Rape pornography

Rape pornography is a subgenre of pornography involving the description or depiction of rape. It is controversial because of the argument that it encourages people to commit rape. However, studies of the issue produce conflicting results.[1]

Rape pornography should not be confused with the depiction of rape in non-pornographic media. Simulated scenes of rape and other forms of sexual violence have appeared in mainstream cinema almost since its advent.[2] For example, in the 1988 film The Accused actress Jodie Foster received a Best Actress Academy Award for her portrayal of rape victim Sarah Tobias.[3]

Legality

United Kingdom

The possession of rape pornography is illegal in Scotland, England and Wales.

In Scotland, the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010 criminalised possession of "extreme" pornography. This included depictions of rape, and "other non-consensual penetrative sexual activity, whether violent or otherwise", including those involving consenting adults and images that were faked.[4] The maximum penalty is an unlimited fine and 3 years imprisonment.[5] The law is not often used, and it resulted in only one prosecution during the first four years that it was in force.[6]

In England and Wales it took another five years before pornography which depicts rape (including simulations involving consenting adults) was made illegal in England and Wales, bringing the law into line with that of Scotland. Section 63 of the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 had already criminalised possession of "extreme pornography" but it did not explicitly specify depictions of rape.[7] At that time it was thought that the sale of rape pornography might already be illegal in England and Wales as a result of the Obscene Publications Act 1959, but the ruling in R v Peacock in January 2012 demonstrated that this was not the case. The introduction of a new law was first announced in 2013 by the UK Prime Minister David Cameron.[8] In a speech to the NSPCC he stated that pornography that depicts simulated rape "normalise(s) sexual violence against women", although the Ministry of Justice criminal policy unit had previously stated that "we have no evidence to show that the creation of staged rape images involves any harm to the participants or causes harm to society at large".[9]

In February 2015, Section 16 of the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015 amended the Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 to criminalise the possession of pornographic imagery depicting acts of rape. The law only applies to consensual, simulated, fantasy material. The possession of an image capturing an actual rape, for example CCTV footage, is not illegal; but a "make believe" image created by and for consenting adults is open to prosecution.[9] In January 2014 sexual freedom campaign groups criticised Section 16 as being poorly defined and liable to criminalise a wider range of material than originally suggested.[10] However, in April 2014 the BBFC's presentation to Parliament suggested that the proposed legislation would not cover "clearly fictional depictions of rape and other sexual violence in which participants are clearly actors, acting to a script".[11]

Germany

In Germany, the distribution of pornography featuring real or faked rape is illegal.[12]

United States

There are few practical legal restrictions on rape pornography in the United States. Law enforcement agencies concentrate on examples where they believe a crime has been committed in the production. "Fantasy" rape pornography depicting rape simulations involving consenting adults are not a priority for the police.[13]

Internet

Internet policing with respect to investigating actual crime has been made increasingly difficult by rape pornography websites operating anonymously, flouting ICANN regulations and providing false information for the Whois database.[13]

See also

  • Category:Films about rape

References

  1. ^ "Pornography, Rape and Sex Crimes in Japan". Pacific Center for Sex and Society. University of Hawaii. 1999.
  2. ^ Simpson, Clare. "10 Controversial Films With Scenes Of Explicit Sexual Violence". WhatCulture.com. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  3. ^ Simpson, Clare. "10 Controversial Films With Scenes Of Explicit Sexual Violence". WhatCulture.com. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
  4. ^ "Revitalising Justice – Proposals To Modernise And Improve The Criminal Justice System". Scotland.gov.uk. 2008-09-24. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  5. ^ "Information on the new offence of Possession of Extreme Pornographic Images" (PDF). The Scottish Government. 1 Mar 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  6. ^ Dan Bunting (22 April 2014). "Criminal Justice and Courts Bill – new criminal offences". Halsbury's Law Exchange.
  7. ^ "Crackdown on violent porn". The Scotsman. Johnston Publishing. 2006-08-31.
  8. ^ "Online pornography to be blocked by default, PM announces". BBC News. 22 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  9. ^ a b Myles Jackman (13 August 2013). "Government to "get to grips" with Rape-Porn". Myles Jackman. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  10. ^ Jerry Barnett (20 February 2014). "Letter to MPs on Criminalising "Rape Porn"". Sex & Censorship.
  11. ^ Ben Yates (4 April 2014). "UK Censors Approve Unrealistic Rape Porn". Sex and Censorship.
  12. ^ "German Criminal Code". Gesetze-im-internet.de. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
  13. ^ a b Craig Timberg (6 December 2013). "How violent porn site operators disappear behind Internet privacy protections". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
Anti-rape device

An anti-rape device is one of a variety of devices invented for the purpose of preventing or deterring rape. The first such devices were the chastity belts of the 15th century. Although a number of devices have been proposed, none of them are in commercial production as of 2017.

Clare McGlynn

Clare Mary Smith McGlynn(born 1970) is a Professor of Law at Durham University. She specialises in the legal regulation of pornography, image-based sexual abuse (including 'revenge pornography'), violence against women, and gender equality in the legal profession. McGlynn regularly contributes to media debates about her areas of expertise, commenting in 2017 on whether pornography should be included on the school curriculum, whether it is ok to watch pornography in public, celebrity image-based sexual abuse, and on the proposed regulation of upskirting in England and Wales. She has submitted evidence to UK and Scottish Parliamentary committees. Her work with Erika Rackley on the cultural harm caused by rape pornography was instrumental in the Scottish Parliament's decision to criminalise possession of such material. McGlynn and Rackley were involved in Rape Crisis London's campaign to 'close the loophole' that makes possession of rape pornography lawful in England and Wales. The campaign was successful, and an amendment to include rape in the definition of 'extreme pornography' was incorporated into the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015.

Genocidal rape

Genocidal rape is the action of a group who has carried out acts of mass rape during wartime against their perceived enemy as part of a genocidal campaign. During the Bangladesh Liberation War, the Yugoslav Wars, the Rwandan genocide, Iraqi Civil War and during the Rohingya genocide in Myanmar the mass rapes that had been an integral part of those conflicts brought the concept of genocidal rape to international prominence. Although war rape has been a recurrent feature in conflicts throughout history, it has usually been looked upon as a by-product of conflict, and not an integral part of military policy.The violence against women during the Partition of India has also been cited as an example of genocidal rape.

Prison rape

Prison rape or jail rape is rape occurring in prison. The phrase has come into common usage to refer to rape of inmates by other inmates, and less commonly to the rape of inmates by staff, and even less commonly rape of staff by inmates.

In the US, the overwhelming majority of cases are men who are raped by other men.In some jurisdictions, sexual contact with inmates by prison staff is illegal regardless of consent.The well-known teardrop tattoo sometimes signifies that the wearer was raped while incarcerated and tattooed with a teardrop under the eye by the rapist, as a way of “marking” an inmate as the property of another person and humiliating the inmate while in prison, as a tattoo on the face cannot be covered up or hidden.

Rape and revenge film

Rape and revenge films are a subgenre of exploitation film that was particularly popular in the 1970s.

Rape fantasy

A rape fantasy (sometimes referred to as rapeplay) or a ravishment is a sexual fantasy involving imagining or pretending being coerced or coercing another into sexual activity. In sexual roleplay, it involves acting out roles of coercive sex. Rape pornography is literature or images associated with rape and sometimes Stockholm syndrome as a means of sexual arousal.

Rape in Afghanistan

Rape is a major issue in Afghanistan. A number of human rights organizations have criticized the country's rape laws and their enforcement.

Rape in Belgium

In 2004, the incidence of rapes recorded by the police in Belgium was 28.4 per 100,000 people, according to data by UNODC; in 2008 it was 29.5 per 100,000 people. Belgium has been reported as being one of the countries with the highest rate of rape.

Rape in China

In 2007, the U.S. Department of State reported 31,833 rapes in China, but no similar report by the Chinese government has been made available. Same-sex sexual assault between males was made illegal in late 2015.

Rape in France

In France, rape is illegal, and marital rape is also illegal. In recent years there has been increase of reported rape cases in France. As elsewhere, this crime is severely under-reported.

Rape in Saudi Arabia

Rape in Saudi Arabia has been researched by various observers and entities. In 2002, sexual offences stood at 0.3 rapes per 100,000 population. Under Sharia law, which serves as the basis for the legal system of Saudi Arabia, a law generally enforced by the Islamic states (Islamic Law), punishment imposed by the court on the rapist may range from flogging to execution. However, there is no penal code in Saudi Arabia and there is no written law which specifically criminalizes rape or prescribes its punishment. If the rape victim first entered the rapist's company in violation of purdah, she also stands to be punished by the law's current holdings. In addition, there is no prohibition against marital rape or statutory rape.

Rape investigation

Rape investigation is the procedure to gather facts about a suspected rape, including forensic identification of a perpetrator, type of rape and other details.

The vast majority of rapes are committed by persons known to the victim: only between five and 15 percent of assaults are perpetrated by a stranger. Therefore, the identity of the perpetrator is frequently reported. Biological evidence such as semen, blood, vaginal secretions, saliva, vaginal epithelial cells may be identified and genetically typed by a crime lab. The information derived from the analysis can often help determine whether sexual contact occurred, provide information regarding the circumstances of the incident, and be compared to reference samples collected from patients and suspects. Medical personnel in many countries collect evidence for potential rape cases by using rape kits. The time it takes to have rape kits processed has been criticized.

Rape schedule

Rape schedule is a concept in feminist theory used to describe the notion that women are conditioned to place restrictions on and/or make alterations to their daily lifestyles and behaviours as a result of constant fear of sexual assault. These altered behaviours may occur consciously or unconsciously.

Rape trauma syndrome

Rape trauma syndrome (RTS) is the psychological trauma experienced by a rape victim that includes disruptions to normal physical, emotional, cognitive, and interpersonal behavior. The theory was first described by nurse Ann Wolbert Burgess and sociologist Lynda Lytle Holmstrom in 1974.RTS is a cluster of psychological and physical signs, symptoms and reactions common to most rape victims immediately following a rape, but which can also occur for months or years afterwards. While most research into RTS has focused on female victims, sexually abused males (whether by male or female perpetrators) also exhibit RTS symptoms. RTS paved the way for consideration of complex post-traumatic stress disorder, which can more accurately describe the consequences of serious, protracted trauma than posttraumatic stress disorder alone. The symptoms of RTS and post-traumatic stress syndrome overlap. As might be expected, a person who has been raped will generally experience high levels of distress immediately afterward. These feelings may subside over time for some people; however, individually each syndrome can have long devastating effects on rape victims and some victims will continue to experience some form of psychological distress for months or years. It has also been found that rape survivors are at high risk for developing substance use disorders, major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders.

Ryona

The word ryona (リョナ, ryona, a portmanteau of ryōki ("seeking the bizarre") and onanī ("masturbation")) refers to a genre of fiction and sexual complex wherein a protagonist, usually female, is subject to physical or psychological abuse from an offender who is at the same time a love interest, usually male. The term is mostly used when in connection to Japanese culture, although the theme itself is seen in many other cultures.

The term "ryona" almost exclusively refers to where a woman being abused by a man. In the case where the target is male, it is more commonly called gyaku-ryona (逆リョナ, gyaku-ryona, "reverse ryona"). However, neither term are restricted to heterosexual relationships. There exist also ryona works where the perpetrator is a monster or other non-human being.

The term is contrasted with sexual sadism and rape pornography, in that ryona is a voyeuristic fantasy fetish, a romanticized sub-genre aimed at female target demographic group and are almost always of non-explicit sexual nature.

Serial rapist

A serial rapist is someone who commits multiple rapes, whether with multiple victims or a single victim repeatedly over a period of time. Some serial rapists target children. The terms sexual predator, repeat rape and multiple offending can also be used to describe the activities of those who commit a number of consecutive rapes, but remain unprosecuted when self-reported in research. Others will commit their assaults in prisons. In some instances, a group of serial rapists will work together. These rapists can have a pattern of behavior that is sometimes used to predict their activities and aid in their arrest and conviction. Serial rapists also differ from one time offenders because "serial rapists more often involved kidnapping, verbally and physically threatening the victims, and using or threatening the use of weapons."

Sexual violence in Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG) is often labelled as potentially the worst place in the world for gender-based violence.

Studio FOW

Studio FOW (sometimes also stylised as StudioFOW or Studio F.O.W.) is a pornographic production company based in North America. Known for the production of animated films featuring video game characters, the studio's content can be described as computer-animated hardcore rape pornography, often in a high fantasy setting. It is also a video game developer doing business as FOW Interactive (formerly FOW Games).

Weinstein effect

The Weinstein effect is a global trend in which people come forward to accuse famous or powerful men of sexual misconduct. A worldwide wave of allegations began in the United States in October 2017, when media outlets reported on sexual abuse allegations against film producer Harvey Weinstein. The allegations were described as a "tipping point" or "watershed moment" and precipitated a "national reckoning" against sexual harassment.The effect gave rise to the Me Too movement, which encourages people to share their experiences of sexual harassment and assault, and the two events triggered a cascade of allegations that brought about the swift removal of many men in positions of power in the United States, while tarnishing and ending political careers of additional men as it spread around the world. In the entertainment industry, allegations led to the dismissal of actors and directors alike.

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