Ranks of the Grande Armée

Ranks of the Grande Armée describes the military ranks and the rank insignia used in Napoleon's Grande Armée. Officers and the most senior non-commissioned rank had rank insignia in the form of epaulettes, sergeants and corporals in the form of stripes or chevrons on the sleeves.

Infantry and artillery

Gold (yellow) or silver (white) were used in accordance with the metal of the uniform buttons of the regiment. Officers of regiments with gold buttons used gold epaulettes, those with silver buttons wore silver epaulettes. The epaulettes of majors were of contrary metal; gold buttons, silver epaulets etc. Generals and field officers used bullion fringes.

Designation Generals
Rank
insignia
0MarechalFR-ImpFrArmy0MarechalFR-ImpFrArmy Epaulette-general-empire-cropEpaulette-general-empire-crop Gen.Div-ImpFrArmyGen.Div-ImpFrArmy
Rank designation Maréchal de France Général de division Général de brigade
Designation Field officers
Rank
insignia
Colonel-ImpFrArmy Colonel-ImpFrArmy Magg-ImpFrArmyMagg-ImpFrArmy Epaulettes chef de bataillon
Rank designation Colonel
Colonel en second =
with a stripe in the center
Major
Major en second =
with a stripe in the center
Chef de bataillon
Designation Company officers
Rank
insignia
Epaulette capitaine adjudant major Epaulette capitaine Epaulettes lieutenant premiere classe armee Napoleonienne Epaulettes lieutenant seconde classe armee Napoleonienne Epaulette sous-lieutenant premiere classe armee Napoleonienne Epaulettes sous-lieutenant seconde classe armee Napoleonienne
Rank designation Capitaine adjudant major Capitaine Lieutenant Lieutenant
1812
Sous-lieutenant Sous-lieutenant
1812
Designation Non-commissioned officers and corporals
Chevrons or stripes depended on the form of the regimental cuffs.
Rank
insignia
Epaulette adjudant sous-officier armee Napoleonienne Epaulette sous-lieutenant premiere classe armee Napoleonienne Serg.M-ImpFrArmy Serg-ImpFrArmy Serg-ImpFrArmy
CaporalM.ImpFrArmy
Caporal-ImpFrArmy
Rank designation Adjudant sous-officier Adjudant sous-officier
version of 1808
Sergent-major Sergent Caporal-fourrier Caporal

Sources: [1][2] [3]

Cavalry and train

  • Colonel
  • Colonel en second
  • Major
  • Major en second
  • Chef d'escadron
  • Capitaine
  • Lieutenant
  • Sous-lieutenant
  • Adjudant sous-officier
  • Maréchal des logis-chef
  • Maréchal des logis
  • Brigadier-fourrier
  • Brigadier

[1] [4]

Physicians, surgeons, and pharmacists

Physician Surgeons Pharmacists
Médecin en chef Chirurgien en chef -
Médecin major Chirurgien major Pharmacien major
Médecin aide major Chirurgien aide major Pharmacien aide major
- Chirurgien sous aide major Pharmacien sous aide major

Source: [5]

Good conduct badges

Sergeants, corporals and privates were issued good conduct and long service badges, galons d'ancienneté in the form of chevron on the upper left arm of the uniform coat; one chevron for ten years service, two for 15 years service, three for 20 years service. The chevrons were officially of red cloth for all ranks, except caporal-fourriers who were issued chevrons in yellow or white cloth (depending on the metal colour), as a replacement for the stripe that denoted his rank. In reality, however, the sergeants used chevrons in yellow or white.[6]

Serg.M-ImpFrArmy
Serg.M-ImpFrArmy
Serg.M-ImpFrArmy
Serg-ImpFrArmy
Serg.EsPont
Caporal-ImpFrArmy
Vicecap.EsPont
Caporal-ImpFrArmy
Sergent-major with 15 years service Sergent with 15 years service Caporal-fourrier with ten years service Caporal with ten years service

Gallery

Grande Armée - Generals of Division - Undress Uniform

Generals of division

Grande Armée - Artillery-Colonel and Chef de bataillon

Colonel and Chef de Bataillon of artillery

Grande Armée - Line Infantry - Chef de Bataillon & Colonel

Chef de Bataillon and Colonel of line infantry.

Grande Armée - 10th Regiment of Cuirassiers - Colonel

Colonel of cuirassiers.

Grande Armée - 2nd Regiment of Hussars

Major of hussars (right), with rank insignia in the form of braids on the sleeves and pants.[4]

Grande Armée - 2nd Regiment of Carabiniers Squadron Chief

Chef d'Escadron of the carabineers.

Grande Armée - 16th Regiment of Dragoons

Captains of dragoons.

Grande Armée - 1st Regiment of Hussars

Hussar and captain.

Grande Armée - 1st Regiment of Carabiniers - Fourrier Corporal

Farrier and brigadier of carabineers.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "1812 год. Французская армия – командный состав" (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  2. ^ "пехотные знаки различия (таблица Якуба Самека)" (in Russian). Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  3. ^ Военные чины и знаки различия армии Наполеона 2019-04-03.
  4. ^ a b "14th French Hussar Regiment, 1813". Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  5. ^ Sandeau, Jaques. "La santé aux armées". Histoire des deux empires (in French). Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  6. ^ "Les chevrons d'ancienneté" (in French). Retrieved 2018-05-06.
Grande Armée

The Grande Armée (French pronunciation: ​[ɡʀɑ̃d aʀme]; French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars. From 1805 to 1809, the Grande Armée scored a series of historic victories that gave the French Empire an unprecedented grip on power over the European continent. Widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest fighting forces ever assembled, it suffered terrible losses during the French invasion of Russia in 1812 and never recovered its tactical superiority after that campaign.

It was renamed in 1805 from the army that Napoleon had assembled on the French coast of the English Channel for the proposed invasion of Britain. Napoleon later deployed the army east in order to eliminate the threat of Austria and Russia, which were part of the Third Coalition assembled against France. Thereafter, the name was used for the principal French army deployed in the Campaigns of 1805 and 1807, where it got its prestige, and 1809, 1812, and 1813–14. In practice, however, the term Grande Armée is used in English to refer to all of the multinational forces gathered by Napoleon in his campaigns of the early 19th century (see Napoleonic Wars).The first Grande Armée consisted of six corps under the command of Napoleon's marshals and senior generals. When Napoleon discovered that Russian and Austrian armies were preparing to invade France in late 1805, the Grande Armée was quickly ordered across the Rhine into Southern Germany, leading to Napoleon's victories at Ulm, Austerlitz and Jena.

The army grew as Napoleon spread his power across Europe. It reached its largest size of 1,000,000 men at the start of the invasion of Russia in 1812, with 680,000 men participating in the Russian campaign. The contingents were commanded by French generals, except for the Polish corps and an Austrian one. The huge multinational army marched slowly east, and the Russians fell back with its approach. After the capture of Smolensk and victory in the Battle of Borodino, Napoleon and a part of the Grande Armée reached Moscow on 14 September 1812. However, the army was already drastically reduced because of deaths and injuries from battles with the Russians, disease (principally typhus), desertion, and long communication lines. The army spent a month in Moscow but was ultimately forced to march back westward. It started to suffer from cold, starvation and disease, and was constantly harassed by Cossacks and Russian irregulars, so that the Grande Armée was utterly destroyed as a fighting force. Only 120,000 men survived to leave Russia (excluding early deserters). Of these, 50,000 were Austrians, Prussians, and other Germans, 20,000 were Poles, and just 35,000 Frenchmen. As many as 380,000 died in the campaign.Napoleon led a new army to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in 1813, in the defence of France in 1814 and in the Waterloo Campaign in 1815, but the Napoleonic French army would never regain the heights of the Grande Armée of June 1812.

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