The Ras Koh Hills is a range of granite hills forming part of the Sulaiman Mountain Range in the Chagai District in Pakistan's Balochistan province. The word "Ras" means "gateway" and the word "Koh" means "mountain" in Balochi. Ras Koh, therefore, means "Gateway to the Mountains." Pakistan's first nuclear tests were carried out in the Ras Koh Hills on 28th May 1998.
|Ras Koh Hills|
The Ras Koh Hills are situated in the Chagai District of Pakistan's Balochistan province and lie to the south of the Chagai Hills and between the higher Sulaiman Mountains to the northeast and the lower Kirthar Mountains to the southwest.
Plateaus and basins predominate the Ras Koh Hills with an average elevation of 600 metres, but in areas, the hills can reach elevations up to 3,000 metres. The Ras Koh Hills are composed of granite, are carved out by innumerable channels, but the arid climate restricts rain and for the most part leaves these channels dry. Although little water reaches the low-lying basins, numerous alluvial fans are found in the area.
A structural depression separates the Chagai Hills and the Ras Koh Hills, consisting of flood plains and areas covered with thin layers of salt.
Unlike the Toba Kakar Range to the north-east, which has scattered juniper, tamarisk and pistachio trees, the Ras Koh Hills are largely barren and devoid of vegetation. Most of people in the area, therefore, lead a nomadic life, raising camels, sheep and goats.
The Ras Koh Hills lie in an arid zone, which is outside the monsoon belt. The Ras Koh Hills receive scanty and irregular rainfall (an average of 4 inches annually). The temperature is extreme: very hot in summer and very cold in winter. The average minimum temperature is 2.4 °C (36.3 °F) in January and the average maximum temperature is 42.5 °C (108.5 °F) in July.
Chagai-I is the code name of five simultaneous underground nuclear tests conducted by Pakistan at 15:15 hrs PST on 28 May 1998. The tests were performed at Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai District of Balochistan Province.Chagai-I was Pakistan's first public test of nuclear weapons. Its timing was a direct response to India's second nuclear tests, on 11 and 13 May 1998. These tests by Pakistan and India resulted in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1172 and economic sanctions on both states by a number of major powers, particularly the United States and Japan. By testing nuclear devices, Pakistan became the seventh nation to publicly test nuclear weapons. Pakistan's second nuclear test, Chagai-II, followed on 30 May 1998.Chagai Hills
The Chagai Hills is a range of granite hills in the Chagai District in Pakistan's Balochistan province.Dorab Patel
Justice Dorab Framrose Patel (b. 1924 – d.15 March 1997), was a Pakistan jurist of Parsi descent, and lawmaker who served as a former Justice of Supreme Court of Pakistan and former Chief Justice of Sindh High Court. Justice Patel was a prominent campaigner for human rights, and was a founding member of the Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) in 1987 and the co-founder of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.
A Parsi by faith, he rose up the ranks of the judiciary to become one of Pakistan's most senior most judges, only to resign on principle after refusing to take an oath of allegiance to Chief Martial Law Administrator and Chief of Army Staff at that time, General Zia-ul-Haq in 1981. Justice Patel died of leukaemia on 1997 in Islamabad, and was buried in Karachi.Employees Old-Age Benefits Institution
The Employees' Old-Age Benefits Institution (EOBI) is the pension, old age benefits and social insurance institution of the Government of Pakistan. It operates under the control of Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis and Human Resource Development. It came into formation in 1976, through the passage of the Employees' Old-Age Benefits Institution Act of 1976 by the Parliament of Pakistan, under the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) government of Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. As of November 2017, the current Chairperson of EOBI is Mr. Khaqan Murtaza.Fakhruddin G. Ebrahim
Fakhruddin G. Ebrahim, TI (Urdu: فخر الدين جى ابراهيم; born 12 February 1928) is a retired Pakistani judge and a legal expert. He was appointed as the 24th Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan on 14 July 2012 and served until he resigned on 31 July 2013 and oversaw the 2013 election.Ebrahim was born in 1928 in Ahmedabad, Bombay Presidency, British India. In 1945, he attended the Gujarat Vidyapith where he earned his LLB with distinctions in 1949. While there, Ebrahim studied courses on philosophy and also attended the lectures given by Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, which played an important role in his advocacy for non-violence. In 1950, Ebrahim moved to Pakistan and attended the Sindh Muslim Law College, where he earned an LLM and was awarded an honorary Juris Doctor in 1960. In 1961, Ebrahim established his own firm while he continued to lecture at the Sindh Law College. In 1971, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto appointed him Attorney General of Pakistan.
He served as the interim Law Minister from 18 July 1993 until 19 October 1993, and interim Justice Minister from 5 November 1996 until 17 February 1997. Ebrahim is a retired Associate Judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, and Senior Advocate Supreme Court and is known also as a peace activist. In 1988, he was also Governor of Sindh, appointed by the former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto during her first term.In March 1981, serving as an ad hoc Judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, he refused to take a fresh oath, under the Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO) promulgated by General Zia-ul-Haq along with Justice Dorab Patel and Chief Justice Sheikh Anwarul Haq. The PCO not only negated the independence of the judiciary but also prolonged martial law by nullifying the effect of a judgement giving General Zia's regime limited recognition.
Ebrahim established the Citizen Police Liaison Committee (CPLC) in 1989. The CPLC works in Karachi and assists citizens in registering the First Information Report if it is refused by police for some reason. Ebrahim heads the law firm of Fakhruddin G. Ebrahim & Company, a general legal practice originally established in Bombay (now Mumbai), India. The firm relocated to Karachi in 1951.
Ebrahim has had long-standing ties with the Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB). In 1995, the PCB initiated an inquiry, under the chairmanship of Ebrahim, to look into allegations made by Australian players Shane Warne and Mark Waugh surrounding the First Test between Pakistan and Australia in Karachi in 1994 and the ODI in Rawalpindi. The Australian cricketers had accused Saleem Malik of offering them bribes which they rejected. The inquiry was frustrated as the Australian players did not travel to Pakistan to give evidence, and thus the Inquiry had to rely on their statements together with the cross-examination of Saleem Malik. In October 1995, it was decided that the allegations were unfounded. In December 2006, Ebrahim also served as the Chairman of the PCB's Anti-doping Appeals Committee, which acquitted Shoaib Akhtar and Mohammad Asif. Ebrahim was in favour of the acquittal.Iftikhar Ahmad (journalist)
Agha Iftikhar Ahmad (Urdu: افتخار احمد; born 4 November 1950) is a Pakistani research journalist and a political activist. Ahmad started his career in 1980, after his release from jail and joined Jang Media Network and held a senior position in the Network. Ahmad is currently serving as Director of Elections, Investigations, Special Projects, and Research (EISPAR) for the Geo News Network (GNN). Iftikhar Ahmad also hosted interview show Jawab Deyh (or in English "Answerable!") on Geo News TV channel for over 10 years.
Ahmad joined BOL Network as Senior Executive Vice President and Senior Anchorperson in BOL News on 18 October 2014. On 23 May 2015, Kamran Khan, Asma Shirazi and Iftikhar Ahmad left BOL Network due to corruption allegations on Axact company which was the parent company of Bol News TV channel.Jalaludin Abdur Rahim
Jalaludin Abdur Rahim (Urdu: جلال الدين عبدالرحيم; Bengali: জালালুদ্দিন আবদুর রহিম; also known as J. A. Rahim) (27 July 1906 – 1977) was a Bengali communist and political philosopher who was renowned as one of the founding members of the Pakistan People's Party—a democratic socialist political party. Rahim was also the first Secretary-General of the Pakistan People's Party, served as the first minister of production. A Bengali civil servant, Rahim was a philosopher who politically guided Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, serving as his mentor, and had helped Bhutto navigate through the minefield of bureaucratic establishment when Ayub Khan had taken Bhutto into his cabinet. Rahim also guided Bhutto after Bhutto was deposed as Foreign Minister, critically guiding Bhutto to take down the once US-sponsored dictatorship of Ayub Khan.Khan Research Laboratories
The Khan Research Laboratories, previously known at various times as Project-706, Engineering Research Laboratories, and Kahuta Research Laboratories, is a Pakistan Government's multi-program national research institute, managed and operated under the scrutiny of Pakistan Armed Forces, located in Kahuta, Punjab Province. The laboratories are one of the largest science and technology institutions in Pakistan, and conduct multidisciplinary research and development in fields such as national security, space exploration, and supercomputing.While the laboratories remain highly classified, the KRL is most famous for its research, development, and production of Highly-Enriched Uranium (HEU), using gas centrifuge (Zippe-type) technological methods roughly based on the model of the Urenco Group—the technology brought by Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, who worked there as a senior scientist. Since its inception, there has been a large number of employed technical staff members with majority being physicists and mathematicians, assisted by engineers (both army and civilians), chemists, and material scientists. Professional scientists and engineers are also delegated to visit this institute after going under close and strict screening and background check, to participate as visitors in scientific projects.During the midst of the 1970s, the laboratories were the cornerstone of the first stage of Pakistan' atomic bomb project, being one of the various sites where the classified scientific research on atomic bombs were undertaken.Kirana Hills
The Kirana Hills is a small and extensive rocky mountain range located in Sargodha, Pakistan. It is also a place of tourist attraction in Sargodha City. Locally known as "Black Mountains" due to its brownish landscape, its highest peak is about 980 feet (300 m).Known for its extreme weather conditions, its maximum temperature reaches to 50 °C (122 °F) in the summer while the minimum temperature recorded is as low as freezing point in the winter. Due to its rocky landscape and minerals, a volcanic and geophysical survey was conducted by the Geological Survey of Pakistan. Its environs are heavily infested with wild boars.List of states with nuclear weapons
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons. Five are considered to be nuclear-weapon states (NWS) under the terms of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). In order of acquisition of nuclear weapons these are: the United States, Russia (the successor state to the Soviet Union), the United Kingdom, France, and China.
Since the NPT entered into force in 1970, three states that were not parties to the Treaty have conducted nuclear tests, namely India, Pakistan, and North Korea. North Korea had been a party to the NPT but withdrew in 2003.
Israel is also generally understood to have nuclear weapons, but does not acknowledge it, maintaining a policy of deliberate ambiguity, and is not known definitively to have conducted a nuclear test. Israel is estimated to possess somewhere between 75 and 400 nuclear warheads. One possible motivation for nuclear ambiguity is deterrence with minimum political cost.States that formerly possessed nuclear weapons are South Africa (developed nuclear weapons but then disassembled its arsenal before joining the NPT) and the former Soviet republics Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Ukraine.
According to Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists Nuclear Notebook, the total number of nuclear weapons worldwide is estimated at 9,220 in 2017.Mubashir Hassan
Mubashir Hassan (Urdu: مبشر حسن; 22 January 1922) is a Pakistani socialist, civil engineer and former Finance Minister of Pakistan.
In 1967, Hassan co-founded the Pakistan Peoples Party, a democratic socialist political force, with Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and J.A. Rahim. In 1972, Hassan helped Bhutto establish the Ministry of Science, where he financially assisted large number of Pakistan's academic scientists in the application of Science in warfare. During the 1970s, Hassan emerged as effective public policy maker and was in effect as third Prime minister's science adviser, and was seen as a strong vocal and proponent of democratic technocracy and of the centrality of technological innovation and entrepreneurship for both economic and geopolitical security. However, after removal of Prime minister Bhutto, Hassan became troubled, and was successfully silenced by the military government of General Zia-ul-Haq.Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi
Muhammad Hafeez Qureshi (Urdu: محمد حفيظ قريشى; January 28, 1930 – August 11, 2007), SI, HI, popular as Hafeez Qureshi, was a Pakistani nuclear scientist and a mechanical engineer, known for his classified work at the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).Known for being a director of PAEC's secretive divisions charged with testings of nuclear materials, he oversaw the work on weapon systems manufacturing and gained expertise on engineering applications of nuclear physics and mechanics. However, he is more famed of spearheading Pakistan's quest for nuclear capability.Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture
The Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture, known as NIFA, is one of four agriculture and food irradiation research institute managed by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The institute is tasked to carry out research in Crop production and protection, soil fertility, water management and conservation and value addition of food resources, employing nuclear and other contemporary techniques.
NIFA was the brainchild of Ishrat Hussain Usmani, bureaucrat and chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, however due to economic difficulties, the plans were not carried out until the 1980s. In 1982, Munir Ahmad Khan led the establishment of the institute and its first director was Abdul Rashid who revolutionized the institute.
The NIFA administers cobalt-60 radiation source, Laser absorption spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Near-infrared spectrometer and Ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy.
A library was opened in 1990, and recently, the institute has acquired 75 acres of land at CHASNUPP-I site.Pakistan National Alliance
The Pakistan National Alliance (Urdu: پاکستان قومی اتحاد, Acronym: PNA), was a populist and consolidated right-wing political alliance, consisting of nine political parties of the country. Formed in 1977, the country's leading right-wing parties agreed upon to run a political campaign as a single bloc against the left oriented PPP in the 1977 general elections.
Despite each parties standing with different ideology, PNA was noted for its large physical momentum and its right-wing orientation, originally aimed to oppose Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and the PPP. Despite its right-wing populist agenda, the alliance performed poorly in 1977 general elections and levelled accusations of rigging the elections. After months of spontaneous violent political activism, the martial law came in effect under chief of army staff General Zia-ul-Haq who made call for a political retribution. By 1978, the alliance met its end when parties were diverged in each of its agenda. The left wing parties later would form the MRD alliance under PPP to oppose President Zia-ul-Haq in the 1980s and the right-wing forming the IDA alliance under PML.Pakistan and weapons of mass destruction
Pakistan is one of nine states to possess nuclear weapons. Pakistan began development of nuclear weapons in January 1972 under Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who delegated the program to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan with a commitment to having the bomb ready by the end of 1976. Since PAEC, consisting of over twenty laboratories and projects under nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan, was falling behind schedule and having considerable difficulty producing fissile material, Abdul Qadeer Khan was brought from Europe by Bhutto at the end of 1974. As pointed out by Houston Wood, Professor of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, in his article on gas centrifuges, "The most difficult step in building a nuclear weapon is the production of fissile material"; as such, this work in producing fissile material as head of the Kahuta Project was pivotal to Pakistan developing the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb by the end of 1984.The Kahuta Project started under the supervision of a coordination board that oversaw the activities of KRL and PAEC. The Board consisted of A G N Kazi (secretary general, finance), Ghulam Ishaq Khan (secretary general, defence), and Agha Shahi (secretary general, foreign affairs), and reported directly to Bhutto. Ghulam Ishaq Khan and General Tikka Khan appointed military engineer Major General Ali Nawab to the program. Eventually, the supervision passed to Lt General Zahid Ali Akbar Khan in President General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's Administration. Moderate uranium enrichment for the production of fissile material was achieved at KRL by April 1978.Pakistan's nuclear weapons development was in response to the loss of East Pakistan in 1971's Bangladesh Liberation War. Bhutto called a meeting of senior scientists and engineers on 20 January 1972, in Multan, which came to known as "Multan meeting". Bhutto was the main architect of this programme, and it was here that Bhutto orchestrated nuclear weapons programme and rallied Pakistan's academic scientists to build the atomic bomb in three years for national survival.At the Multan meeting, Bhutto also appointed Munir Ahmad Khan as chairman of PAEC, who, until then, had been working as director at the nuclear power and Reactor Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in Vienna, Austria. In December 1972, Abdus Salam led the establishment of Theoretical Physics Group (TPG) as he called scientists working at ICTP to report to Munir Ahmad Khan. This marked the beginning of Pakistan's pursuit of nuclear deterrence capability. Following India's surprise nuclear test, codenamed Smiling Buddha in 1974, the first confirmed nuclear test by a nation outside the permanent five members of the United Nations Security Council, the goal to develop nuclear weapons received considerable impetus.Finally, on 28 May 1998, a few weeks after India's second nuclear test (Operation Shakti), Pakistan detonated five nuclear devices in the Ras Koh Hills in the Chagai district, Balochistan. This operation was named Chagai-I by Pakistan, the underground iron-steel tunnel having been long-constructed by provincial martial law administrator General Rahimuddin Khan during the 1980s. The last test of Pakistan was conducted at the sandy Kharan Desert under the codename Chagai-II, also in Balochistan, on 30 May 1998. Pakistan's fissile material production takes place at Nilore, Kahuta, and Khushab Nuclear Complex, where weapons-grade plutonium is refined. Pakistan thus became the seventh country in the world to successfully develop and test nuclear weapons. Although, according to a letter sent by A.Q. Khan to General Zia, the capability to detonate a nuclear bomb using highly enriched uranium as fissile material produced at KRL had been achieved by KRL in 1984.Peter Finke
Dr. Peter Finke (born 1944) is a German theoretical physicist who participated in Project-706, Pakistan's clandestine nuclear research project. A close associate and friend of the famous Pakistani nuclear engineer Munir Ahmad Khan (late), he is citizen of both Pakistan and Germany. He is one of the European scientists who participated in Project-706 in the 1970s.Finke is, perhaps, better known in much of the world for his involvement in the development of Beryllium reflector technology as well as selling this technology to Pakistan in the late 1980s. In 1989, Finke was arrested in Germany by the Interpol Police because of his involvement in nuclear proliferation. However, Germany dropped the allegations due to lack of evidence. Finke was sentenced to jail by the German court in 1989 because of violation of Germany's export control laws.Rahimuddin Khan
Rahimuddin Khan (born 21 July 1924) is a retired four-star general of the Pakistan Army who served as Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee from 1984 to 1987, after serving as the 7th Governor of Balochistan from 1978 to 1984. He also served as the 16th Governor of Sindh in 1988.
Born in Qaimganj, United Provinces, British India, Rahimuddin opted for Pakistan at Partition, enrolling as the first cadet of the Pakistan Military Academy. He was part of military action during the 1953 Punjab disturbances, and later commanded 111 Brigade in Rawalpindi, 8th Division in Sialkot, and II Corps in Multan before being appointed Chairman Joint Chiefs. He rejected the future military plan for the Kargil conflict in 1986.As the longest-serving governor of Balochistan in Pakistan's history, Rahimuddin ended the 1973 operation in Balochistan, declaring a general amnesty and military withdrawal in 1978. His tenure saw widespread economic development, the construction of nuclear test sites in Chaghai, and the halting of the Baloch insurgency, but was controversial for suppressing the Afghan mujahideen entering the province during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.Tridev Roy
Raja Tridiv Roy (Urdu: راجہ تری دیو رائے; Bengali: রিদিব_রায়; sometimes spelled Tridev Roy, (14 May 1933 – 17 September 2012) was the former 50th Raja of the Chakma tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region of present-day Bangladesh from 2 May 1953, until his abdication in 1971 following the Bangladesh Liberation War. He chose to remain a Pakistani when Bangladesh achieved independence in 1971. He became known as a writer, diplomat, Buddhist religious leader and politician in Pakistan. Between 1981 and 1995, he served as Ambassador of Pakistan to Argentina with concurrent accreditation in Chile, Uruguay, Peru and Ecuador. He was also a Minister-For-Life within the Pakistani government. Tridev Roy died in September 2012.Władysław Turowicz
Air Commodore Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz (Urdu: ولوادیسیوف دورووچ) (23 April 1908 – 8 January 1980), usually referred to as W. J. M. Turowicz, was a Polish-Pakistani aviator, military scientist and aeronautical engineer.
Turowicz was the administrator of Pakistan's Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) from 1967 to 1970. He was one of forty five Polish officers and airmen who joined RPAF on contract in the early fifties. After completion of his initial contract, Turowicz opted to stay on in Pakistan and continued to serve in PAF and later, SUPARCO.
Turowicz made significant contributions to Pakistan's missile/rocket program as a chief aeronautical engineer. In Pakistan, he remains highly respected as a scientist and noted aeronautical engineer.