Ras Al Khaimah (RAK) (Arabic: رَأْس ٱلْخَيْمَة; IPA: [raʔs alˈxajma]), to an extent identified with the historical area of Julfar,[a] is one of the seven emirates that make up the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is also transliterated as Ras al Khaimah and Ras al-Khaimah. The city of Ras Al Khaimah, sometimes simply abbreviated to RAK City, is the capital of the emirate and home to most of the emirate's residents.
Its name in English means "top of the tent". The emirate borders Oman's exclave of Musandam, and occupies part of the same peninsula. It covers an area of 2,486 km2 (960 sq mi) and has 64 km (40 mi) of beach coastline.
As of 2015, the emirate had a population of about 345,000, of which about 31% were Emirati citizens.
RAK city has two main areas - the Old Town and Nakheel - on either side of a creek that is home to mangroves and is framed by the North-Western Hajar Mountains. The emirate also consists of several villages and new gated residential developments, such as Al Hamra Village and Mina Al Arab. The emirate is served by Ras Al Khaimah International Airport. Its geography consists of a northern part (where Ras Al Khaimah City and most towns are situated) and a large southerly inland exclave (near the Dubai exclave of Hatta), and a few small islands in the Persian Gulf. Ras Al Khaimah has the most fertile soil in the country, due to a larger share of rainfall and underground water streams from the Hajar.
Ras Al Khaimah
إِمَارَة رَأْس ٱلْخَيْمَة
Ra's al-Khaymah, Ras Al-Khaimah or RAK
|Emirate of Ras Al Khaimah|
Clockwise from top: Mangroves seen from Al Qawasim corniche flagpole, Ras Al Khaimah creek, Rotana resort in Ras Al Khaimah, Ras Al Khaimah fort museum, Sheikh Zayed Mosque in Ras Al Khaimah
Coat of arms
Location of Ras Al Khaimah in the UAE
|Country||United Arab Emirates|
|Emirate||Ras Al Khaimah|
|• Type||Absolute monarchy|
|• Ruler||Saud bin Saqr al Qasimi|
|• Crown Prince||Mohammed bin Saud al Qasimi|
|• Total||2,486 km2 (960 sq mi)|
Ras Al Khaimah has been the site of continuous human habitation for 7,000 years, one of the few places in the country[b] and the world where this is the case, and there are many historical and archaeological sites throughout the emirate - local sources cite 1,000 - dating from different time periods, including remnants of the Umm Al Nar Culture (3rd millennium BC). The area of Shimal contains both Umm Al Nar and Wadi Suq burials and a number of notable finds, including one grave that contained no fewer than 18 fine bronze arrowheads.
Ras Al Khaimah is often considered to be the historical area of Julfar, and according to Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi, current ruler of Sharjah Emirate, it was founded by Armenians who escaped Persia during the Mongol invasion.
Archaeological evidence has however demonstrated that the settlement known as Julfar shifted location over time as harbour channels silted up. Excavations of a sizable tell, which revealed remnants of a Sassanid era fortification, indicate that early Julfar was located in the north of the present city of Ras Al Khaimah, not far from other sites of historical and archaeological interest such as 'Sheba's Palace'.
There is considerable debate locally regarding the 18th-century charge of maritime piracy, attracting the British label 'The Pirate Coast' to the Eastern Gulf. Local interpretations of the dispute with the British were that the British became increasingly aggressive in protecting their trade but this resulted in interference in locals' livelihoods, so they naturally took exception to it. However, in the early 18th century, the Al Qasimi dynasty established itself in Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah on the Arabian Peninsula, growing to become a significant maritime force with holdings on both the Persian and Arabian coasts that frequently came into conflict with British flagged shipping.
It was the Al Qasimi links to Persia that drew them to the attention of Ahmed bin Said, the Ruler of Muscat, who had wrested control of the coast and interior of Oman back from the Persian forces who had taken it under Nadir Shah and Mirza Taki Khan, the governor of Shiraz. Ahmed bin Said threw 12,000 men under the command of Kandhala bin Saif Al Suwaidi in an attack on Ras Al Khaimah which was met at Buraimi by 14,000 men of the Al Qasimi and Na'im. They were defeated, leading the garrison at Khor Fakkan, besieged by Ahmed bin Said, to surrender. He went on to take Khasab and then blockaded Ras Al Khaimah, Rams, Jazirat Al Hamra, Fasht and Sharjah. This led to all but Ras Al Khaimah suing for peace in 1763. The Sheikhs of Ras Al Khaimah submitted in 1771, but in 1775 revolted and re-took the towns on the West and East coast, consolidating their gains under the weak rule of Sultan bin Ahmed bin Saeed. This longstanding war between the Al Qasimi and Muscat pitted them naturally against Muscat's ally – Britain.
In the aftermath of a series of attacks in 1808 off the coast Sindh involving 50 Qasimi raiders and following the 1809 monsoon season, the British authorities in India decided to make a significant show of force against the Al Qasimi, in an effort not only to destroy their larger bases and as many ships as could be found, but also to counteract French encouragement of them from their embassies in Persia and Oman. The British mounted the Persian Gulf campaign of 1809, in which the Al Qasimi fleet was largely destroyed. The British operation continued to Linga on the Persian coast which was, like the Greater and Lesser Tunbs islands, administered by the Al Qasimi.
By the morning of 14 November, the military expedition was over and the British forces returned to their ships, having suffered light casualties of five killed and 34 wounded. Arab losses are unknown, but were probably significant, while the damage done to the Al Qasimi fleets was severe: a significant portion of their vessels had been destroyed.
With the 1809 campaign concluded without significant treaty concessions, an 1815 arrangement was made between the British and the Al Qasimi. By 1819, it was clear the arrangement had broken down and so in November of that year, the British embarked on a second expedition against the Al Qasimi, led by Major-General William Keir Grant, voyaging to Ras Al Khaimah with a platoon of 3,000 soldiers. The British extended an offer to Said bin Sultan of Muscat in which he would be made ruler of the Pirate Coast if he agreed to assist the British in their expedition. Obligingly, he sent a force of 600 men and two ships.
The force gathered off the coast of Ras Al Khaimah on 25 and 26 November and, on 2 and 3 December, troops were landed south of the town and set up batteries of guns and mortars and, on the 5th December, the town was bombarded from both land and sea. Continued bombardment took place over the following four days until, on the 9th, fortress and town of Ras Al Khaimah were stormed and found to be practically deserted. On the fall of Ras Al Khaimah, three cruisers were sent to blockade Rams to the North and this, too was found to be deserted and its inhabitants retired to the 'impregnable' hill-top fort of Dhayah.
The British landed a force at Rams on 18 December, which fought its way inland through date plantations to the hilltop fort of Dhayah on the 19th. There, 398 men and another 400 women and children held out, without sanitation, water or effective cover from the sun, for three days under heavy fire from mortars and 12-pound cannon.
The two 24-pound cannon from HMS Liverpool which had been used to bombard Ras Al Khaimah from the landward side were once again pressed into use and dragged across the plain from Rams, a journey of some four miles. Each of the guns weighed over 2 tonnes. After enduring two hours of sustained fire from the big guns, which breached the fort's walls, the last of the Al Qasimi surrendered at 10.30 on the morning of 22 December.
In January 1820, the British imposed the General Maritime Treaty of 1820 signed by Sheikh Sultan Bin Saqr Al Qasimi of Sharjah who was reinstated by the British in Ras Al Khaimah after the deposition of Hasan Bin Rahma Al Qasimi. The treaty stipulated the end of piracy and slavery, and laid the foundation for the British protectorate over the Trucial States that lasted until December 1971. In 1869, Ras Al Khaimah became fully independent from neighbouring Sharjah. However, from September 1900 to 7 July 1921, it was re-incorporated into Sharjah; the last governor became its next independent ruler.
Its rulers were:
In 1975, the total population of Ras Al Khaimah was 43,845 of which 29,613 were nationals and 14,232 were foreigners. This figure increased to 73,918 (39,148 locals; 34,770 foreigners) in 1980, 96,578 in 1985, 143,334 in 1995, and 210,063 in 2005. The total population, as of 2015, was estimated to be about 345,000 people, both Emiratis and expatriates.
Important towns, settlements and areas include:
Notable landmarks in Ras Al Khaimah include:
Ras Al Khaimah's desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) is hot and arid with very hot summers and mild winters. The average temperature is 12 to 25 °C (54 to 77 °F) in January and 29 to 43 °C (84 to 109 °F) in July. However, temperatures often reach 45 °C in the summer; the highest recorded temperature is 48.8 °C (119.8 °F). The humidity is usually high in the summer months. Rains and thunderstorms occur rarely, and only in winter. Snow has been reported in December 2004, January 2009 and February 2017 in the high mountains of Ras Al Khaimah. Temperatures as low as −5 °C (23 °F) have been measured at the peak of Jebel Jais, the highest mountain in the UAE.
As one of the emirates that has never discovered oil, Ras Al Khaimah has focused on diversifying its economy and has had real success with its thriving industrial sector. It has one of the most diverse economies in the Gulf Cooperation Council region, with no one area exceeding more than 20% of total GDP. The main economic sectors are the following:
New legislation and regulations favour international investments. The combination of security and confidentiality is ensured to entrepreneurs. An international company may only have foreign customers and is not liable for paying local taxes. It can open a local bank account, make investments tax-free and obtain mortgages for investing in UAE assets. Employment visas are available. When approved, this type of company can own property in UAE free-trade zones.
No income, sales, or wealth taxes are payable by individuals. No corporate taxes are charged. In addition, there are no exchange controls, no withholding nor import or export taxes.
Sheikh Zayed Mosque and St Mary's Orthodox Church
The UAE culture mainly revolves around the religion of Islam and traditional Arab culture. The influence of Islamic and Arab culture on its architecture, music, attire, cuisine and lifestyle are very prominent as well. Five times every day, Muslims are called to prayer from the minarets of mosques which are scattered around the country. Since 2006, the weekend has been Friday-Saturday, as a compromise between Friday's holiness to Muslims and the Western weekend of Saturday-Sunday. A great majority of the population are non national citizens, coming from India, Pakistan, and a wide range of nations.
The annual Ras Al Khaimah Half Marathon, first held in 2007, resulted in a world record from Samuel Wanjiru in 2007 and the second fastest run of all time from Patrick Makau Musyoki in 2009. Kenya's 19-year-old Stephen Kiprop won the 2019 edition of the half marathon in a course record-equaling 58 minutes and 42 seconds, the fastest time ever recorded by a teenager.
The UAE Awafi Festival is an annual cultural and heritage festival held in the Ras Al Khaimah desert. It is a three-week event, held in December or January, one attraction being a sand dune race. There is a heritage village with traditional food and dance, as well as shops for food and souvenirs.
The Terry Fox Run RAK is a yearly charity run organized in Ras Al Khaimah to support cancer research in the UAE. The first event was organized in 2010 (short movie from 1st RAKTFR event). Participation in this event has grown from hundreds to thousands since its inception.
Ras Al Khaimah Fine Arts Festival is an annual event that has taken place since 2013, organised by the Al Qasimi Foundation for Policy Research. It started with just 26 artists but by 2018 that number had grown to 84. The not-for-profit festival takes place every February. 
Each year, a number of events are lined up in Ras Al Khaimah to mark the United Arab Emirates' National Day, usually involving an air show by the Fursan Al Emarat aerobatics team and a free concert featuring some of the best singers in the Arab world.
In 2018, Ras Al Khaimah became the new host for the season-ending tournament on the Challenge Tour, the second tier of European Tour golf. The "Road to Ras Al Khaimah" ends with the Ras Al Khaimah Challenge Tour Grand Final played at Al Hamra Golf Course. 
Within Ras Al Khaimah city, the main mode of public transport are metered taxis, with public buses operating on long-haul routes and catering mainly to smaller towns (e.g. Sha`am, Rams, and Al Jazirah Al Hamra). A local bus service operated by RAK Transport Authority provides infrequent connections between Nakheel, Al Hamra and the airport.
Ras Al Khaimah is connected to the other emirates by taxis and buses which embark from the Bus station located at RAK Transport Authority Headquarters near the new Ras Al Khaimah Police Headquarters and opposite the Cove Rotana hotel.
The main highways linking Ras Al Khaimah with other emirates is Mohammed bin Zayed Road (E311) and Emirates Road (E611), both of which travel from Ras Al Khaimah through Umm Al Quwain, Ajman and Sharjah and onto Dubai and Abu Dhabi. These highways allow for journeys from Ras Al Khaimah to Dubai in under 45 minutes.
Dual carriageways connect major areas within the emirate, with one following the coast and another running inland towards the airport in the direction of Khatt, Masafi, Fujairah, Dhaid, and eventually Oman.
In July 2018, the first phase of the Ras Al Khaimah Ring Road opened, connecting the industrial areas of the mountainous north with the E311 to the south. The road is expected to decrease the volume of industrial traffic through RAK City.  In spring 2013 work on the 32-kilometre (20 mi) RAK Ring Road was held up by a three-month rescue excavation after the discovery of megalithic tombs dating to the Wadi Suq period, from 2000 to 1600 BC.
Saqr Port, located in the industrial area of Khor Khwair, is the emirate's main port, providing bulk and container services. It has eight deep-water berths, each 200 m (660 ft) long, is dredged to 12.2 m (40 ft) and has two "ro-ro" ramps plus specialised berths for handling bulk cement and aggregate. Other services include ship-handling, crew changes, and 40,000 m2 (430,000 sq ft) of covered storage, together with a vast open storage area. It is also the closest port in the UAE to Bandar Abbas, Iran, but there is no shipping from Saqr port to Bandar Abbas.
Ras Al Khaimah International Airport (RKT) offers cargo and passenger services to a variety of destinations covering the Middle East, North & East Africa, Central Asia, the Indian Subcontinent and Europe (to Luxembourg). It serves as a hub for low-cost carrier Air Arabia and, in May 2019, it was announced that direct flights operated by Pegasus airline would commence to Istanbul, Turkey, from Ras Al Khaimah in October 2019. 
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The 15K run (15 kilometers, or approximately 9.32 miles) is a long distance foot race. It is a rarely held race that is not recognized as an Olympic event. The world best for men is held by Joshua Cheptegei of Uganda who ran a time of 41:05 at the Seven Hills Race in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. The women's world best is held by Joyciline Jepkosgei of Kenya who ran a time of 45:37+ in Prague, Czech Republic.Between 1985 and 1991, the IAAF World Women's Road Race Championships was contested over the 15 km distance.Adhen, Ras Al Khaimah
Adhen (Arabic: اذن) is the name of a settlement in Ras al-Khaimah. It was formerly the location of the Desert Regiment and Mortar Troop of the Trucial Oman Scouts.Al-Qasimi
The Al Qasimi royal family (spelled sometimes as Al Qassimi or Al Qassemi; plural: Al Qawasem القواسم and, archaically, Joasmee) are one of the six ruling families of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and rule two of the seven emirates: Sharjah and Ras Al Khaimah.Al Darah, Ras Al Khaimah
Al Darah is the main border crossing between Ras Al Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Musandam, an exclave of Oman. Although occasionally referred to as Ras Al Darah, it is a land crossing.Al Maarid
Al Maarid is a suburb of the city of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is the location of the 475-room Hilton Ras Al Khaimah Resort & Spa hotel.Baqal, Ras al-Khaimah
Baqal is the name of a remote and historic mountain settlement in Northern Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Inaccessible by road, it is a popular hiking destination.The village is traditionally home to members of the mountain-dwelling Shihuh tribe (giving rise to the modern Emirati family name Al Shehhi) and has no services. Uninhabited today, many of the village's former residents and their descendants visit the village in the cooler winter months.Emirates Club
Emirates Club (Arabic: نادي الامارات) is a professional football club based in the city of Ras al-Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates.Flag of the United Arab Emirates
The flag of the United Arab Emirates (Arabic: علم دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة) contains the Pan-Arab colors red, green, white, and black. It was designed in 1971 by a 19-year-old Emirati, Abdullah Mohammed Al Maainah, and adopted on December 2, 1971. The main theme of the flag's four colors is the unity of Arab nations. In 2008, there was a minor change to the Emblem.
Merchant ships may fly the alternative civil ensign, a red flag with the national flag in the canton.
All Emirates use the federal flag interchangeably as the flag of the emirate.Half marathon
A half marathon is a road running event of 21.0975 km (13 mi 192½ yd)—half the distance of a marathon. It is common for a half marathon event to be held concurrently with a marathon or a 5K race, using almost the same course with a late start, an early finish or shortcuts. If finisher medals are awarded, the medal or ribbon may differ from those for the full marathon. The half marathon is also known as a 21K, 21.1K or 13.1 miles, although these values are rounded and not formally correct.
A half marathon world record is officially recognised by the International Association of Athletics Federations. The official IAAF world record for men is 58:18, set by Abraham Kiptum of Kenya on October 28, 2018 in Valencia, Spain and for women is 1:04:51, set by Joyciline Jepkosgei of Kenya on October 22, 2017, in Valencia, Spain.
Participation in half marathons has grown steadily since 2003, partly because it is a challenging distance, but does not require the same level of training that a marathon does. In 2008, Running USA reported that the half marathon is the fastest-growing type of race.Higher Colleges of Technology
The Higher Colleges of Technology (HCT; Arabic: كليّات التقنيّة العليا) was established in 1988 as one of the largest institutions of higher learning in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). During the 2015–2016 academic year, there were 14,829 female and 8,644 male students enrolled at 17 campuses throughout the country. More than 55,000 UAE nationals are graduates of the institution.The HCT provides post-secondary education in Business, Education, Engineering Technology, Computer & Information Science, Applied Communications and Health Sciences. English is used as the medium of instruction, with faculty recruited from around the world.
The HCT has formal alliances with a number of international tertiary education and training institutions, and corporate partnerships with local and multinational companies. Some programs have international accreditation: for example, the HCT's Bachelor of Education degree was developed with, and is certified by the University of Melbourne.The CERT (Centre of Excellence for Applied Research and Training) is the commercial arm of the Higher Colleges of Technology, developing and providing education, training and applied technology for public and private sector clients.The Chancellor of the HCT is H.E. Mohammad Omran Al Shamsi. Dr Tayeb A. Kamali was appointed as the Vice Chancellor in June 2005. On March 17, 2015 Dr Abdullatif Mohammad Al Shamsi was appointed as HCT Vice Chancellor, by Federal Decree.
There are 17 campuses throughout the country, with separate colleges for male and female students. The central administration of the HCT is located in Abu Dhabi and includes the Vice Chancellor's Office, Academic Central Services and a number of departments which come under the Divisions of Academic, Administration, Campus Operations, and Strategy & Communication.Khatt
Khatt is a mountainous village south-east of the city of Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates. Famous for its hot springs, and latterly home to a spa hotel, there is evidence that Khatt has been a site of constant human settlement since the stone age – a record of over 5,000 years of occupation.List of cities in the United Arab Emirates
This is a list of the principal cities of the United Arab Emirates.Persian Gulf campaign of 1809
The Persian Gulf Campaign, in 1809, was an operation by a British Royal Navy to force the Al Qasimi to cease their raids on British ships in the Persian Gulf, particularly on the Persian and Arab coasts of the Straits of Hormuz. The operation's success was limited as the Royal Navy forces, already heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars, were unable to permanently suppress the strong fleets of the Al Qasimi of Ras Al Khaimah and Sharjah. The expedition did achieve its short-term goals by destroying three Al Qasimi bases and over 80 vessels, including the largest Al Qasimi ship in the region, the converted merchant ship Minerva. Although operations continued into 1810, the British were unable to destroy every Al Qasimi vessel and by 1811 attacks had resumed, although at a lower intensity than previously.
Although characterised at the time and since as actions against piracy, this charge has been disputed by historians and archivists in the UAE in particular, notably the current Ruler of Sharjah, HH Dr Sheikh Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi in his book 'The Myth of Arabian Piracy in the Gulf'. The counter-argument is that the Al Qasimi, a strong and independent maritime force, were the subject of British aggression in an attempt to stamp its authority – and that of its Omani allies – on trade routes thought of as important to Iraq and India.The operation against the Al Qasimi was a joint campaign by the Royal Navy and the fleet of the Honourable East India Company (HEIC), with soldiers drawn from the garrison of Bombay. The expeditionary force, led by Captain John Wainwright in the Navy frigate HMS Chiffone, was despatched to the region, following an escalation in attacks on British shipping in the Persian Gulf after the French established diplomatic missions in Muscat and Tehran in 1807. These attacks not only threatened British trade links in the region, but also placed British relations with Oman and Persia in jeopardy at a time when French aspirations against British India were a cause for concern to the British government.
Because the available charts of the Persian Gulf were inaccurate or incomplete at the time, Al Qasimi ships could hide from Wainwright's squadron in the uncharted inlets, a problem Wainwright reported upon his return that resulted in improved British cartography of the area.Rams (Ras Al Khaimah)
Rams is a suburb of Ras Al Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Once a pearl diving and fishing community which frequently disputed the rule of Ras Al Khaimah, today it forms the northern coastal settlement of the city.Ras Al Khaima Club
Ras Al Khaimah club is a UAE club based on UAE Division 1] in Ras al-Khaimah.
|}Ras Al Khaimah Half Marathon
Ras Al Khaimah Half Marathon is an annual half marathon held in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates.Ras Al Khaimah International Airport
Ras Al Khaimah International Airport (IATA: RKT, ICAO: OMRK) (alternatively Ra's al-Khaymah, Arabic: مطار رأس الخيمة الدولي) is located in the Persian Gulf sheikhdom of Ras al-Khaimah, United Arab Emirates 11 nautical miles (20 km; 13 mi) south of the town of the same name. The airport has two passenger terminal buildings as well as cargo, aircraft maintenance, and aviation training facilities.Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi
Sheikh Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi is the current Ruler of Ras Al Khaimah, one of the 7 emirates of the United Arab Emirates.Trucial States
The Trucial States (Arabic: الساحل المهادن As-Sāḥil al-Muhādin or المتصالح al-Mutaṣāliḥ; also known as Trucial Coast, Trucial Oman, Trucial States of the Coast of Oman, and Trucial Sheikhdoms) was the name the British government gave to a group of tribal confederations in south-eastern Arabia which had been known as the "Pirate Coast". The name derived from the territories whose principal sheikhs had signed protective treaties (also known as truces, hence 'trucial') with the British government from 1820 until 1892. They remained an informal British protectorate until the treaties were revoked on 1 December 1971. The following day six of the sheikhdoms (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain and Fujairah) formed the United Arab Emirates; the seventh – Ras Al Khaimah – joined the Federation on 10 February 1972.
|Climate data for Ras al-Khaimah Airport|
|Record high °C (°F)||32.0
|Average high °C (°F)||24.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||18.3
|Average low °C (°F)||11.8
|Record low °C (°F)||4.4
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||12.8
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm)||1.7||3.3||4.7||0.9||0.2||0.0||0.1||0.2||0.1||0.1||0.7||2.3||14.3|
|Average relative humidity (%)||69||66||62||53||46||50||50||53||57||59||62||69||58|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||238.7||218.4||238.7||285.0||344.1||327.0||303.0||310.0||300.0||303.8||279.0||235.6||3,383.3|
|Source: NOAA |
Rulers of Ras Al Khaimah
Places adjacent to Ras Al Khaimah
Places adjacent to Ras Al Khaimah
|Umm Al Quwain|
|Ras Al Khaimah|