buteo rufinus
Eurasian kestrel, Falco tinnunculus
Grey francolin, Francolinus pondicerianus
Common quail, Coturnix coturnix
Brown waterhen, Amaurornis akool
White-breasted waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus
Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus
Eurasian coot, Fulica atra
Red-wattled lapwing, Hoplopterus indicus
Common sandpiper, Actitis hypoleucos
Black-headed gull, Larus ridibundus
Feral pigeon, Columba livia
Wood pigeon, Columba palumbus
Collared dove, Streptopelia decaocto
Palm dove, Spilopelia senegalensis
Spotted dove, Spilopelia chinensis
Rose-ringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri
Common koel, Eudynamys scolopacea
Greater coucal, Centropus sinensis
House swift, Apus affinis
White-throated kingfisher, Halcyon smyrnensis
Pied kingfisher, Ceryle rudis
Hoopoe, Upupa epops
Lesser golden-backed woodpecker, Dinopium benghalense
Brown-fronted woodpecker, Dendrocopos auriceps
Crested lark, Galerida cristata
Small skylark, Alauda gulgula
Brown-throated sand martin, Riparia paludicola
Pale sand martin, Riparia diluta
Barn swallow, Hirundo rustica
Red-rumped swallow, Hirundo daurica
Paddyfield pipit, Anthus rufulus
Grey wagtail, Motacilla cinerea
White wagtail, Motacilla alba
Large pied wagtail, Motacilla maderaspatensis
Himalayan bulbul, Pycnonotus leucogenys
Red-vented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer
Dark-grey bushchat, Saxicola ferrea
Blue rock thrush, Monticola solitarius
Blue whistling thrush, Myophonus caeruleus
Fan-tailed warbler, Cisticola juncidis
Tawny prinia, Prinia inornata
Yellow-bellied prinia, Prinia flaviventris
Hume's leaf warbler, Phylloscopus humei
White-throated fantail, Rhipidura albicollis
Black-chinned babbler, Stachyris pyrrhops
Common babbler, Turdoides caudatus
Jungle babbler, Turdoides striatus
Great tit, Parus major
Bar-tailed treecreeper, Certhia himalayana
Oriental white-eye, Zosterops palpebrosus
Rufous-backed shrike, Lanius schach
Black drongo, Dicrurus macrocercus
House crow, Corvus splendens
Brahminy starling, Sturnus pagodarum
Common myna, Acridotheres tristis
Bank myna, Acridotheres ginginianus
House sparrow, Passer domesticus
Alexandrine parakeet, Psittacula eupatria
Green bee-eater, Merops orientalis
Rufous treepie, Dendrocitta vagabunda
Indian robin, Saxicoloides fulicatusMonk's Wall nature reserve
The Monk's Wall nature reserve is located a short distance from the quay in Sandwich, Kent and is ideal for seeing wild duck and other wildlife in a wetland habitat. The reserve was opened by celebrity bird-watcher Bill Oddie in May 2000. Sandwich Bay Bird Observatory Trust proposed the design and a management plan which included modifications to ditches and control of water levels to create ecological conditions that attract wetland species of plants, animals and birds.
Historically the land was reclaimed from the river and sea by the monks of Sandwich and the northern boundary is still the old Monks' wall of the 13th century. In the 1953 floods the sea covered the whole area around Sandwich and after these fields were drained a new river bank was created and the land ploughed for arable farming with heavy use of fertiliser. The site covers 69 acres (28 ha) and attracts many rare and migratory birds such as long-billed waders and the red-rumped swallow. The nature reserve recreates wet grazing meadows which were common before land was drained for agriculture. Returning the site to its natural state has also allowed the establishment of many other indigenous plants and animals.
The current warden is Ken Chapman.
The local community benefits from the programme as a footpath around the reserve allows easy access for walkers and bird watchers.Mosque swallow
The mosque swallow (Cecropis senegalensis) is a large swallow. It is a resident breeder in much of sub-Saharan Africa, although most common in the west. It does not migrate but follows the rains to some extent.Peruvian martin
The Peruvian martin (Progne murphyi) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae. It is found in Peru and far norther Chile.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, pastureland, and urban areas. It is threatened by habitat loss.Preuss's cliff swallow
Preuss's cliff swallow (Petrochelidon preussi), also known as Preuss's swallow, is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.Red-breasted swallow
The red-breasted swallow (Cecropis semirufa), also known as the rufous-chested swallow, is a member of the Hirundinidae family, found in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is confined to the tropical rainforest during the wet season.Saw-wing
The saw-wings, Psalidoprocne, is a small genus of passerine birds in the swallow family. The common name of this group is derived from the rough outer edge of the outer primary feather on the wing, which is rough due to recurved barbs. The function of this is unknown. The birds are 11–17 cm long and black or black-and-white in colour. The genus has an African distribution and all species can be found foraging over forest and woodland.Sinaloa martin
The Sinaloa martin (Progne sinaloae) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.
It breeds semicolonially in sheer cliff faces within pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre Occidental of western Mexico. Presumed migrant records also come from Belize and Guatemala. It is assumed to winter in South America.Southern martin
The southern martin (Progne elegans) is a species of bird in the family Hirundinidae.
It is found in Argentina and southern Bolivia ; in winter it migrates to the western Amazon Basin.
Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest, subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude grassland, and urban areas.Sri Lanka swallow
The Sri Lanka swallow (Cecropis hyperythra) is a large swallow. It is a resident breeder endemic to Sri Lanka. It is closely related to the red-rumped swallow, and was formerly considered a subspecies.Striated swallow
The striated swallow (Cecropis striolata) is a species of swallow found in open, often hilly areas, clearings and cultivation in South and Southeast Asia to northeastern India and Taiwan.
The striated swallow was formerly sometimes considered to a subspecies of red-rumped swallow.The Stone Mushrooms
The Stone Mushrooms (Bulgarian: Каменните гъби) is a rock phenomenon near Beli plast village in Bulgaria, on the road between Haskovo and Kardzhali. They are about 2.5 metres tall. The 3 hectares area was declared to be a natural resource on May 13, 1974, according to №РД-552 bill of the Ministry of Environment and Water. Interesting kinds of birds can be observed in the area: short-toed eagle, Egyptian vulture, red-rumped swallow, black-eared wheatear etc.Transbaikal
Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia (Russian: Забайка́лье, tr. Zabaykalye, IPA: [zəbɐjˈkalʲjɪ]), or Dauria (Даурия, Dauriya) is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" (trans-) Lake Baikal in Russia.
The steppe and wetland landscapes of Dauria are protected by the Daurian Nature Reserve, which forms part of a World Heritage Site named "The Landscapes of Dauria".West African swallow
The West African swallow (Cecropis domicella) is a swallow. It is found in Africa from Senegal to eastern Sudan.