Raven

A raven is one of several larger-bodied species of the genus Corvus. These species do not form a single taxonomic group within the genus.

There is no consistent distinction between "crows" and "ravens", and these appellations have been assigned to different species chiefly on the basis of their size, crows generally being smaller than ravens.

The largest raven species are the common raven and the thick-billed raven.

Head of Raven
Head of a common raven
Corvus corax jouveniles.jpeg
Common ravens
Ravaged Raven in Flight
Ravaged wing of combative Raven, still allows him to fly with ease

Etymology

The term "raven" originally referred to the common raven, the type species of the genus Corvus, which has a larger distribution than any other species of Corvus, ranging over much of the Northern Hemisphere.

The modern English word raven has cognates in all other Germanic languages, including Old Norse (and subsequently modern Icelandic) hrafn[1] and Old High German (h)raban,[2] all of which descend from Proto-Germanic *hrabanaz.[3]

Collective nouns for a group of ravens (or at least the common raven) include "unkindness", "treachery",[4] and "conspiracy".[5] In practice, most people use the more generic "flock".

Species

Extinct species

See also

References

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary entry for "raven."
  2. ^ Simpson, J.; Weiner, E., eds. (1989). "Raven". Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2.
  3. ^ "Raven". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 14 May 2007.
  4. ^ "Baltimore Bird Club. Group Name for Birds: A Partial List". Retrieved 3 June 2007.
  5. ^ "University of California Golf Club. List of Collective Nouns". Retrieved 16 July 2008.

External links

Australian raven

The Australian raven (Corvus coronoides) is a passerine bird in the genus Corvus native to much of southern and northeastern Australia. Measuring 46–53 centimetres (18–21 in) in length, it has all-black plumage, beak and mouth, as well as strong grey-black legs and feet. The upperparts are glossy, with a purple, blue, or green sheen, and its black feathers have grey bases. The Australian raven is distinguished from the Australian crow species by its throat hackles, which are prominent in adult birds. Older adult individuals have white irises, younger adults have white irises with an inner blue rim, while younger birds have dark brown irises until fifteen months of age, and hazel irises with an inner blue rim around each pupil until age two years and ten months. Nicholas Aylward Vigors and Thomas Horsfield described the Australian raven in 1827, its species name (coronoides) highlighting its similarity with the carrion crow (C. corone). Two subspecies are recognized, which differ slightly in calls and are quite divergent genetically.

The preferred habitat is open woodland and transitional zones. It has adapted well to urban environments and is a common city bird in Sydney, Canberra, and Perth. An omnivorous and opportunistic feeder, it eats a wide variety of plant and animal material, as well as food waste from urban areas. In eastern Australia, its range is strongly correlated with the presence of sheep, and it has been blamed for killing lambs. However, this is very rare, and the raven most often scavenges for afterbirth and stillborn animals as well as newborn lamb faeces. The Australian raven is territorial, with pairs generally bonding for life. Breeding takes place between July and September, with almost no variation across its range. The nest is a bowl-shaped structure of sticks sited high in a tree, or occasionally in a man-made structure such as a windmill or other building.

Beast Boy

Beast Boy (Garfield Logan) is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, usually as a member of the teams Teen Titans and Doom Patrol. Created by writer Arnold Drake and artist Bob Brown, he first appeared in The Doom Patrol #99 (November 1965).

Beast Boy has appeared in numerous cartoon television shows and films. He appears in his first live adaptation as one of the main cast of the Titans television series for the new DC streaming service played by Ryan Potter.

Common raven

The common raven (Corvus corax), also known as the northern raven, is a large all-black passerine bird. Found across the Northern Hemisphere, it is the most widely distributed of all corvids. There are at least eight subspecies with little variation in appearance, although recent research has demonstrated significant genetic differences among populations from various regions. It is one of the two largest corvids, alongside the thick-billed raven, and is possibly the heaviest passerine bird; at maturity, the common raven averages 63 centimetres (25 inches) in length and 1.2 kilograms (2.6 pounds) in mass. Common ravens can live up to 21 years in the wild, a lifespan surpassed among passerines by only a few Australasian species such as the satin bowerbird and probably the lyrebirds. Young birds may travel in flocks but later mate for life, with each mated pair defending a territory.

Common ravens have coexisted with humans for thousands of years and in some areas have been so numerous that people have regarded them as pests. Part of their success as a species is due to their omnivorous diet; they are extremely versatile and opportunistic in finding sources of nutrition, feeding on carrion, insects, cereal grains, berries, fruit, small animals, and food waste.

Some notable feats of problem-solving provide evidence that the common raven is unusually intelligent. Over the centuries, it has been the subject of mythology, folklore, art, and literature. In many cultures, including the indigenous cultures of Scandinavia, ancient Ireland and Wales, Bhutan, the northwest coast of North America, and Siberia and northeast Asia, the common raven has been revered as a spiritual figure or godlike creature.

Cory in the House

Cory in the House is an American television series which aired on the Disney Channel from January 12, 2007, to September 12, 2008, and was a spin-off from the Disney show That's So Raven. The show focuses on Cory Baxter, who moves from San Francisco, California to Washington, D.C. with his father, after Victor Baxter gets a new job in the White House as the official head chef. The series marks a Disney Channel first, as it is the channel's first spin-off. This is also the only Disney Channel spin-off series to be broadcast in standard definition for the entire length of the show. Reruns of the series have not been aired on Disney Channel, or on Disney XD; however, they continue to air on the Family channel in Canada. Raven-Symoné guest-starred, reprising her role as Raven Baxter in only one episode. In 2014, Disney Channel started airing a weekly block called Disney Replay on Wednesdays nights, during which episodes of Cory in the House air alongside That's So Raven and Kim Possible, among others.

Emilie de Ravin

Emilie de Ravin (; born 27 December 1981) is an Australian-American actress. She starred as Tess Harding on Roswell (2000–2002), Claire Littleton on the ABC drama Lost (2004–2010), and as Belle on the ABC drama Once Upon a Time (2012–2018).De Ravin's film credits include Santa's Slay (2005), The Hills Have Eyes (2006) and Ball Don't Lie (2008). She starred as Emily, the heroin-addicted ex-girlfriend of Brendan Frye, in the neo-noir film Brick (2005). She had a cameo in Public Enemies (2009) and starred in Remember Me (2010). De Ravin has been included on Maxim's Hot 100 list three times: in 2005 (No. 47), 2006 (No. 65), and 2008 (No. 68).

General Dynamics–Grumman EF-111A Raven

The General Dynamics–Grumman EF-111A Raven is an electronic-warfare aircraft designed to replace the B-66 Destroyer in the United States Air Force. Its crews and maintainers often called it the "Spark-Vark", a play on the F-111's "Aardvark" nickname.

The USAF contracted with Grumman in 1974 to convert some existing General Dynamics F-111As into electronic warfare/electronic countermeasures (ECM) aircraft. The USAF had considered the Navy / Marine Corps Grumman EA-6B Prowler, but desired a penetrating aircraft with supersonic speed.

The EF-111 entered service in 1983 and served until its retirement in 1998. Afterwards, the Air Force began depending on Navy and Marine Corps EA-6Bs for electronic warfare support.

Halo (franchise)

Halo is a military science fiction first-person shooter video game franchise managed and developed by 343 Industries, a subsidiary of Microsoft Studios. The series centers on an interstellar war between humanity and an alliance of aliens known as the Covenant. The Covenant, led by their religious leaders called the Prophets, worship an ancient civilization known as the Forerunners, who perished while defeating the parasitic Flood. The central focus of the franchise builds off the experiences of Master Chief John-117, one of a group of supersoldiers codenamed Spartans, and his artificial intelligence (AI) companion, Cortana. Other characters, such as Noble Six from Halo: Reach, are also introduced in the series. The term "Halo" refers to the Halo Array: a group of immense, habitable, ring-shaped superweapons that were created by the Forerunners to destroy the Flood. They are similar to the Orbitals in Iain M. Banks' Culture novels, and to a lesser degree to author Larry Niven's Ringworld concept.The games in the series are critically well-received, and are considered the Xbox's "killer app". This led to the term "Halo killer" being used to describe console games that aspire, or are considered, to be better than Halo. Fueled by the success of Halo: Combat Evolved, and by marketing campaigns from publisher Microsoft, its sequels went on to record-breaking sales. The games have sold over 65 million copies worldwide, with the games alone grossing almost $3.4 billion.Strong sales of the games led to the franchise's expansion to other media; there are multiple best-selling novels, graphic novels, and other licensed products. Halo Wars took the franchise into new video game genre territory, as a real-time strategy game, while the rest of the games in the series are first-person shooters. Beyond the original trilogy, Bungie developed the expansion Halo 3: ODST, and a prequel, Halo: Reach, their last project for the franchise. A high-definition remake of the first game, entitled Halo: Combat Evolved Anniversary, was released on November 15, 2011, ten years after the release of the original. A new installment in a second series of games, Halo 4, was released on November 6, 2012. Halo: The Master Chief Collection, a remastered compilation of the four primary Halo titles, was released for the Xbox One on November 11, 2014. In October 2015, Halo 5: Guardians was released. In February 2017, Halo Wars 2 was released. In June 2018, the next main installment of the Halo series was announced as Halo Infinite.

The collective group of fans of the series is referred to as the "Halo Nation".

Hiller OH-23 Raven

The Hiller OH-23 Raven was a three-place, light observation helicopter based on the Hiller Model 360. The Model 360 was designated by the company as the UH-12 ("UH" for United Helicopters), which was first flown in 1948. The OH-23 trainer was jokingly nicknamed the "Hiller Killer" by US Army Aviation student pilots who had to fly it.

Peter H. Raven

Peter Hamilton Raven FMLS (born June 13, 1936) is an American botanist and environmentalist, notable as the longtime director, now President Emeritus, of the Missouri Botanical Garden.

Raven's Home

Raven's Home is an American family sitcom television series developed by Jed Elinoff and Scott Thomas that premiered on Disney Channel on July 21, 2017. The series stars Raven-Symoné, Issac Ryan Brown, Navia Robinson, Jason Maybaum, Sky Katz, and Anneliese van der Pol.

Based on the characters created by Michael Poryes and Susan Sherman, the series is a spinoff of That's So Raven, the second spinoff from that series after Cory in the House. The series centers around Raven Baxter, a divorced mother of preteen twins Booker and Nia, living with Chelsea, her childhood best friend, and her son Levi in Chicago, Illinois.

Raven-Symoné

Raven-Symoné Christina Pearman (; born December 10, 1985) is an American actress, singer, songwriter, model, television personality, dancer, rapper and producer. She began her career as a child actress, appearing as Olivia Kendall on The Cosby Show (1989–1992) and Nicole Lee on Hangin' with Mr. Cooper (1993–1997). As a teenager, she starred as Raven Baxter on the Disney Channel television series That's So Raven (2003–2007), for which she was nominated for numerous accolades. Raven-Symoné's film credits include Dr. Dolittle (1998), Dr. Dolittle 2 (2001), College Road Trip (2008), and successful television films, including Zenon: Girl of the 21st Century (1999), The Cheetah Girls (2003), its sequel Cheetah Girls 2 (2006), For One Night (2006), and Revenge of the Bridesmaids (2010).

In music, Raven-Symoné released her debut studio album at the age of seven, Here's to New Dreams (1993), which saw the moderate commercial success of the single "That's What Little Girls Are Made Of". Her subsequent studio albums, Undeniable (1999), This Is My Time (2004), and Raven-Symoné (2008) saw some commercial success on the Billboard 200 chart in the United States. She also contributed vocals to several soundtracks from her Disney projects, including The Cheetah Girls (2003), That's So Raven (2004), That's So Raven Too! (2006), and The Cheetah Girls 2 (2006), several of which were certified platinum and gold. Raven-Symoné has also lent her voice to the animated series Kim Possible for the character Monique, and films such as Tinker Bell (2008). In 2011, she starred in the lead role on the short-lived ABC Family sitcom State of Georgia. After appearing in recurring roles on Empire and Black-ish, she joined the panel of the ABC daytime talk show The View from 2015 to 2016. Since 2017, Raven-Symoné has reprised her role as Raven Baxter on Raven's Home, for which she was nominated for the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Performer in Children's Programming. VH1 ranked her at number nine on their "100 Greatest Kid Stars Of All Time" list in 2012.

Raven (DC Comics)

Raven is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in a special insert in DC Comics Presents #26 (October 1980), and was created by writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez. The daughter of a demon father (Trigon) and human mother (Arella), Raven is an empath who can teleport and control her "soul-self", which can fight physically, as well as act as Raven's eyes and ears away from her physical body. She is a prominent member of the superhero team Teen Titans. The character also goes by the alias Rachel Roth as a false civilian name.

Raven has appeared in numerous cartoon television shows and films. Raven appears in her first live adaptation as one of the main cast of the Titans television series for the new DC streaming service played by Teagan Croft.

Raven (wrestler)

Scott Levy (born September 8, 1964) is an American semi-retired professional wrestler, actor, and podcaster better known by his ring name, Raven. A journeyman, he is known for his appearances with professional wrestling promotions including Extreme Championship Wrestling (ECW), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), World Wrestling Federation/Entertainment (WWF/E) and Total Nonstop Action Wrestling (TNA). Widely recognized as "one of the best talkers in wrestling", Raven is known for his "psychological heel tactics" and grunge-inspired gimmick. His feud with The Sandman in the mid-1990s has been described as "one of the most emotional rivalries in professional wrestling's history".Championships held by Raven over the course of his career include the ECW World Heavyweight Championship, ECW World Tag Team Championship, NWA World Heavyweight Championship, WCW Light Heavyweight Championship, WCW United States Heavyweight Championship, WCW World Tag Team Championship and WWF/E Hardcore Championship. He is recognized as the most decorated wrestler in the history of WWE with 36 separate title reigns under the WWE, WCW and ECW banners, including a record 27 reigns as WWF/E Hardcore Champion.

Raven Software

Raven Software (or Raven Entertainment Software, Inc.) is an American video game developer based in Wisconsin and founded in 1990. In 1997, Raven made an exclusive publishing deal with Activision and was subsequently acquired by them. After the acquisition, many of the studio's original developers, largely responsible for creating the Heretic and Hexen: Beyond Heretic games, left to form Human Head Studios.

Teen Titans

The Teen Titans, also known as the New Teen Titans or simply the Titans, are a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, often in an eponymous monthly series. As the group's name suggests, its members are teenage superheroes, many of whom have acted as sidekicks to DC's premiere superheroes in the Justice League. First appearing in 1964 in The Brave and the Bold #54, the team was founded by Kid Flash (Wally West), Robin (Dick Grayson), and Aqualad (Garth), with the team adopting the name Teen Titans in issue 60 following the addition of Wonder Girl (Donna Troy) to its ranks.Over the decades, DC has cancelled and relaunched Teen Titans many times, and a variety of characters have been featured heroes in its pages. Significant early additions to the initial quartet of Titans were Green Arrow's sidekick, Speedy (Roy Harper), Aquagirl, Bumblebee, Hawk and Dove, and three heroes who did not wear costumes: boxer Mal Duncan, psychic Lilith, and caveman Gnarrk. The series became a genuine hit for the first time however during its 1980s revival as The New Teen Titans under writer Marv Wolfman and artist George Pérez. This run depicted the original Titans now as young adults and introduced new characters Cyborg, Starfire and Raven, as well as the former Doom Patrol member Beast Boy (then known as Changeling), who would all become enduring fan-favorites. A high point for the series both critically and commercially was its famous "The Judas Contract" storyline, in which the team is betrayed by its member Terra to its archenemy Deathstroke.

Stories in the 2000s introduced a radically different Teen Titans team made up of newer DC Comics sidekicks such as the new Robin (Tim Drake), Wonder Girl (Cassie Sandsmark), and Kid Flash (Bart Allen), as well as Superboy (Kon-El), some of whom had previously featured in the similar title Young Justice. Later prominent additions from this era included Miss Martian, Ravager (Rose Wilson), Supergirl (Kara Zor-El), and Blue Beetle (Jaime Reyes). Concurrently, DC also published Titans, which featured some of the original and 1980s members now as adults, led by Dick Grayson in his adult persona of Nightwing. Later, a new run following DC's The New 52 reboot in 2011 introduced new characters to the founding roster, including Solstice, Bunker (Miguel Jose Barragan) and Skitter (Celine Patterson), although this new volume proved commercially and critically disappointing for DC. In 2016, DC used the Titans Hunt and DC Rebirth storylines to re-establish the group's original founding members and history, reuniting these classic heroes as the Titans, while introducing a new generation of Teen Titans led by new Robin (Damian Wayne) featuring the new Aqualad (Jackson Hyde) and Kid Flash (Wally West II).

The Teen Titans have been adapted to other media numerous times, and have enjoyed a higher profile since Cartoon Network's light-hearted Teen Titans animated television series in the early-mid 2000s, as well as its DC Nation spin-off Teen Titans Go!. A live-action Teen Titans series was in development for the network TNT before moving production to DC's in-house web television service DC Universe. Its characters and stories were also adapted into the 2010s animated series Young Justice. Within DC Comics, the Teen Titans have been an influential group of characters taking prominent roles in all of the publisher's major company-wide crossover stories. Many villains who face the Titans have since taken on a larger role within the publisher's fictional universe, such as Deathstroke, the demon Trigon, and the evil organization H.I.V.E.

That's So Raven

That's So Raven is an American supernatural sitcom that originally ran on Disney Channel from January 17, 2003 to November 10, 2007. Set in San Francisco, the series starred Raven-Symoné as Raven Baxter, a teenager with psychic abilities who draws on her ingenuity, talent as a fashion designer, and a variety of disguises to get in and out of amusing adolescent and pre-adolescent situations. Orlando Brown and Anneliese van der Pol co-starred as her best friends, Eddie Thomas and Chelsea Daniels, alongside Kyle Massey as her mischievous younger brother Cory and T'Keyah Crystal Keymáh and Rondell Sheridan as her parents, Tanya and Victor Baxter, respectively.

That's So Raven was the highest-rated program on Disney Channel during its initial run, and was the first series in the network's history to produce at least 100 episodes. It was nominated for numerous accolades, including two Primetime Emmy Award nominations for Outstanding Children's Programming in 2005 and 2007. Since its conclusion, That's So Raven has inspired two spin-offs: Cory in the House starring Kyle Massey, which ran from 2007 to 2008, and Raven's Home starring Raven-Symoné and Anneliese van der Pol as Raven and Chelsea raising their children together, which began airing in 2017.

The Raven

"The Raven" is a narrative poem by American writer Edgar Allan Poe. First published in January 1845, the poem is often noted for its musicality, stylized language, and supernatural atmosphere. It tells of a talking raven's mysterious visit to a distraught lover, tracing the man's slow fall into madness. The lover, often identified as being a student, is lamenting the loss of his love, Lenore. Sitting on a bust of Pallas, the raven seems to further distress the protagonist with its constant repetition of the word "Nevermore". The poem makes use of folk, mythological, religious, and classical references.

Poe claimed to have written the poem logically and methodically, intending to create a poem that would appeal to both critical and popular tastes, as he explained in his 1846 follow-up essay, "The Philosophy of Composition". The poem was inspired in part by a talking raven in the novel Barnaby Rudge: A Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty by Charles Dickens. Poe borrows the complex rhythm and meter of Elizabeth Barrett's poem "Lady Geraldine's Courtship", and makes use of internal rhyme as well as alliteration throughout.

"The Raven" was first attributed to Poe in print in the New York Evening Mirror on January 29, 1845. Its publication made Poe popular in his lifetime, although it did not bring him much financial success. The poem was soon reprinted, parodied, and illustrated. Critical opinion is divided as to the poem's literary status, but it nevertheless remains one of the most famous poems ever written.

Trigon (comics)

Trigon () is a fictional supervillain published by DC Comics. He is one of the most powerful beings in the DC Universe, having enslaved many worlds. He is the archenemy and father of the superhero Raven.

Trigon made his first live appearance on the Titans television series for the new DC Universe streaming service played by Seamus Dever.

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