Real Audiencia of Lima

The Real Audiencia and Chancery of Lima (Spanish: Audiencia y Cancillería Real de Lima) was a superior court in the New World empire of Spain, located in the city of Lima, capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. It was created on November 20, 1542 as was the viceroyalty itself, by the Emperor Charles V. The Audiencia began functioning in 1543 and initially had jurisdiction over the entire viceroyalty—virtually all of Spanish-controlled South America and Panama. Later other audiencias were established in the Viceroyalty. The Audiencia functioned until 1821 when the forces of José de San Martín entered Lima.

Subsequent divisions

In 1559 part of the territory of the Lima Audiencia was separated and given over to a new Audiencia of Charcas, and in 1563 an Audiencia of Quito was established with jurisdiction over the northern territories of the viceroyalty. By the time the Recopilación de Leyes de Indias was published in 1680, the territory of the Lima Audiencia was defined in Law V of Title 15 as:

In the City of the Kings Lima, head of the provinces of Peru, shall reside another of our Royal Audiencias and Chancellery, with a viceroy, governor and captain general and lieutenant ours, who shall be president; eight judges of civil cases [oidores]; four judges of criminal cases [alcaldes del crimen]; and two crown attorneys [fiscales], one for civil cases and one for criminal ones; a bailiff [alguacil mayor]; a lieutenant of the Gran Chancellor; and the other necessary ministers and officials; and which shall have for district the coast from said city until the Kingdom of Chile exclusive, and until the Port of Paita inclusive; and inland to San Miguel de Piura, Cajamarca, Chachapoyas, Moyobamba and Los Motilones, inclusive and until El Collao, exclusive, along the borders determined for the Royal Audiencia of la Plata, and the City of Cusco and its [dependencies], inclusive, sharing borders in the north with the Royal Audiencia of Quito; in the south with the one of La Plata and in the west with the South Sea and in the east with undiscovered provinces, according to what is contained in, and pointed out, in Law 14 of this title.[1]

References

  1. ^ Spain (1680). Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias. Titulo Quince. De las Audiencias y Chancillerias Reales de las Indias. Madrid. Spanish-language facsimile of the original.
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Governorate of New Andalusia

New Andalusia Governorate (Spanish: Gobernación de Nueva Andalucía, pronounced [ɡoβeɾnaˈθjon de ˈnweβa andaluˈθi.a]; 1534−1542) was one of the colonial governorates of the Spanish Empire, located in southern South America.

José de Rezabal y Ugarte

José de Rezabal y Ugarte (1747–1800) was a Spanish lawyer and judge and jurist. He was born in Vitoria on July 19, 1800 and died in Santiago, Chile. He served as Spanish governor of Chile, on an interim basis, from 24 May to 18 September 1796. As judge and mayor over crime in Lima in 1781, he led the case against Túpac Amaru II, writing the judgment which condemned to death by hanging him and several of his followers, as well as penalties in prisons in Africa, Callao and Valdivia for many others.

Lautaro

Lautaro (Mapudungun: Lef-Traru "swift hawk") (Spanish pronunciation: [lau̯ˈtaɾo]; 1534? – April 29, 1557) was a young Araucanian toqui known for leading the indigenous resistance against Spanish conquest in Chile and developing the tactics that would continue to be employed by the Mapuche during the long-running War of Arauco. Lautaro was captured by Spanish forces in his early youth, and he spent his teenage years as a personal servant of chief conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, but escaped in 1551. Back among his people he was declared toqui and led Mapuche warriors into a series of victories against the Spanish culminating in the Battle of Tucapel in December 1553 where Pedro de Valdivia was killed. The outbreak of a typhus plague, a drought and a famine prevented the Mapuche from taking further actions to expel the Spanish in 1554 and 1555. Between 1556 and 1557 a small group of Mapuche commanded by Lautaro attempted to reach Santiago to liberate the whole of Central Chile from Spanish rule. Lautaro's attempts ended in 1557 when he was killed in an ambush by the Spanish.

Today Lautaro is revered among Mapuche and non-Mapuche Chileans for his resistance against foreign conquest, servitude and cruelty.

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Real Audiencia

The Real Audiencia (Spanish pronunciation: [reˈal auˈðjenθja]), or simply Audiencia (Catalan: Reial Audiència, Audiència Reial, or Audiència), was an appellate court in Spain and its empire. The name of the institution literally translates as Royal Audience. The additional designation chancillería (or cancillería, Catalan: cancelleria, English: chancellery) was applied to the appellate courts in early modern Spain. Each audiencia had oidores (Spanish: judges, literally, "hearers").

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