Red-crested pochard

The red-crested pochard (Netta rufina) is a large diving duck. The scientific name is derived from Greek Netta "duck", and Latin rufina, "golden-red" (from rufus, "ruddy").[2] Its breeding habitat is lowland marshes and lakes in southern Europe and Central Asia, wintering in the Indian Subcontinent and Africa. It is somewhat migratory, and northern birds winter further south into north Africa.

The adult male is unmistakable. It has a rounded orange head, red bill and black breast. The flanks are white, the back brown, and the tail black. The female is mainly a pale brown, with a darker back and crown and a whitish face. Eclipse males are like females but with red bills. They are gregarious birds, forming large flocks in winter, often mixed with other diving ducks, such as common pochards. They feed mainly by diving or dabbling. They eat aquatic plants, and typically upend for food more than most diving ducks.

A wheezing veht call can be given by the male. Series of hoarse vrah-vrah-vrah calls can also be heard from females.

Red-crested pochards build nests by the lakeside among vegetation and lay 8–12 pale green eggs. The birds' status in the British Isles is much confused because there have been many escapes and deliberate releases over the years, as well as natural visitors from the continent. However, it is most likely that they are escapees that are now breeding wild and have built up a successful feral population. They are most numerous around areas of England including Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Northamptonshire.

The red-crested pochard is one of the species to which the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA) applies.

Red-crested pochard
Netta rufina (Red-crested Pochard) Male, London Wetland Centre - Diliff
Netta rufina (female), London Wetland Centre, UK - Diliff
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Anseriformes
Family: Anatidae
Genus: Netta
N. rufina
Binomial name
Netta rufina
(Pallas, 1773)
NettaRufinaIUCNverz2018 2
Range of N. rufina     Breeding      Resident      Non-breeding
Netta rufina MWNH 1006
Egg, collection Museum Wiesbaden
Red Crested Pochard Pair
Red Crested Pochard Pair in Bharatpur India


  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Netta rufina". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 269, 342. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.

External links

Cefa Natural Park

The Cefa Natural Park (Romanian: Parcul Natural Cefa) is a protected area (natural park category V IUCN) situated in Romania, on the administrative territory of Bihor County.

Cotswold Water Park

The Cotswold Water Park is the United Kingdom's largest marl lake system, straddling the Wiltshire–Gloucestershire border, northwest of Cricklade and south of Cirencester. The lakes were created in the second half of the 20th century by extraction of glacial Jurassic limestone gravel, which had eroded from the Cotswold Hills, and these filled naturally after working began to cease in the early 1970s.It is not a water fun park, as the name might suggest. It is a significant area for wildlife and particularly for wintering and breeding birds. The local Wildlife Trusts (Gloucestershire and Wiltshire) are involved in partnership with the Cotswold Water Park Trust in working with local communities and organisations in the area. The Cotswold Water Park Trust is an environmental charity working to improve all 40 square miles of the Cotswold Water Park for people and wildlife. The lake area is very varied and encompasses a wide variety of recreational activities including sailing and fishing.

There are 147 numbered lakes. The area is a mix of nature conservation activities (including nature reserves), recreation, rural villages and holiday accommodation. The site (Fairford Region; South Cerney Region; Coke's Pit Lake; Edward Richardson and Phyllis Amey reserve; Bryworth Lane reserve) was listed in the Cotswold District Local Plan 2001–2011 as a Key Wildlife Site (KWS).

Delta de la Dranse National Nature Reserve

The Delta de la Dranse National Nature Reserve is a nature reserve located in the delta of the Dranse river. The reserve is located to the east of the commune of Thonon-les-Bains in southeastern France. At 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) long by 500 metres (1,600 ft) wide, it covers a small area of 53 hectares (130 acres) at an elevation ranging from 372 to 380 metres (1,220 to 1,247 ft). Offering a rich botanic biodiversity, the site was declared a national nature reserve in January 1980 and declared a special "zone of protection" since September 1986.

The beach of the last river delta along Lake Geneva is constituted of alluvium, sand, stones, and pebbles. The sandy beaches and small islands are constantly being formed by the path of the rising torrential river, which has resulted in the expansion of a rich diversity of flora and wildlife. The reserve shelters:

Close to 750 plant species including orchids;

More than 200 species of birds, notably the red-crested pochard, the little ringed plover — the reserve is the only nesting site for the common tern in the larger Rhone basin, additionally it is the southernmost point where the common gull nests;

Numerous reptiles and amphibian species are equally represented;

European beavers are well established along the banks.

Diving duck

The diving ducks, commonly called pochards or scaups, are a category of duck which feed by diving beneath the surface of the water. They are part of Anatidae, the diverse and very large family that includes ducks, geese, and swans.

The diving ducks are placed in a distinct tribe in the subfamily Anatinae, the Aythyini. While morphologically close to the dabbling ducks, there are nonetheless some pronounced differences such as in the structure of the trachea. mtDNA cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 sequence data indicate that the dabbling and diving ducks are fairly distant from each other, the outward similarities being due to convergent evolution.

Alternatively, the diving ducks are placed as a subfamily Aythyinae in a subfamily Anatidae which would encompass all duck-like birds except the whistling-ducks.

The seaducks commonly found in coastal areas, such as the long-tailed duck (formerly known in the US as oldsquaw), scoters, goldeneyes, mergansers, bufflehead and eiders, are also sometimes colloquially referred to in North America as diving ducks because they also feed by diving; their subfamily (Merginae) is a very distinct one however.

Although the group is cosmopolitan, most members are native to the Northern Hemisphere, and it includes several of the most familiar Northern Hemisphere ducks.

This group of ducks is so named because its members feed mainly by diving, although in fact the Netta species are reluctant to dive, and feed more like dabbling ducks.

These are gregarious ducks, mainly found on fresh water or on estuaries, though the greater scaup becomes marine during the northern winter. They are strong fliers; their broad, blunt-tipped wings require faster wing-beats than those of many ducks and they take off with some difficulty. Northern species tend to be migratory; southern species do not migrate though the hardhead travels long distances on an irregular basis in response to rainfall. Diving ducks do not walk as well on land as the dabbling ducks; their legs tend to be placed further back on their bodies to help propel them when underwater.


Faunia is a zoo and a botanical garden located in Madrid, Spain. It covers about fourteen square hectares and is organized into areas representing different ecosystems, such as jungle, polar regions, and African forest. It is owned by Parques Reunidos, SA.

Faunia was opened on July 10, 2001 under the name Parque Biológico de Madrid. In 2002, the park was renamed Faunia, a name created by the philologist and writer, Fernando Beltrán. The author of the project was Ricardo Novaro Bocco..

In 2014, Faunia received 400,867 visitors.

Lagunas de Ruidera

The Lagunas de Ruidera are a group of small lakes in the Campo de Montiel, Castilla-La Mancha, between Albacete Province, and Ciudad Real Province, Spain. Most of the lakes are interconnected and their total water amount may reach 23.06 hm3, which is considerable by the standards of other lakes in the Iberian Peninsula.

The largest lakes are Laguna Colgada and Laguna del Rey. The area near the lakes is a tourist site, with small hotels, restaurants, camping sites and private villas, located mostly in or around Ruidera town. The area can be reached from Ossa de Montiel or Villahermosa.

Lake Arin

Lake Arin (in Turkish: Arin Gölü; also Sodalı Göl) is a soda lake in Turkey. It is a part of Adilcevaz ilçe (district) of Bitlis Province. The mid point of the lake is at 38°48′35″N 42°59′20″E. The lake is to the east of Adilcevaz and separated from Lake Van, the biggest lake of Turkey by alluvial deposits of only 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) width. The elevation of the lake is 1,650 metres (5,410 ft).

The area of the lake is about 13 square kilometres (5.0 sq mi). Gadwall, red-crested pochard and ruddy duck are among the birds of the lake.

Lake Işıklı

Lake Işıklı (Turkish: Işıklı Gölü) is a freshwater lake in Turkey's inner Aegean Region extending on Çivril Plain between the provinces of Denizli and Afyonkarahisar. The lake is bordered by the boundaries of several districts, namely, clockwise Çivril (Denizli Province), the principal urban center of the region, and Kızılören, Dinar and Evciler (Afyonkarahisar Province). A township on the lake shore and that is part of Çivril district carries the same name as the lake (Işıklı).

The lake lies at an altitude of 821 m and its area is 73 square kilometres. Its waters fed by streams are used for irrigation for the surrounding agricultural lands and the lake is also an important fishing and aquaculture center at regional scale.

Lake Işıklı is an important site for breeding waterbirds and large numbers of wintering wildfowl. It has been proposed as an Important Bird Area. Some of the species that breed or migrate through Lake Işıklı are; greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons), red-crested pochard (Netta rufina), common pochard (Aythya ferina), ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca), squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), pygmy cormorant (Phalacrocorax pygmeus), common coot (Fulica atra), gull-billed tern (Sterna nilotica), whiskered tern (Chlidonias hybrida).

Lake Çavuşçu

Lake Çavuşçu (also known as Lake Ilgın) is a fresh water lake in Turkey

The lake is situated in Ilgın ilçe (district) of Konya Province at 38°20′36″N 31°52′39″E. Its elevation with respect to sea level is about 1,110 metres (3,640 ft). Its surface area is 3,123 hectares (7,720 acres).The lake is fed by Battal and Çebişli creeks.

Lavells Lake

Lavells Lake is a local nature reserve in Woodley, Berkshire, England. The nature reserve is owned by Wokingham Borough Council and managed by the council in partnership with the Friends of Lavell's Lake. The nature reserve is within the Dinton Pastures Country Park.

List of birds of Bulgaria

This list of birds of Bulgaria includes all bird species which have been seen in the country. Birds marked with (W) are species which spend the winter in Bulgaria but do not breed there, birds marked with (V) are vagrant species and birds marked with (I) are introduced species. It includes 400 bird species from 21 orders, 63 families and 198 genera.

The varied natural habitat, relief and climate and relatively untouched environment are among the main reasons for the many bird species in the country. The numerous islands and wetlands along the Danube including the Persina Natural Park and Srebarna Nature Reserve, as well as the lakes and swamps along the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, support many species of diving and aquatic birds such as ducks, swans, pelicans, grebes, spoonbills and many others. The eastern Rhodopes are among the strongholds of birds of prey in Europe, with most of the species in the continent nesting in that area. The mild climate in the extreme south offers good conditions for many Mediterranean birds as well as for wintering species from the north.


Netta is a genus of diving ducks. The name is derived from Greek Netta "duck". Unlike other diving ducks, the Netta species are reluctant to dive, and feed more like dabbling ducks.

These are gregarious ducks, mainly found on fresh water. They are strong fliers; their broad, blunt-tipped wings require faster wing-beats than those of many ducks and they take off with some difficulty.

They do not walk as well on land as the dabbling ducks because their legs tend to be placed further back on their bodies to help propel them when underwater.

The probably extinct pink-headed duck, previously listed as Rhodonessa caryophyllacea, has recently been shown by phylogenetic analysis to be closely related to the red-crested pochard, so has now been transferred to the same genus, as Netta caryophyllacea. However, this has been questioned due to numerous and pronounced peculiarities of that species.

Pani Dihing Wildlife Sanctuary

Pani Dihing Wildlife Sanctuary (Assamese: পানী দিহিং অভয়াৰণ্য) is a 33.93-square-kilometre (13.10 sq mi) wildlife sanctuary located in Sivasagar district, Assam. It is 22 km (14 mi) away from Sivasagar town. This protected area was established as a Bird Sanctuary in August 1999 by the Government of Assam.

Pink-headed duck

The pink-headed duck (Rhodonessa caryophyllacea) was (or is) a large diving duck that was once found in parts of the Gangetic plains of India, Bangladesh and in the riverine swamps of Myanmar but feared extinct since the 1950s. Numerous searches have failed to provide any proof of continued existence. It has been suggested that it may exist in the inaccessible swamp regions of northern Myanmar and some sight reports from that region have led to its status being declared as "Critically Endangered" rather than extinct. The genus placement has been disputed and while some have suggested that it is close to the red-crested pochard (Netta rufina), others have placed it in a separate genus of its own. It is unique in the pink colouration of the head combined with a dark body. A prominent wing patch and the long slender neck are features shared with the common Indian spot-billed duck. The eggs have also been held as particularly peculiar in being nearly spherical.


Pochard include the following species of diving ducks:

Three species in the genus Aythya:

Common pochard, Aythya ferina

Baer's pochard, Aythya baeri

Madagascar pochard, Aythya innotata

Three species in the genus Netta:

Red-crested pochard, Netta rufina

Rosy-billed pochard or Rosybill, Netta peposaca

Southern pochard, Netta erythrophthalma


Rasikbil or Rasikbeel is a small lake situated in the Cooch Behar district of West Bengal, India. This lake attracts a lot of birds which make nests in the trees around the lake. The bird varieties which live in and around the lake includes cormorants, different varieties of storks, ibis, spoonbill, kingfisher, parrots, owl and many others. There is a deer park and a crocodile rehabilitation center by the side of the lake. There are also a leopard house, a python house, Aviary & a Tortoise rescue entre. This following water birds found in Rasik Beel- Lesser Whistling Teal, Common Teal, White eyed pochard, Red Crested pochard, Shoveler, Pintail, Wigeon duck, Grey headed Lapwing, Northern Lapwing, Pied Kingfisher, Stork billed kingfisher, Small blue kingfisher, Little Cormorant, Large Cormorant, Gadwall etc.

Tagus Estuary Natural Reserve

Tagus Estuary Natural Reserve (Portuguese: Reserva Natural do Estuário do Tejo) is a natural reserve in Portugal. It is one of the 30 areas which are officially under protection in the country. The estuary of the Tagus River is the largest wetland in the country and one of the most important in Europe, a sanctuary for fish, molluscs, crustaceans, and especially to birds that stop-over on their migration between northern Europe and Africa. It is the largest estuary in western Europe, with about 34,000 hectares (84,000 acres), and regularly hosts 50,000 wintering waterfowl

Uppalapadu Bird Sanctuary

The Uppalapadu Bird Sanctuary is located in Uppalapadu, near Guntur City, India. Painted storks, spot-billed pelicans and other birds that migrate from various countries such as Siberia and Australia use the village water tanks for nesting.The bird population in these tanks used to be around 12,000 previously, however lately only about 7000 birds roost in this dwindling habitat through the year. But some initiatives have taken place such as adding artificial trees, local awareness, proper water supply to the ponds etc. The number of Pelicans, may be more than 1500. Besides this 6 pintail ducks a few cormorant 5 red crested pochard(rhodonesa rufina), common coot, common teal, black-headed ibises, 2 stilts were also sighted.

Instead of erecting wire mesh artificial-trees the forest department should plant more Prosopis velutina tree in and around this swamp. The ibises and painted stork were found scavenging on the left over rotten fish droppings of pelican along with jungle crow. The main diet being fed to the chicks was both fresh and sea water fish. Some of the fish, particularly LabeoRohita (Carp) and other sea fish, which had dropped from the nests, were fresh and about 0.8 kg in weight. They must have been brought from nearest river and sea which is about 20–30 km away from the site since the pelicans were not found fishing from nearby ponds. In 2009 the large wire mesh trees which were provided by the Forest department are being used for nest making by the pelicans, although they did not do so in the initial years. This pelicanary has completed ten years operation in 2009. Some pelicans have now opted to use another pond at Ramchandrapalem which is about 4 km from this site towards Guntur.

Zoom Torino

Zoom Torino is a zoo and amusement park in Cumiana, near Turin, northern Italy, created in 2007. It covers 180,000 square metres (44 acres).The zoo is meant to represent the continents of Asia and Africa using immersive exhibits.


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