Raphael Israeli (born September 15, 1935) is Professor Emeritus of Middle Eastern, Islamic and Chinese history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, as well as a research fellow at Truman Institute for the Advancement of Peace and the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs in Jerusalem.
Israeli was born in Fes, Morocco and emigrated to Israel at the age of 14. Graduate of Nahalal. For 12 years he was a career officer in the Israeli Defence Force in Military Intelligence, whereafter he switched to Academia.
He received a degree in Arabic and History from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and became a fellow of the Center of Chinese Studies at the University of California at Berkeley, where he earned an M.A. degree in East Asian History and a Ph.D in Chinese and Islamic History. Israeli's working languages are: Hebrew, English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Korean and Russian.
Israeli has taught for 30 years at the Hebrew University and was a visiting professor at universities in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Europe. He is the author of over 40 books and many scholarly articles on the Modern Middle East, Islamic radicalism, Islam in China and Asia and the opening of China by the French.
In 2017, Israeli published a book in Hebrew titled The Arab Minority in Israel, Open and Hidden Processes, in which he calls the Arab minority a "fifth column", who receive more from the state than they contribute and expresses regret that they are not confined to camps like Japanese Americans were in WWII.
The 1983 West Bank fainting epidemic occurred in late March and early April 1983. Researchers point to mass hysteria as the most likely explanation. Large numbers of Palestinians complained of fainting and dizziness, the vast majority of whom were teenage girls with a smaller number of female Israeli soldiers in multiple West Bank towns, leading to 943 hospitalizations.
The cause was determined to be psychological in April 1983, but the fainting spells led to accusations and counter-accusations between Israelis and Palestinians. Israel even arrested some Palestinians during the outbreak, alleging that political agitation was behind the phenomenon. The New York Times reported that "Palestinian leaders have accused Israeli settlers and officials of using 'chemical warfare' in West Bank schools to drive Arabs out of the area" and that some Israeli officials "accused radical Palestinian factions of using gas or chemicals to incite demonstrations."Investigators concluded that the wave of complaints was ultimately a result of mass hysteria, even if some environmental irritant had originally been present. This conclusion was supported by a Palestinian health official, who said that 20% of the early cases may have been caused by the inhalation of some kind of gas, but the remaining 80% were psychosomatic.Albert Hefez was the lead Israeli psychiatric investigator into the incident, and he found that the Israeli press and Palestinian medical personnel both fueled the mass hysteria. He said that the Israeli press was being used by Palestinian militants to provoke an uprising and spread panic by speculating that poison was behind the incidents and by quoting unnamed Israeli army officials as saying that nerve gas was involved. He found that Arab medical personnel, in turn, decided that the "poison" must be coming from the Israeli side.Baruch Modan, director general of Israel's health ministry, also concluded that most of the victims of the epidemic suffered from a psychological malady, though he said that some who fell ill after April 3 were faking, when epidemiologists say that the outbreak had subsided. Albert Hefez, Israel's lead psychiatric investigator of the incident, wrote in his 1985 study "The Role of the Press and the Medical Community in the epidemic of 'Mysterious Gas Poisoning' in the Jordan West Bank" that Israeli newspaper reports of poisoning at the start of the epidemic added fuel to the flames. A front page article in Ha'aretz on March 28, 1983 even claimed that Israeli military investigators had found traces of nerve gas and quoted "army sources" as saying that they suspected that Palestinian militants were poisoning their own people in order to blame Israel and provoke an uprising. Palestinian leaders followed up with accusations that Israel had poisoned them in an attempt to drive them from the West Bank.
Such epidemic hysteria has a long history. Notable cases are the Salem witch trials, the Tanganyika laughter epidemic of 1962, and the 2008–2012 outbreak of psychogenic illness among Afghan school girls over suspected Taliban poisoning.Adnan Ibrahim
Adnan Ibrahim is a Palestinian Islamic scholar who holds a masters and a PhD in Arabic studies from the University of Vienna.David's Tomb
King David's Tomb (Hebrew: קבר דוד המלך) is a site considered by some to be the burial place of David, King of Israel, according to a tradition beginning in the 12th century. The majority of historians and archaeologists do not consider the site to be the actual resting place of King David.It is located on Mount Zion in Jerusalem, near the early 20th century Abbey of the Dormition. The tomb is thought to be situated in a ground floor corner of the remains of the former Hagia Zion, considered a Byzantine church or late Roman era Synagogue. The building is now administered by the Diaspora Yeshiva, a Jewish seminary group.
Due to Israeli Jews being unable to reach holy sites in Jerusalem’s old city during the Jordanian occupation, the tomb of David became a place of worship, sought for its views of the Temple Mount, and thus became a symbol of prayer and yearning . Formerly a mosque, it was converted into a synagogue following the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948; from then onwards, the Israeli Ministry of Religious Affairs began the process of turning the site into Israel's primary religious site. Jewish prayer was established at the site, and Jewish religious symbols were added. From 1948 until the Six-Day War in 1967, it was considered the holiest Jewish site in Israel.The tomb compound includes the location traditionally identified as the Cenacle of Jesus, the original meeting place of the Christian faith. Recent years have seen rising tensions between Jewish activists and Christian worshippers at the site.Gospić
Gospić (Croatian pronunciation: [ɡǒːspitɕ]) is a town and municipality in the mountainous and sparsely populated region of Lika, Croatia. It is the administrative centre of Lika-Senj county. Gospić is located near the Lika River in the middle of a karst field.
Gospić is the third smallest seat of a county government in Croatia. Its status as the county capital helped to spur some development in it, but the town as well as the entire region have suffered a constant decrease in population over the last several decades. Scientist and inventor Nikola Tesla was born in the nearby village of Smiljan and grew up in Gospić.Gospić concentration camp
The Gospić concentration camp (Croatian: Koncentracioni logor Gospić) was one of 26 concentration camps in the Independent State of Croatia during World War II, established in Gospić (modern-day Croatia).Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition
The Grand Anti-Masonic Exhibition (German: Anti-Freimaurer-Ausstellung, Serbian: Antimasonska izložba) was the name of an antisemitic exhibition that was opened on 22 October 1941 during World War II in Belgrade, the capital of the Nazi Germany-established Militärverwaltung in occupied Serbia.
Financed by the Germans and opened with the support of collaborationist leader Milan Nedić, it featured an estimated 200,000 brochures, 108,000 copies of nine different types of envelopes, 100,000 flyers, 60,000 copies of twenty different posters, and 176 different propaganda films that had previously been seen during The Eternal Jew exhibitions in Munich and Vienna in 1937. Despite nominally being anti-Masonic, its purpose was to promote antisemitic ideas and intensify hatred of Jews. Certain displays were intended to dehumanize the Jewish people and justify their extermination by the Germans. Others resembled anti-Jewish propaganda from the period of the Russian Empire and repeated the claims put forward in the book The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. The exhibition was organized by former members of the fascist movement known as Zbor and sought to expose an alleged Judeo-Masonic/Communist conspiracy for world domination through several displays featuring antisemitic propaganda.
Four stamps commemorating the exhibition were issued by Serbian collaborationist authorities in January 1942, depicting Judaism as being the source of all evil in the world and portraying a "strong and victorious Serbia triumphing over the plot of world domination." An estimated 80,000 people, including collaborationist leader Milan Nedić and some of his ministers, visited the exhibition prior to its closure on 19 January 1942.Greater Palestine
Greater Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين الكبرى) is a irredentist notion used by some Palestinian nationalists seeking to establish a Palestinian nation state over the whole of former Mandatory Palestine (the current State of Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The term is contrary to the terms Greater Syria and the Arab homeland.Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation
Islamization of East Jerusalem under Jordanian occupation is what occurred during the Jordanian annexation of the West Bank between 1948–1967, when Jordan sought to alter the demographics and landscape of the city to enhance its Muslim character at the expense of its Jewish and Christian ones. At this time, all Jewish residents were expelled, and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Ghada Hashem Talhami states that during its nineteen years of rule, the government of Jordan took actions to accentuate the spiritual Islamic status of Jerusalem. Raphael Israeli, an Israeli professor, described these measures as "Arabization".Islamization of the Temple Mount
The Islamization of the Temple Mount is the historical process by which Muslim authorities have sought to appropriate and Islamicize the Temple Mount for exclusive Muslim use. Originally an Israelite and subsequently Jewish holy site, as the location of the First and Second Temples, the site was subsequently the location of a Roman pagan temple, a Byzantine church, a garbage dump, and later the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque. It is the holiest site in Judaism and the third holiest site in Sunni Islam.Jürgen Graf
Jürgen Graf (born August 15, 1951 in Basel) is a Swiss author, former teacher and Holocaust denier. Since August 2000 he has been living in exile, and is currently living in Russia, working as a translator, with his wife.Mohamad Al-Khaled Samha
Abu Bashar (born Mohamad Al-Khaled Samha in 1958) is a Syrian-born imam of the mosque of The Islamic Society in Denmark in Odense, Denmark. He was involved in protests against the Jyllands-Posten cartoons of Muhammad and in the Vollsmose terrorist arrests.Al-Khaled worked together with Christian priests to put up a display on religions in the municipality building, and participated in a groundbreaking conference between Christian and Muslim leaders in Denmark.Al-Khaled was one of the imams who travelled to the Middle East with the Akkari-Laban dossier during the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy. He was part of the first delegation of imams that went to Egypt 3–11 December 2005.Al-Khaled worked as prison imam at the State Prison in Nyborg until he was fired in July 2006. According to sources at the prison her was fired after complaints from inmates at Nyborg State Prison that he was inciting hatred of Denmark. Answering to the story in the Folketing, Justice Minister Lene Espersen said he was fired due to cutbacks at the prison.Al-Khaled knew the Vollsmose terrorists, who lived in his area, though he mentioned in interviews he knew them only as neighbors After their arrest, he confirmed for news reporters that the suspects were Muslims.
According to the Danish newspaper Ekstra Bladet, Youssef Mohamad El Hajdib, one of the suspects arrested for the 2006 German train bombing, had Al-Khaled's phone number saved on his phone. That information gained in importance, when it emerged, that El Hadib was arrested on his way by train to Odense, the city al-Khaled lives in. Al-Khaled denied knowing El Hajdib, and was never charged or asked about this matter by the Danish or the German police, and it was never confirmed that El Hajdib had his number.
In September 2014, Al-Khaled gave a lecture at an Islamic Society in Denmark-run mosque and said "[Jews are the] offspring of apes and pigs". He was indicted in November 2016, facing two years in prison if convicted.Mount Zion
For "Zion" as a symbol for Jerusalem, redemption, etc. see Zion (disambiguation).Mount Zion (Hebrew: הַר צִיּוֹן, Har Tsiyyon; Arabic: جبل صهيون, Jabal Sahyoun) is a hill in Jerusalem just outside the walls of the Old City. The term Mount Zion has been used in the Hebrew Bible first for the City of David (2 Samuel 5:7, 1 Chronicles 11:5; 1 Kings 8:1, 2 Chronicles 5:2) and later for the Temple Mount, but its meaning has shifted and it is now used as the name of ancient Jerusalem's Western Hill. In a wider sense, the term is also used for the entire Land of Israel.Simon (2004 film)
Simon is a 2004 Dutch drama film directed by Eddy Terstall.
The story is about two male friends, one heterosexual and one gay. Same sex marriage and euthanasia are prominent themes of the film. The film has won four Golden Calves. Best Actor - Cees Geel, Best Director - Eddy Terstall, Audience Award - Eddy Terstall and Best Feature Film. It was also the Dutch entry for the Oscars in 2005.Stijn Koomen
Stijn Mathias Koomen (born March 18, 1987) is a Dutch actor.Su fei-erh
Su fei-erh was a Muslim Bukharan Emir who was invited into China by the Song dynasty Emperor and given a title of Prince by the Chinese Emperor. He played a critical role in forming the Muslim Hui people in China and giving the Islamic religion its current name in Chinese.The Forgotten Refugees
The Forgotten Refugees is a 2005 documentary film directed by Michael Grynszpan and produced by The David Project and IsraTV with Ralph Avi Goldwasser as executive producer, that recounts the history of Jewish communities of the Middle East and North Africa and their demise in the face of persecutions following the creation of the modern State of Israel in 1948.The Holocaust in Serbia
The Holocaust in German-occupied Serbia was the Nazi German genocide against Serbs, Jews and Romani during World War II in the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia Serbia today includes areas outside the Military Commander of Serbia's Territory in 1941 to 1945: especially the northern Serbian province Vojvodina then made up of the Hungarian Delvidek with its major city of Novi Sad, Serbian Banat, and Serbian Srem (Syrmia). The main perpetrator of the crimes was the Nazi German Wehrmacht stationed in German-occupied Serbia, which carried out the operations with the assistance of Dimitrije Ljotić's Yugoslav fascist movement Zbor and the quisling regime of Milan Nedić.The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism
The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism: From Sacred Texts to Solemn History is a 2008 book by Andrew Bostom. It has been described in the Jerusalem Post as a “collection of sources, Islamic and others, which testify to the long and sorry history of anti-Semitism in Islam.”Benny Morris writing in The New Republic calls Bostom's book "important and deeply discouraging." Morris discusses a great deal of material that Bostom has omitted, concluding that in many ways the antisemitism of the Muslim world is even worse than portrayed in the Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism. However, Benny Morris later apologized in the review for this comment, saying "Mea culpa. I somehow missed the references to the Aden and Moroccan massacres and the medieval pogroms and apologize for writing that they were not mentioned in the book."According to Hebrew University professor Raphael Israeli, “the author delves in considerable detail into the main sources of Islamic jurisprudence - the Koran and the Hadith, complemented by the Sirah (the earliest pious Muslim biographies of Muhammad), where an abundance of references, usually not complimentary but rather derogatory, are made to Jews, collectively known as Israi'liyyat (Israelites' stories). This is a trove of anti-Jewish stereotypes that have become the Shari'a-based uncontested "truth" about the People of the Book. Those accounts are invariably cited in sermons during Friday prayers, thus assuring their universal diffusion among Muslim constituents and the constant poisoning of the souls of young and adult Muslims alike, something that renders their fundamentally negative attitudes to Jews and Israel unchangeable.”The Wisconsin Jewish Chronicle praises the book for making its case with exhaustive use of original sources, "Anti-Semitic passages from the Koran, the hadith (collected anecdotes about the Muslim prophet Mohammed’s life), the sira (early biographies of Mohammed). Anti-Semitic essays, speeches and excerpted book passages by Muslim scholars, theologians and thinkers from the Middle Ages to the present. (and) Scholarly, witness and journalistic accounts of Muslim persecutions of and discrimination against Jews over more than 1,000 years."