Real Audiencia of Buenos Aires

The Real Audiencia de Buenos Aires, were two audiencias, or highest courts, of the Spanish crown, which resided in Buenos Aires. The authority of the first extended to the territory of the Governorate of the Río de la Plata and operated from 1661 to 1671. The second began to function in 1783 and had as its territory the areas of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata not covered by the Audiencia de Charcas, that is to say the intendancies of Buenos Aires, Córdoba del Tucumán, Salta del Tucumán and Paraguay. In 1810, after the May Revolution, it was suspended, and in 1813 the Assembly of the Year XIII permanently disbanded it. The Audiencias resided in the city's cabildo building.

Virreinato
Internal divisions of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata in 1783.

History

Audiencia of Buenos Aires during the Governorate

Created by Philip IV by decree (real cédula) in 1661, it covered the governorates of Río de la Plata, Paraguay (established in 1617) and Tucumán. This Audiencia was dissolved in 1671.

The Recompilation of Laws of the Indies of 1680, Law XIII (Audiencia y Chancilleria Real de la Ciudad de la Trinidad, Puerto de Buenos Ayres) Title XV (De las Audiencias y Chancillerias Reales de las Indias) of Book II, compiles the limits and functionaries of this Audiencia.[1][2]

Audiencia of Buenos Aires under the Viceroyalty

Created during the reign of Charles III of Spain (1759–1788) and during the government of viceroy Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo, in 1783, as part of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, from 1 August 1776.

Its territory included the intendancies mentioned above and the subordinate Governorates of Misiones and Montevideo.

References

  1. ^ [Ley India "Recopilación de las Leyes de Indias"] Check |url= value (help) (in Spanish). 1680.
  2. ^ Gandia, Eduardo (1935). La anexión de Santa Cruz a la República de Bolivia. Historia de Santa Cruz de la Sierra una nueva república en Sud América (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Talleres gráficos argentinos de L. J. Rosso Doblas. [1].
Index of Argentina-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to the Argentine Republic.

Julián de Leyva

Julián de Leyva (1749–1818) was an Argentine politician. He studied at the Royal College of San Carlos and the Royal University of San Felipe in Santiago, Chile.

He held several public offices in the Real Audiencia of Buenos Aires, in the council of that city and in Lujan. He became interested in the conservation and history of Argentina primitive literature, and formed a great library for this purpose.

Narciso Marull

Narciso Marull (1747-c.1820) was a Spanish apothecary and merchant, who served as Asentista de Medicina in the Real Audiencia of Buenos Aires.

Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires

Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos Aires, KOM, OM (July 25, 1753 – August 26, 1810) was a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. Although born "Jacques de Liniers" in France, he is more widely known by the Spanish form of his name, "Santiago de Liniers".

He was popularly regarded as the hero of the reconquest of Buenos Aires after the first British invasion of the Río de la Plata. As a result of his success, he was appointed as viceroy, replacing Rafael de Sobremonte. It was unprecedented for a viceroy to be replaced without the King's direct intervention. But he was confirmed in office by Charles IV of Spain.

He defended the settlement against a second British invasion attempt and a mutiny that sought to replace him. He was replaced in 1809 by Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros, appointed as viceroy by the Junta of Seville, and retired from public activity. But when the May Revolution took place, Liniers decided to come out of his retirement and organized a monarchist uprising in Córdoba. Liniers was defeated, captured, and executed without trial.

The Southern Star (Montevideo)

The Southern Star / La Estrella del sur (the last name is the Spanish translation, but both names were used in conjunction) was a bilingual newspaper edited in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1807. It was the first newspaper edited in the city, but it only lasted for a couple of months, while Montevideo was under British rule during the second British invasions of the Río de la Plata. The newspaper was used to promote free trade and loyalty to the British Crown, as a possible way to achieve independence from the Spanish Crown.

The Real Audiencia of Buenos Aires forbade the distribution or possession of those newspapers in the city of Buenos Aires, with the unauthorized possession charged as treason against the King and the State. The lawyer Mariano Moreno was requested to write editorials countering the opinions held by the newspaper. However, Moreno refused to do so because, even while he rejected British presence in the Viceroyalty, he still thought that some of the critics made to the Spanish government were right.The newspaper was closed after the defeat and removal of the British troops, and the printing machines were sent to Buenos Aires.

Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata

The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Spanish: Virreinato del Río de la Plata, also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.

The Viceroyalty was established in 1776 from several former Viceroyalty of Perú dependencies that mainly extended over the Río de la Plata Basin, roughly the present-day territories of Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay, extending inland from the Atlantic Coast. The colony of Spanish Guinea (present day Equatorial Guinea) also depended administratively on the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata. Buenos Aires, located on the western shore of the Río de la Plata estuary flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, opposite the Portuguese outpost of Colonia del Sacramento, was chosen as the capital. Usually considered one of the late Bourbon Reforms, the organization of this viceroyalty was motivated on both commercial grounds (Buenos Aires was by then a major spot for illegal trade), as well as on security concerns brought about by the growing interest of competing foreign powers in the area. The Spanish Crown wanted to protect its territory against Great Britain and the Kingdom of Portugal.

But these Enlightenment reforms proved counterproductive, or perhaps too late, to quell the colonies' demands. The entire history of this Viceroyalty was marked by growing domestic unrest and political instability. Between 1780 and 1782, the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II inspired a violent Aymara-led revolt across the Upper Peru highlands, demonstrating the great resentment against colonial authorities by both the mestizo and indigenous populations. Twenty-five years later, the Criollos, native-born people of the colony, successfully defended against two successive British attempts to conquer Buenos Aires and Montevideo. This enhanced their sense of autonomy and power at a time when Spanish troops were unable to help.

In 1809, the Criollo elite revolted against colonial authorities at La Paz and Chuquisaca, establishing revolutionary governments, juntas. Although short-lived, these provided a theoretical basis for the legitimacy of the locally based governments, which proved decisive at the 1810 May Revolution events deposing Viceroy Cisneros at Buenos Aires.

The revolution spread across the Viceroyalty, except for Paraguay (which declared itself an independent nation in 1811) and Upper Peru (which remained controlled by royalist troops from Lima, and was eventually re-incorporated into the Viceroyalty of Peru). Meanwhile, the Governor of Montevideo Francisco Javier de Elío, appointed as a new Viceroy by the Cortes of Cádiz in 1811, declared the Buenos Aires Junta seditious. However, after being defeated at Las Piedras, he retained control only of Colonia del Sacramento and Montevideo. He departed by ship to Spain on 18 November and resigned as Viceroy in January 1812. By 1814, as the revolutionary patriots entered Montevideo, following a two-year-long siege, the Viceroyalty was finished as government of the region.

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