Raspberry

The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems.

Raspberries05
Red-fruited raspberries

Etymology

Raspberry derives its name from raspise, "a sweet rose-colored wine" (mid-15th century), from the Anglo-Latin vinum raspeys, or from raspoie, meaning "thicket", of Germanic origin.[1] The name may have been influenced by its appearance as having a rough surface related to Old English rasp or "rough berry".[1]

Species

Raspberries, fruit of four species
Fruit of four species of raspberry. Clockwise from top left: Boulder raspberry, Korean raspberry, Australian native raspberry, Mauritius raspberry
Himbeere (Rubus idaeus) IMG 7756
Purple-fruited raspberry hybrids

Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include:

Several species of Rubus, also called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including:

Cultivation

2010-05-24 Himbeerblüte 01
Flowering cultivated raspberry

Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9.[2] Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common. A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are then dug, roots and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they quickly flower and produce a very early season crop. Plants are typically planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil; raspberries are usually planted in raised beds/ridges, if there is any question about root rot problems.

All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots but, many do not have perennial shoots. In fact, most raspberries have shoots that are biennial (meaning shoots grow in the first growing season and fruits grow off of those shoots during the second growing season).[3] The flowers can be a major nectar source for honeybees and other pollinators.

Raspberries are vigorous and can be locally invasive. They propagate using basal shoots (also known as suckers), extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, and can take over gardens if left unchecked. Raspberries are often propagated using cuttings, and will root readily in moist soil conditions.

The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle easily and has turned a deep color (red, black, purple, or golden yellow, depending on the species and cultivar). This is when the fruits are ripest and sweetest.

High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricane-fruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing usually prior to tunnel construction.[4]

Major cultivars

Golden Raspberries
Fruits of a golden or yellow raspberry cultivar

Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[2] Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants then classified as either R. idaeus subsp. idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, and the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking.

The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is also cultivated, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams, preserves, and other products, all with that species' distinctive flavor.

Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, and have also been found in the wild in a few places (for example, in Vermont) where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare.

Blue raspberry is a local name used in Prince Edward County, Ontario, Canada[5] for the cultivar 'Columbian', a hybrid (purple raspberry) of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis.[6]

Fruits from such plants are called golden raspberries or yellow raspberries; despite their similar appearance, they retain the distinctive flavor of their respective species (red or black). Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens.

Red raspberries have also been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of which was the loganberry. Later notable hybrids include boysenberry (a multi-generation hybrid), and tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has also been achieved.

Selected cultivars

Rubus 'Wyoming'
Fruits of Rubus 'Wyoming', a purple raspberry cultivar
Young shoot - Rubus idaeus
Young leaves of 'Glen Prosen', a red cultivar
Framboos vruchten
'Schönemann'

Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected.

Two types of raspberry are available for commercial and domestic cultivation; the summer-bearing type produces an abundance of fruit on second-year canes (floricanes) within a relatively short period in midsummer, and double or "everbearing" plants, which also bear some fruit on first-year canes (primocanes) in the late summer and fall, as well as the summer crop on second-year canes. Those marked (AGM) have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Red, early summer fruiting
  • Boyne
  • Fertödi Venus
  • Rubin Bulgarski
  • Cascade Dawn
  • Glen Clova
  • Glen Moy (AGM)[7]
  • Killarney
  • Malahat
  • Malling Exploit
  • Malling Jewel (AGM)[8]
  • Titan
  • Willamette
Red, midsummer
  • Cuthbert
  • Glen Ample (AGM)[9]
  • Glen Prosen (AGM)[10]
  • Lloyd George
  • Meeker
  • Newburgh
  • Ripley
  • Skeena
  • Cowichan
  • Chemainus
  • Saanich
Red, late summer
  • Cascade Delight
  • Coho
  • Fertödi Rubina
  • Leo (AGM)[11]
  • Malling Admiral (AGM)[12]
  • Octavia
  • Schoenemann
  • Tulameen
Red, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting
  • Amity
  • Augusta
  • Autumn Bliss (AGM)[13]
  • Joan J. (Thornless)
  • Caroline
  • Fertödi Kétszertermö
  • Heritage
  • Imara
  • Josephine
  • Kwanza
  • Kweli
  • Mapema
  • Rafiki
  • Ripley
  • Summit
  • Zeva Herbsternte
Gold/Yellow, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting
  • Anne
  • Fallgold
  • Fertödi Aranyfürt
  • Goldenwest
  • Golden Queen
  • Honey Queen
  • Jambo
  • Kiwi Gold
Purple
  • Brandywine
  • Glencoe
  • Royalty
Black
  • Black Hawk
  • Bristol
  • Cumberland
  • Jewel
  • Munger
  • Ohio Everbearer
  • Scepter

Diseases and pests

Raspberries are sometimes eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species (butterflies and moths). Botrytis cinerea, or gray mold, is a common fungal infection of raspberries and other soft fruit under wet conditions. It is seen as a gray mold growing on the raspberries, and particularly affects fruit which are bruised, as it provides an easy entrance point for the spores.

Raspberry plants should not be planted where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, or bulbs have previously been grown, without prior fumigation of the soil. These crops are hosts for the disease Verticillium wilt, a fungus that can stay in the soil for many years and can infest the raspberry crop.

Production

In 2016, total world production of raspberries was 795,249 tonnes, with Russia supplying 21% (164,602 tonnes) (table). Other major producers were the United States (17%), Poland (16%), and Mexico (14%) (table).[14]

Raspberry production – 2016
Country Production (thousands of tonnes)
 Russia
165
 United States
138
 Poland
129
 Mexico
113
 Serbia
62
World
795
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[14]
RaspberryYield
Worldwide raspberry yield

Uses

Raspberries, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy220 kJ (53 kcal)
11.94 g
Sugars4.42 g
Dietary fiber6.5 g
0.65 g
1.2 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.032 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.038 mg
Niacin (B3)
4%
0.598 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
7%
0.329 mg
Vitamin B6
4%
0.055 mg
Folate (B9)
5%
21 μg
Choline
3%
12.3 mg
Vitamin C
32%
26.2 mg
Vitamin E
6%
0.87 mg
Vitamin K
7%
7.8 μg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
3%
25 mg
Iron
5%
0.69 mg
Magnesium
6%
22 mg
Manganese
32%
0.67 mg
Phosphorus
4%
29 mg
Potassium
3%
151 mg
Zinc
4%
0.42 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water85.8 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Fruit

Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market and for commercial processing into individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée, juice, or as dried fruit used in a variety of grocery products such as raspberry pie. Traditionally, raspberries were a midsummer crop, but with new technology, cultivars, and transportation, they can now be obtained year-round. Raspberries need ample sun and water for optimal development. Raspberries thrive in well-drained soil with a pH between 6 and 7 with ample organic matter to assist in retaining water.[15] While moisture is essential, wet and heavy soils or excess irrigation can bring on Phytophthora root rot, which is one of the most serious pest problems facing the red raspberry. As a cultivated plant in moist, temperate regions, it is easy to grow and has a tendency to spread unless pruned. Escaped raspberries frequently appear as garden weeds, spread by seeds found in bird droppings.

An individual raspberry weighs 3–5 g (0.11–0.18 oz), and is made up of around 100 drupelets,[16] each of which consists of a juicy pulp and a single central seed. A raspberry bush can yield several hundred berries a year. Unlike blackberries and dewberries, a raspberry has a hollow core once it is removed from the receptacle.

Nutrients

Raw raspberries are 86% water, 12% carbohydrates, and have about 1% each of protein and fat (table). In a 100 gram amount, raspberries supply 53 calories and 6.5 grams of dietary fiber.

The aggregate fruit structure contributes to raspberry's nutritional value, as it increases the proportion of dietary fiber, which is among the highest known in whole foods, up to 6% fiber per total weight.[17] Raspberries are a rich source (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) of vitamin C (32% DV), manganese (32% DV) and dietary fiber (26% DV) (table). Raspberries are a low-glycemic index food, with total sugar content of only 4% and no starch.[17]

Phytochemicals

Raspberries contain phytochemicals, such as anthocyanin pigments, ellagic acid, ellagitannins, quercetin, gallic acid, cyanidins, pelargonidins, catechins, kaempferol and salicylic acid.[18][19] Yellow raspberries and others with pale-colored fruits are lower in anthocyanin content.[18] Both yellow and red raspberries contain carotenoids, mostly lutein esters, but these are masked by anthocyanins in red raspberries.[20]

Raspberry compounds are under preliminary research for their potential to affect human health.[21]

Leaves

Raspberry leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal teas, providing an astringent flavor. In herbal and traditional medicine, raspberry leaves are used for some remedies, although there is no scientifically valid evidence to support their medicinal use.[22]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Raspberry". Online Etymology Dictionary. 2016. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  2. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  3. ^ "Brambles (Fruit Production for the Home Gardener)". Fruit Production for the Home Gardener (Penn State Extension). Archived from the original on 2017-05-23. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  4. ^ "High Tunnel Raspberries and Blackberries", Department of Horticulture publication, Cathy Heidenreich, Marvin Pritts, Mary Jo Kelly., and Kathy Demchak
  5. ^ Woolfrey, Sandra Marshall. A Country Mouse with one paw in the Village:Growing up in Prince Edward County (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-09-21.
  6. ^ Hedrick, U.P.; Howe, G.H.; Taylor, O.M.; Berger, A.; Slate, G.L.; Einset, O. (1925). The small fruits of New York. Albany, New York: J. B. Lyon. Archived from the original on 2012-03-18. page 96
  7. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Glen Moy' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  8. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Malling Jewel' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  9. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  10. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Glen Prosen' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  11. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Leo' PBR (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  12. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Malling Admiral' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2012-04-03 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  13. ^ RHS Plant Selector Rubus idaeus 'Autumn Bliss' (F) AGM / RHS Gardening Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine. Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved on 2012-09-24.
  14. ^ a b "Production of raspberries in 2016; Pick list by Crops/Regions/Production Quantity". United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database (FAOSTAT). 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
  15. ^ Strik, B.C. (2008). "Growing Raspberries in Your Home Garden" (PDF). Growing Small Fruits. Oregon State University Extension Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 29 April 2016.
  16. ^ Iannetta, P. P. M.; Wyman, M.; Neelam, A.; Jones, C.; Taylor, M. A.; Davies, H. V.; Sexton, R. (December 2000). "A causal role for ethylene and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase in the abscission of red-raspberry (Rubus idaeus) drupelets". Physiol. Plant. 110 (4): 535–543. doi:10.1111/j.1399-3054.2000.1100417.x.
  17. ^ a b "Nutrient data for raw raspberries, USDA Nutrient Database, SR-21". Conde Nast. 2014. Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  18. ^ a b Carvalho E, Franceschi P, Feller A, Palmieri L, Wehrens R, Martens S (2013). "A targeted metabolomics approach to understand differences in flavonoid biosynthesis in red and yellow raspberries". Plant Physiol Biochem. 72: 79–86. doi:10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.04.001. PMID 23622736.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  19. ^ Mazur SP, Nes A, Wold AB, Remberg SF, Aaby K (2014). "Quality and chemical composition of ten red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) genotypes during three harvest seasons". Food Chem. 160: 233–40. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.02.174. PMID 24799233.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  20. ^ Carvalho, Elisabete; Fraser, P.D.; Martens, S. (2013). "Carotenoids and tocopherols in yellow and red raspberries". Food Chemistry. 139 (1–4): 744–752. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.12.047. PMID 23561169.
  21. ^ Burton-Freeman, B. M.; Sandhu, A. K.; Edirisinghe, I (2016). "Red Raspberries and Their Bioactive Polyphenols: Cardiometabolic and Neuronal Health Links". Advances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal. 7 (1): 44–65. doi:10.3945/an.115.009639. PMC 4717884. PMID 26773014.
  22. ^ Holst, Lone; Haavik, Svein; Nordeng, Hedvig (13 June 2009). "Raspberry leaf – Should it be recommended to pregnant women?". Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 15 (4): 204–8. doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2009.05.003. PMID 19880082.

Further reading

  • Funt, R.C. / Hall, H.K. (2012). Raspberries (Crop Production Science in Horticulture). CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-791-1

External links

39th Golden Raspberry Awards

The 39th Golden Raspberry Awards was an awards ceremony that honored the worst the film industry had to offer in 2018. The Golden Raspberry Awards, also known as the Razzies, are awarded based on votes from members of the Golden Raspberry Foundation. The nominees were announced on January 21, 2019 and the winners were announced on February 23, 2019.On January 31, 2019, the ceremony was accused of rigging the vote tallies for its nominees. For example, Jamie Dornan (Fifty Shades Freed) and Kevin Spacey (Billionaire Boys Club) received enough votes for Worst Actor, but neither were included on the final nominee list.

Blackberry

The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by many species in the genus Rubus in the family Rosaceae, hybrids among these species within the subgenus Rubus, and hybrids between the subgenera Rubus and Idaeobatus. The taxonomy of the blackberries has historically been confused because of hybridization and apomixis, so that species have often been grouped together and called species aggregates. For example, the entire subgenus Rubus has been called the Rubus fruticosus aggregate, although the species R. fruticosus is considered a synonym of R. plicatus.

Blowing a raspberry

Blowing a raspberry, strawberry or making a Bronx cheer, is to make a noise that may signify derision, real or feigned. It may also be used in childhood phonemic play either solely by the child or by adults towards a child to encourage imitation to the delight of both parties. It is made by placing the tongue between the lips and blowing to produce a sound similar to flatulence. In the terminology of phonetics, this sound has been described as a voiceless linguolabial trill, [r̼̊], and as a buccal interdental trill, [ↀ͡r̪͆].A raspberry is never used in human language phonemically (that is, as a building block of words), but it is widely used across human cultures.

Bo Derek

Bo Derek (born Mary Cathleen Collins; November 20, 1956) is an American film and television actress, film producer, and model perhaps best known for her breakthrough film role in the sex comedy 10 (1979). She was directed by husband John Derek in Tarzan, the Ape Man (1981), Bolero (1984) and Ghosts Can't Do It (1989), all of which received negative reviews. A widow since 1998, she lives with actor John Corbett. Now in semi-retirement, she makes occasional film, television, and documentary appearances.

Fruit preserves

Fruit preserves are preparations of fruits, vegetables and sugar, often stored in glass jam jars.

Many varieties of fruit preserves are made globally, including sweet fruit preserves, such as those made from strawberry or apricot, and savory preserves, such as those made from tomatoes or squash. The ingredients used and how they are prepared determine the type of preserves; jams, jellies, and marmalades are all examples of different styles of fruit preserves that vary based upon the fruit used. In English, the word, in plural form, "preserves" is used to describe all types of jams and jellies.

Go-Gurt

Go-GURT, also known as Yoplait Tubes in Canada and as Frubes in the United Kingdom, is an American brand of low-fat yogurt for children. It is squeezed out of a tube directly into the mouth, instead of being eaten with a spoon. It was introduced by General Mills licensed Yoplait in 1998 as the first yogurt made specifically for kids.

Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actor

The Razzie Award for Worst Actor is an award presented at the annual Golden Raspberry Awards to the worst actor of the previous year. The following is a list of nominees and recipients of that award, along with the film(s) for which they were nominated.

Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Actress

The Razzie Award for Worst Actress is an award presented at the annual Golden Raspberry Awards to the worst actress of the previous year. As it is intended as a humorous award, male actors performing in drag are eligible.

The following is a list of recipients and nominees of that award, along with the film(s) for which they were nominated.

Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Director

The Razzie Award for Worst Director is an award presented at the annual Golden Raspberry Awards to the worst director of the previous year. The following is a list of nominees and recipients of that award, along with the film(s) for which they were nominated.

Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture

The Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Picture is an award given out at the annual Golden Raspberry Awards to the worst film of the past year. Over the 38 ceremonies that have taken place, there have been 197 films nominated for Worst Picture and 41 winners including three ties.

Following is a list of nominees and recipients of that award, including each film's distribution company and producer(s).

Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Screen Combo

The Razzie Award for Worst Screen Combo is an award presented at the annual Golden Raspberry Awards to the worst movie pairing or cast of the past year. The following is a list of nominees and recipients of the awards, along with the film(s) for which they were nominated. The category, which made its debut at the 15th Razzie ceremony, was originally named Worst Screen Couple, but in 2011 it was changed to Worst Screen Couple / Worst Screen Ensemble so entire casts could be included. This was changed again in 2012 where Screen Couple and Screen Ensemble were split and awarded separately before being changed again in 2013 to an individual award called Worst Screen Combo. The category is defined to include any combination of actors, actresses, props, or body parts.

Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor

The Razzie Award for Worst Supporting Actor is an award presented at the annual Golden Raspberry Awards to the worst supporting actor of the previous year. The following is a list of nominees and recipients of that award, along with the film(s) for which they were nominated.

Golden Raspberry Awards

The Golden Raspberry Awards (also known in short terms as Razzies and Razzie Awards) is a mock booby prize award in recognition of the worst in film. Co-founded by UCLA film graduates and film industry veterans John J. B. Wilson and Mo Murphy, the annual Razzie Awards ceremony in Los Angeles precedes the corresponding Academy Awards ceremony by one day. The term raspberry in the name is used in its irreverent sense, as in "blowing a raspberry". The awards themselves are in the form of a "golf ball-sized raspberry" atop a Super 8 mm film reel, all spray painted gold.

The first Golden Raspberry Awards ceremony was held on March 31, 1981, at John J. B. Wilson's living-room alcove in Los Angeles, to honor the worst in film of the 1980 film season. The 39th ceremony was held on February 23, 2019.

Idaeovirus

Idaeovirus is a genus of positive-sense ssRNA viruses that contains one species: Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV). Although the genus does not belong to any family or order, it has been proposed as a member of the family Bromoviridae due to similarities to members of that family. RBDV has two host-dependent clades: one for raspberries; the other for grapevines. Infections are a significant agricultural burden, resulting in decreased yield and quality of crops. RBDV has a synergistic relation with Raspberry leaf mottle virus, with co-infection greatly amplifying the concentration of virions in infected plants. The virus is transmitted via pollination with RBDV-infected pollen grains that first infect the stigma before causing systemic infection.

Liveland Raspberry apple

Liveland Raspberry or Lowland Raspberry is an old cultivar of domesticated apple that originated from the Livland Governorate of eastern Europe and was introduced into the United States of America in 1883. It is a very early ripening apple.

Raspberry Beret

"Raspberry Beret" is a song written by Prince and the lead single from Prince & The Revolution's 1985 album Around the World in a Day.

Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi is a series of small single-board computers developed in the United Kingdom by the Raspberry Pi Foundation to promote teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries. The original model became far more popular than anticipated, selling outside its target market for uses such as robotics. It does not include peripherals (such as keyboards and mice) and cases. However, some accessories have been included in several official and unofficial bundles.The organisation behind the Raspberry Pi consists of two arms. The first two models were developed by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. After the Pi Model B was released, the Foundation set up Raspberry Pi Trading, with Eben Upton as CEO, to develop the third model, the B+. Raspberry Pi Trading is responsible for developing the technology while the Foundation is an educational charity to promote the teaching of basic computer science in schools and in developing countries.

According to the Raspberry Pi Foundation, more than 5 million Raspberry Pis were sold by February 2015, making it the best-selling British computer. By November 2016 they had sold 11 million units, and 12.5m by March 2017, making it the third best-selling "general purpose computer". In July 2017, sales reached nearly 15 million. In March 2018, sales reached 19 million.Most Pis are made in a Sony factory in Pencoed, Wales; some are made in China or Japan.

Rubus idaeus

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.

Tart

A tart is a baked dish consisting of a filling over a pastry base with an open top not covered with pastry. The pastry is usually shortcrust pastry; the filling may be sweet or savoury, though modern tarts are usually fruit-based, sometimes with custard. Tartlet refers to a miniature tart; an example would be egg tarts. The categories of "tart", "flan", "quiche", and "pie" overlap, with no sharp distinctions.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.