Ranks in the French Army

See Ranks in the French Navy for more details about the naval ranks
French Army
Flag of France

Components
Army Light Aviation
Armoured Cavalry
Troupes de marine
French Foreign Legion
Chasseurs alpins
List of current regiments
Structure of the French Army
Administration
Chief of Staff of the French Army
Equipment
Modern Equipment
History
Military history of France
Personnel
List of senior officers of the French Army
Ranks in the French Army
Awards
Croix de guerre
Médaille militaire
Légion d'honneur
Awards

Rank insignia in the French Army are worn on the sleeve or on shoulder marks of uniforms, and range up to the highest rank of Marshal of France, a state honour denoted with a seven-star insignia that was last conferred posthumously on Marie Pierre Koenig in 1984.

Infantry arms and cavalry arms

Rank insignia in the French army depend on whether the soldier belongs to an infantry or cavalry unit. The infantry arms (armes à pied) include normal infantry, naval troops, the Foreign Legion and engineers; cavalry arms (armes à cheval) include armoured cavalry, artillery, maintenance and logistics. Sleeves are emblazoned with marks denoting either gold insignia for the infantry or silver/white for the cavalry. However, the artillery uses gold as the main colour, despite being a cavalry branch, and spahis use gold as the main colour despite being part of the cavalry, a distinction representing the armoured cavalry.

Marshals

Insigne maréchal armée française
Insignia of a marshal of France

The title of "marshal of France" (maréchal de France) is awarded as a distinction, rather than a rank. The marshals wear seven stars and carry a baton.

Famous examples include Turenne, Vauban, Joachim Murat, Michel Ney, Bazaine, Guillaume Brune, Louis Nicolas Davout, Duke de MacMahon, de Canrobert, André Masséna, de Hauteclocque, de Tassigny, Marie Pierre Koenig and Alphonse Juin.

As a distinction rather than a rank, the title of Marshal is granted through a special law voted by the French Parliament. For this reason, it is impossible to demote a Marshal. The most famous example is Philippe Pétain, who became famous as Maréchal Pétain, chief of state of the Vichy France regime. When he was tried for high treason, the judges were empowered to demote his other ranks and titles, but due to the principle of separation of powers, the judges had no authority to cancel the law that had made Pétain a Marshal and it remained the only title he kept after being sentenced.

Six marshals of France have been given the even more exalted rank of "Marshal General of France" (Maréchal général de France): Duke de Biron, Duke de Lesdiguières, Viscount de Turenne, de Villars, Count de Saxe and de Dieu Soult.

Officers

Although they all wear the same insignia and titles, officers are divided into:

  • Regular officers of the army
  • Officers of the Armed Forces Commisariat Corps (formerly Army Commisariat Corps)
  • Officers of the technical and administrative corps of the armed forces (formerly of the Army)

Généraux - general officers

Insigne général d'armée
Insigne général de corps d'armée
Insigne général de division
Insigne général de brigade

There is no distinction between infantry and cavalry generals, since they are all supposed to be able to command any type of unit. The rank was formerly designated as Lieutenant-General of the Armies until 1791. The official historic succession of the "Lieutenant-General of France" corresponded to Général de division for the French Army, and Vice-Amiral (Vice-Admiral) for the French Navy. The rank of Général de corps d'armée wasn't officially adopted until 1939, along with five other French Armed Forces ranks.

Officiers supérieurs - senior officers

In the below descriptions, "horse-mounted" does not refer to current units (the only remaining horse-mounted unit is a ceremonial unit in the Republican Guard) but to the traditional affiliation of the units.

Colonel

The word colonel originates in the medieval term capitaine colonel, "the head (officer) of a column" (=regiment). Lieutenant-colonel is the one who can "hold the place" of a colonel in his absence (lieu-tenant, from tenir lieu which means to hold the place). The word chef or "chief" in English comes from the Latin word caput meaning "head".

A colonel commands a regiment of the army or a groupement of the Gendarmerie. During the French Revolution, they were called chef de brigade. Cavalry arms wear silver. The origin of the difference in metal colour is that infantry officers once wore silver epaulettes, while those of the cavalry and other arms wore gold, and the colour of the rank badge had to differ from these metals in each case.

Colonel

Infantry

Colonel des armes à cheval

Cavalry

Lieutenant-colonel

The lieutenant-colonel has the same responsibilities as a colonel. They were called major during the First French Empire. Notice that the metal colours alternate silver and gold in each case, as opposed to those of the colonels. This characteristic goes back at least to alternating stripes on the uniforms of that empire in epaulettes.

Lieutenant-colonel

Infantry

Lieutenant-colonel des armes à cheval

Cavalry

Commandant

Commandant (also called chef de bataillon in the infantry, chef d'escadrons in the cavalry and chef d'escadron in the artillery and in the army light aviation) is equivalent to a major in most English-speaking countries.

Commandant

Infantry

Commandant des armes à cheval

Cavalry

Officiers subalternes - junior officers

Capitaine

A capitaine is in command of a company (compagnie) of infantry, a squadron (escadron) of cavalry or a battery (batterie) of artillery.

Capitaine

Infantry

Capitaine des armes à cheval

Cavalry

Lieutenant

A lieutenant (lieutenant or first lieutenant) commands a platoon (section) of infantry, a troop (peloton) of cavalry, or a brigade of the Gendarmerie.

Lieutenant

Infantry

Lieutenant des armes à cheval

Cavalry

Sous-lieutenant

A Sous-lieutenant (sub-lieutenant or second lieutenant) commands at the same level as a lieutenant, but is a more junior officer rank.

Sous-lieutenant

Infantry

Sous-lieutenant des armes à cheval

Cavalry

Aspirant

  • Aspirant An Officer Designate rank, it is used in the Armée de Terre (Army), the Armée de l'Air (Air Force), the Marine Nationale (Navy) and the Gendarmerie Nationale. Technically it is not a commissioned rank but it is still treated in all respects as one. Aspirants are either officers in training in military academies or voluntaries, serving as temporary officers. The aspirant must have been previously élève officier (Officer Cadet). S/He can afterwards be commissioned as a sous-lieutenant or enseigne de vaisseau de deuxième classe. The insignia is a single curl of gold lace, disrupted by "flashes" of wool. It was widely used during both World Wars for providing young educated people with an officer's authority.
Aspirant de l'armée de terre.png
Galon gamma AT

Sous-officiers - sub-officers, i.e. non-commissioned officers

  • Major, the senior sub-officer rank since 1 January 2009 this grade is attached to the sous-officiers. Prior to this date it was an independent corps between the sous-officiers and the officiers. There are several Majors across the board of the French Armed Forces including the French Army, French Navy and French Air Force, typically at least one per regiment and several in a brigade.
    • Major-French-Army
Major-French-Army

Note the difference with many army rank systems of other countries where the term major is used for a rank above that of captain. For example, the rank of "major" in the US Army or British army is equivalent to the rank of "commandant" in the French army.

  • Adjudant-chef: "Chief Adjutant" or Chief Warrant Officer; often same responsibilities as the lieutenant.
    • Adjudant-chef
      adjudant-chef (infantry arms)
    • Adjudant
      adjudant-chef (cavalry and transportation arms)
  • Adjudant: Adjutant or Warrant Officer; often same responsibilities as an adjudant-chef.
    • Adjudant
    • Adjudant-chef
  • Sergeant-Major in France: Sergent-Major was a rank created in 1776 and was formally abolished in 1971, when it was renamed Sergent-Chef in 1928. The rank of Sergent-Major was not attributed since 1976, and was in between the ranks of Sergent-Chef and Adjudant. The last of Sergent-Major went on retirement in 1985.
  • Sergent-Chef (infantry) or maréchal des logis-chef (cavalry), addressed as "chef". Typically a platoon second-in-command (equivalent to a Commonwealth sergeant or a US sergeant first class).
    • Sergent-chef
      Sergent-chef: Chief sergeant
    • Maréchal-des-logis-chef
      Maréchal des logis-chef: Chief marshal of lodgings
  • Sergent (infantry) or maréchal-des-logis (cavalry): Typically in command of a "group" (i.e. squad; equivalent to a commonwealth corporal or US staff sergeant)
    • Sergent
      Sergent: Sergeant
    • Maréchal-des-logis
      Maréchal des logis: Marshal of lodgings
  • Élève sous-officier NCO candidates at the ENSOA.
    • Sergent appelé
Adjudant-chef
Adjudant
Adjudant
Adjudant-chef
Sergent-chef
Maréchal-des-logis-chef
Sergent
Maréchal-des-logis
Sergent appelé

Etymologically the adjudant is the adjoint ("joint (assistant)") of an officer, and the sergeant "serves" (Latin: serviens = English: servant).

Aspirants are cadet officers still in training. Sous-lieutenants are junior officers and are often aided by adjudants or adjudants-chefs, who are experienced NCOs/warrant officers.

Full lieutenants are experienced junior officers, served by sergeants when commanding their unit.

A four chevron sergent-chef-major rank existed until 1947. It was a ceremonial rank usually given to the most senior or experienced NCO in a unit, similar to a colour sergeant in the British Army. It was discontinued in the post-war army due to its redundancy.

Militaires du rang - Troop ranks

Junior enlisted grades have different cloth stripe and beret colour depending on the service they are assigned to. Troupes métropolitaines ("from the French mainland") units wear blue, Troupes de marine (the former troupes coloniales) wear red, and the Légion Étrangere (Foreign Legion) units wear green.

A red beret indicates a paratrooper, whether from the "troupes de marine" or not. A legionnaire paratrooper wears a green beret with the general parachutist badge on it, the same badge used by all French Army paratroopers who completed their training.

Senior grades' lace stripe metal depends on their arm of service, just like the officiers. Infantry and support units wear gold stripes and cavalry and technical services units wear silver stripes.

  • Caporal-chef de première classe
    Caporal-chef de première classe. Distinction created in 1999.
  • Caporal-chef
    Caporal-chef (infantry) or Brigadier-chef (cavalry): in command of an équipe (literally a team). Presently this size unit is a trinôme in the army.
  • Caporal
    Caporal (infantry) or brigadier (cavalry) : in command of an équipe.
  • Première classe
    Soldat de première classe. This is a distinction rather than a rank.
  • Soldat de deuxième classe: No rank insignia. Depending on the arm, they are called
    • Fantassin (infantry)
    • Légionnaire (French Foreign Legion)
    • Artilleur (artillery)
    • Sapeur (engineering, including the Paris Fire Brigade)
    • Chasseur ("hunter": light troops used for reconnaissance and harassment)
      • Chasseurs à pied (light infantry)
      • Chasseurs à cheval (light mounted infantry)
      • Chasseurs alpins (light alpine infantry)
      • Chasseurs parachutistes (airborne infantry commandos)
    • Dragon (dragoon: mounted infantry unit)
    • Cuirassier (heavy cavalry unit)
    • Hussard (light cavalry unit)
    • Transmetteur (signals corps)
    • Conducteur (trains)
    • Marsouin (literally "porpoise"; marines or naval infantry)
  • Slang
    • Bigor (artillerie de la marine; see Troupes de marine): A term either from the gunner's order to fire (Bigue de hors) or a term for a species of winkle (bigorneau) because they would stick to their emplacements and couldn't be removed easily.
    • Colo (French Colonial Forces): The former term for the troupes de la marine when they were colonial troops.
    • Para (troupes aéroportées): Airborne troops, short for "parachutist".
    • Gazier (troupes aéroportées): Airborne troops "grunt". Friendly nickname.
    • Poilu (infanterie): "Hairy one". A term that appeared during the First Empire and used to refer to the French soldiers as they often wore a beard and/or a moustache—and were represented that way on memorials. Nowadays, this term is used to refer to French soldiers who fought in the trenches of WW1, though it is seldom used to refer to WW2 soldiers. It is synonym of bravery and endurance.
    • Biffin slang used by troupes de marine and fusiliers marins to designate other infantry units. Probably comes from the fact that marsouins and naval riflemen used to own their uniform and were proud of it, whereas other units were dressed in rags (biffe is an old French word for rag). This word is not used to designate a legionnaire.
Caporal-chef de première classe
Caporal-chef
Caporal
Première classe

There are also distinctions to distinguish volunteers and conscripts, and bars for experience (one for five years, up to four can be obtained).

Engineer officer ranks

  • Ingénieur général de première classe (equivalent to général de division)
  • Ingénieur général de deuxième classe (equivalent to général de brigade)
  • Ingénieur en chef de première classe (equivalent to colonel)
  • Ingénieur en chef de deuxième classe (equivalent to lieutenant-colonel)
  • Ingénieur principal (equivalent to commandant)
  • Ingénieur de première classe (equivalent to capitaine)
  • Ingénieur de deuxième classe (equivalent to lieutenant)
  • Ingénieur de troisième classe (equivalent to sub-lieutenant)

Army Commissariat Service officer ranks

These ranks apply the word commissaire in light of their participation and role in the Commissariat Service of the army.

  • Commissaire général de corps d'armée (equivalent to Général de groupe d'armees)
  • Commissaire général de division (equivalent to général de division)
  • Commissaire général de brigade (equivalent to général de brigade)
  • Commissaire colonel (equivalent to colonel)
  • Commissaire lieutenant-colonel (equivalent to lieutenant-colonel)
  • Commissaire commandant (equivalent to commandant)
  • Commissaire capitaine (equivalent to capitaine)
  • Commissaire lieutenant (equivalent to lieutenant)
  • Commissaire sous-lieutenant (equivalent to sub-lieutenant)

Table of ranks

Maréchaux de France - Marshals of France
Insigne maréchal armée française
Maréchal de France
Marshal of France is not an actual rank, but a "state honour" for highly valorous generals in times of war
Officiers généraux - General officers
Insigne général de brigade Insigne général de division Insigne général de corps d'armée Insigne général d'armée
Général de brigade Général de division Général de corps d'armée Général d'armée
Commands a brigade Commands a division Commands a corps. Commands an army.
Officiers supérieurs - Senior officers
Commandant Lieutenant-colonel Colonel Infantry/Air Force (Armée de l'air)
Commandant des armes à cheval Lieutenant-colonel des armes à cheval Colonel des armes à cheval Cavalry
Commandant (Chef d'escadron(s) in some arms) Lieutenant-colonel Colonel
Officiers subalternes - Junior officers
Aspirant de l'armée de terre.png Sous-lieutenant Lieutenant Capitaine
Galon gamma AT Sous-lieutenant des armes à cheval Lieutenant des armes à cheval Capitaine des armes à cheval
Aspirant Sous-lieutenant Lieutenant Capitaine
Major - Warrant Officer (until 2008), High Ranking Sub-officer (since 2009)
Major-French-Army
Major
Sous-officiers - Sub-officers
Sergent appelé Sergent Sergent-chef Adjudant Adjudant-chef
Maréchal-des-logis Maréchal-des-logis-chef Adjudant-chef Adjudant
Élève sous-officier Sergent (infantry arms/air force) / Maréchal des logis (cavalry arms) Sergent-chef (infantry arms/air force) / Maréchal des logis-chef (cavalry arms) Adjudant Adjudant-chef
A four chevron sergent-chef major existed up till 1947
Militaires du rang - Rank and File
Première classe Caporal Caporal-chef Caporal-chef de première classe
Soldat 1e classe Caporal (infantry arms/air force) / Brigadier (cavalry arms) Caporal-chef (infantry arms/air force) / Brigadier-chef (cavalry arms) Caporal-chef (1e classe) / Brigadier-chef (1e classe)

Ranks formerly used in the Army

  • Anspessade (archaic)
  • Brigadier (officer rank of the Ancien Régime Army)
  • Sergent appelés, Maréchal des logis appelés
  • Fourrier

Other armies

The following national armes use a similar rank structure and rank insignia to those used by the French Army of today:

Tables

Officers

NATO code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
 France
(Edit)
Army-FRA-OF-10.svg Army-FRA-OF-09.svg Army-FRA-OF-08.svg Army-FRA-OF-07.svg Army-FRA-OF-06.svg Army-FRA-OF-05.svg Army-FRA-OF-04.svg Army-FRA-OF-03.svg Army-FRA-OF-02.svg Army-FRA-OF-01a.svg Army-FRA-OF-01b.svg Army-FRA-OF-01c.svg Army-FRA-OF-00.svg
Maréchal de France[note 2] Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant Aspirant Élève-officier
Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer
Benin Benin
(Edit)
No equivalent
None.svg Benin Army OF-5.svg Benin Army OF-4.svg Benin Army OF-3.svg Benin Army OF-2.svg Benin Army OF-1b.svg Benin Army OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Captaine Lieutenant Sous-lieutenant
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso
(Edit)
No equivalent 18. Burkina Faso Army - GEN 17. Burkina Faso Army - LG 16. Burkina Faso Army - MG 15. Burkina Faso Army - BG 14. Burkina Faso Army - SCOL.svg 13. Burkina Faso Army - COL.svg 12. Burkina Faso Army - LTC.svg 11. Burkina Faso Army - MAJ.svg 10. Burkina Faso Army - CAPT.svg 09. Burkina Faso Army - 1LT.svg 08. Burkina Faso Army - 2LT.svg Unknown
Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Major Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Cambodia Cambodia
(Edit)
General of the Army
General
Lieutenant General
Major General
Brigadier General
Colonel
Lieutenant Colonel
Major
Captain
1st Lieutenant
2nd Lieutenant
No equivalent
នាយឧត្តមសេនីយ៍អគ្គមេបញ្ចាការ នាយឧត្តមសេនីយ៍ ឧត្តមសេនីយ៍ឯក ឧត្តមសេនីយ៍ទោ ឧត្តមសេនីយ៍ត្រី វរសេនីយ៍ឯក វរសេនីយ៍ទោ វរសេនីយ៍ត្រី អនុសេនីយ៍ឯក អនុសេនីយ៍ទោ អនុសេនីយ៍ត្រី
General of the Army General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier General Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Major Captain 1st Lieutenant 2nd Lieutenant
Cameroon Cameroon
(Edit)
No equivalent Cameroon-Army-OF-9.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-8.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-7.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-6.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-5.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-4.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-3.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-2.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-1b.svg Cameroon-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Central African Republic Central African Republic
(Edit)
No equivalent 19.CAGF-GEN.svg 18.CAGF-LG.svg 17.CAGF-MG.svg 16.CAGF-BG.svg 15.CAGF-COL.svg 14.CAGF-LTC.svg 13.CAGF-MAJ.svg 12.CAGF-CAPT.svg 11.CAGF-1LT.svg 10.CAGF-2LT.svg Unknown
Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Chad Chad
(Edit)
No equivalent
Mali-Army-OF-6.svg Chad-Army-OF-5.svg Chad-Army-OF-4.svg Chad-Army-OF-3.svg Chad-Army-OF-2.svg Chad-Army-OF-1b.svg Chad-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Comoros Comoros
(Edit)
No equivalent
Comoros-Army-OF-7.svg Comoros-Army-OF-6.svg Comoros-Army-OF-5.svg Comoros-Army-OF-4.svg Comoros-Army-OF-3.svg Comoros-Army-OF-2.svg Comoros-Army-OF-1b.svg Comoros-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo
(Edit)
No equivalent
16-ROCongo Army-LG.svg 15-ROCongo Army-MG.svg 14-ROCongo Army-BG.svg 13-ROCongo Army-COL.svg 12-ROCongo Army-LTC.svg 11-ROCongo Army-MAJ.svg 10-ROCongo Army-CPT.svg 09-ROCongo Army-1LT.svg 08-ROCongo Army-2LT.svg Unknown
Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Djibouti Djibouti
(Edit)
No equivalent
None.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-6.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-5.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-4.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-3.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-2.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-1b.svg Djibouti-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Gabon Gabon
(Edit)
No equivalent 23.GLF-GEN.svg 22.GLF-LG.svg 21.GLF-MG.svg 20.GLF-BG.svg 19.GLF-1COL.svg 18.GLF-COL.svg 17.GLF-1LTC.svg 16.GLF-LTC.svg 15.GLF-1MAJ.svg 14.GLF-MAJ.svg 13.GLF-1CPT.svg 12.GLF-CPT.svg 11.GLF-1LT.svg 10.GLF-LT.svg 09.GLF-2LT.svg Unknown
General Lieutenant General Major General Brigadier Colonel Major Colonel Senior lieutenant colonel Lieutenant Colonel 1st Major Major 1st Captain Captain 1st lieutenant Lieutenant 2nd lieutenant
Guinea Guinea
(Edit)
No equivalent Guinea-Army-OF-9.svg Guinea-Army-OF-8.svg Mali-Army-OF-7.svg Mali-Army-OF-6.svg Mali-Army-OF-5.svg Mali-Army-OF-4.svg Mali-Army-OF-3.svg Mali-Army-OF-2.svg Mali-Army-OF-1b.svg Mali-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast
(Edit)
No equivalent Ivory Coast-Army-OF-9.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-8.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-7.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-6.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-5.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-4.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-3.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-2.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-1b.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Madagascar Madagascar
(Edit)
No equivalent Madagascar-Army-OF-9.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-8.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-7.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-6.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-5.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-4.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-3.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-2.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-1b.svg Madagascar-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Mali Mali
(Edit)
No equivalent
Mali-Army-OF-7.svg Mali-Army-OF-6.svg Mali-Army-OF-5.svg Mali-Army-OF-4.svg Mali-Army-OF-3.svg Mali-Army-OF-2.svg Mali-Army-OF-1b.svg Mali-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Mauritania Mauritania
(Edit)
No equivalent
14.Mauritania Air Force-MG.svg 13.Mauritania Air Force-BG.svg Mauritania-Army-OF-5.svg Mauritania-Army-OF-4.svg Mauritania-Army-OF-3.svg Mauritania-Army-OF-2.svg Mauritania-Army-OF-1b.svg Mauritania-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de division
لواء
Général de brigade
عميد
Colonel
عقيد
Lieutenant-Colonel
مقدم
Commandant
رائد
Capitaine
نقيب
Lieutenant
ملازم أول
Sous-Lieutenant
ملازم
Morocco Morocco
(Edit)
21-Moroccan Army-FM.svg 20-Moroccan Army-GEN.svg 19-Moroccan Army-LG.svg 18-Moroccan Army-MG.svg 17-Moroccan Army-BG.svg 16-Moroccan Army-BRIG.svg 15-Moroccan Army-COL.svg 14-Moroccan Army-LTC.svg 13-Moroccan Army-MAJ.svg 12-Moroccan Army-CPT.svg 11-Moroccan Army-1LT.svg 10-Moroccan Army-2LT.svg None.svg None.svg
Maréchal Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Major Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant Aspirant Eleve Officier
Niger Niger
(Edit)
No equivalent
None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg Unknown
Colonel Lieutenant Colonel Commandant Captaine Lieutenant Sous-lieutenant
Senegal Senegal
(Edit)
No equivalent
Senegal-Army-OF-7.svg Senegal-Army-OF-6.svg Senegal-Army-OF-5.svg Senegal-Army-OF-4.svg Senegal-Army-OF-3.svg Senegal-Army-OF-2.svg Senegal-Army-OF-1b.svg Senegal-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Togo Togo
(Edit)
No equivalent
Togo-Army-OF-6.svg Togo-Army-OF-5.svg Togo-Army-OF-4.svg Togo-Army-OF-3.svg Togo-Army-OF-2.svg Togo-Army-OF-1b.svg Togo-Army-OF-1a.svg Unknown
Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant
Tunisia Tunisia
(Edit)
No equivalent
Grade Terre tunisienne O10.png Grade Terre tunisienne O9.png Grade Terre tunisienne O8.png Grade Terre tunisienne O7.png Grade Terre tunisienne O6.png Grade Terre tunisienne O5.png Grade Terre tunisienne O4.png Grade Terre tunisienne O3.png Grade Terre tunisienne O2.png Grade Terre tunisienne O1.png Unknown
Army corps general Major general Brigadier general Major Colonel Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Major Captain Lieutenant Second Lieutenant
Equivalent
NATO Code
OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1 OF(D) & Student officer

Enlisted

NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
France France
(Edit)
Army-FRA-OR-09a.svg Army-FRA-OR-09b.svg Army-FRA-OR-08.svg No equivalent Army-FRA-OR-06.svg Army-FRA-OR-05.svg Army-FRA-OR-04a.svg Army-FRA-OR-04b.svg Army-FRA-OR-03.svg Army-FRA-OR-02.svg Army-FRA-OR-01.svg
Major Adjudant-chef Adjudant Sergent-chef/
Maréchal-des-logis-chef
Sergent/
Maréchal-des-logis
Caporal-chef de première classe Caporal-chef/
Brigadier-chef
Caporal/
Brigadier
Soldat de première classe Soldat
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Benin Benin
(Edit)
No equivalent
Benin Army OR-6.svg Benin Army OR-5.svg Benin Army OR-4.svg Benin Army OR-3.svg Benin Army OR-2.svg Benin Army OR-1.svg
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso
(Edit)
07. Burkina Faso Army - SCWO.svg 06. Burkina Faso Army - CWO.svg 05. Burkina Faso Army - WO.svg No equivalent 04. Burkina Faso Army - MSG.svg 03. Burkina Faso Army - SGT.svg No equivalent 02. Burkina Faso Army - CPL.svg 01. Burkina Faso Army - PFC.svg None.svg
Chief Warrant Officer
Adjudant-major
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat de première classe
Private
Soldat
Cambodia Cambodia
(Edit)
Cambodian Army OR-09b.svg Cambodian Army OR-09a.svg Cambodian Army OR-08.svg Cambodian Army OR-07.svg Cambodian Army OR-06.svg Cambodian Army OR-05.svg Cambodian Army OR-04.svg Cambodian Army OR-03.svg Cambodian Army OR-02.svg Cambodian Army OR-01.svg
នាយចំណង់ ព្រឹន្ទបាលឯក ពលបាលឯក ពលបាលទោ ពលបាលត្រី នាយឯក នាយទោ ពលឯក ពលទោ
Chief Warrant Officer Warrant Officer Command Sergeant Major Master Sergeant Staff Sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Private 1st Class Private
Cameroon Cameroon
(Edit)
Cameroon-Army-OR-9.svg Cameroon-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent Cameroon-Army-OR-6.svg Cameroon-Army-OR-5.svg Cameroon-Army-OR-4.svg Cameroon-Army-OR-3.svg Cameroon-Army-OR-2.svg Cameroon-Army-OR-1.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Central African Republic Central African Republic
(Edit)
09.CAGF-CWO.svg 08.CAGF-WO.svg 07.CAGF-SGM.svg 06.CAGF-MSG.svg 05.CAGF-CSG.svg 04.CAGF-SGT.svg 03.CAGF-MCPL.svg 02.CAGF-CPL.svg 01.CAGF-PFC.svg No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Sergeant Major
Sergent-major
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Career Sergeant
Sergent
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Chad Chad
(Edit)
No equivalent
Chad-Army-OR-7.svg Chad-Army-OR-6.svg Chad-Army-OR-5.svg No equivalent Chad-Army-OR-3.svg Chad-Army-OR-2.svg No insignia
Sergeant major
Sergent Major
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Comoros Comoros
(Edit)
Comoros-Army-OR-9.svg Comoros-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent Comoros-Army-OR-6.svg Comoros-Army-OR-5.svg Comoros-Army-OR-4.svg Comoros-Army-OR-3.svg Comoros-Army-OR-2.svg Comoros-Army-OR-1.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo
(Edit)
07-ROCongo Army-CWO.svg 06-ROCongo Army-WO.svg No equivalent 05-ROCongo Army-CSG.svg 04-ROCongo Army-SGT.svg 03-ROCongo Army-MCPL.svg 02-ROCongo Army-CPL.svg 01-ROCongo Army-PFC.svg No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Djibouti Djibouti
(Edit)
Djibouti-Army-OR-9.svg Djibouti-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent Djibouti-Army-OR-6.svg Djibouti-Army-OR-5.svg Djibouti-Army-OR-4.svg Djibouti-Army-OR-3.svg Djibouti-Army-OR-2.svg Djibouti-Army-OR-1.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Gabon Gabon
(Edit)
08.GLF-CWO.svg 07.GLF-WO1.svg 06.GLF-WO2.svg No equivalent 05.GLF-SGM.svg 04.GLF-SGT.svg 03.GLF-CPL.svg 02.GLF-LCPL.svg 01.GLF-PFC.svg 00.GLF-PVT.svg
Chief Warrant Officer
Adjudant-chef Major
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Guinea Guinea
(Edit)
Guinea-Army-OR-9.svg Guinea-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent
Guinea-Army-OR-5.svg Guinea-Army-OR-4.svg Guinea-Army-OR-3.svg Guinea-Army-OR-2.svg Guinea-Army-OR-1.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast
(Edit)
Ivory Coast-Army-OR-9.svg Ivory Coast-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldad Première
Private
Soldad
Madagascar Madagascar
(Edit)
Madagascar-Army-OR-9b.svg Madagascar-Army-OR-9a.svg Madagascar-Army-OR-8.svg 06.Madagascar Air Force-SGM 05.Madagascar Air Force-MSG 04.Madagascar Air Force-SGT 03.Madagascar Air Force-MCPL 02.Madagascar Air Force-CPL 01.Madagascar Air Force-AFC No insignia
Chief Warrant Officer
Adjudant-chef Major
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Sergeant major
Sergent Major
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Mali Mali
(Edit)
No equivalent
None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg No insignia
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Mauritania Mauritania
(Edit)
Mauritania-Army-OR-9.svg Mauritania-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent Mauritania-Army-OR-6.svg Mauritania-Army-OR-5.svg No equivalent Mauritania-Army-OR-3.svg No equivalent Mauritania-Army-OR-1.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Corporal
Caporal
Private
Soldat 2e classe
Morocco Morocco
(Edit)
09-Moroccan Army-CWO.svg 08-Moroccan Army-WO.svg 07-Moroccan Army-SGM.svg 06-Moroccan Army-SFC.svg 05-Moroccan Army-SGT.svg 04-Moroccan Army-MCPL.svg 03-Moroccan Army-CPL.svg 02-Moroccan Army-PFC.svg 01-Moroccan Army-PSC.svg
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Sergeant Major
Sergent-major
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat de première classe
Private
Soldat de Deuxième classe
Niger Niger
(Edit)
None.svg None.svg None.svg No equivalent None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg None.svg
Chief Warrant Officer
Major
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat de première classe
Private
Soldat
Senegal Senegal
(Edit)
Senegal-Army-OR-9.svg Senegal-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent Senegal-Army-OR-6 Senegal-Army-OR-5 Senegal-Army-OR-4 Senegal-Army-OR-3 Senegal-Army-OR-2 No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat de première classe
Private
Soldat
Togo Togo
(Edit)
Togo-Army-OR-9.svg Togo-Army-OR-8.svg No equivalent Togo-Armed-OR-6.svg Togo-Armed-OR-5b.svg Togo-Armed-OR-5a.svg Togo-Armed-OR-4.svg Togo-Armed-OR-3.svg Togo-Armed-OR-2.svg No insignia
Warrant Officer Class 1
Adjudant-chef
Warrant Officer Class 2
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent de Carriere
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat Première
Private
Soldat
Tunisia Tunisia
(Edit)
Grade Marine tunisienne E8.png Grade Marine tunisienne E7.png Grade Marine tunisienne E6.png No equivalent Grade Marine tunisienne E5.png Grade Marine tunisienne E4.png Grade Marine tunisienne E3.png Grade Marine tunisienne E2.png Grade Marine tunisienne E1.png Grade Marine tunisienne E0.png
Sergeant Major
Adjudant-major
Master Sergeant
Adjudant-chef
Sergeant 1st class
Adjudant
Staff Sergeant
Sergent-chef
Sergeant
Sergent
Master Corporal
Caporal-chef
Corporal
Caporal
Private First Class
Soldat de première classe
Private
Soldat
Equivalent
NATO code
OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Général de corps d'armée in the French Armed Forces, is the third ranking order of the general officer corps, based on the hierarchical order. The designation of a général de corps d'armée is situated above a général de division and underneath the designation of général d'armée. By regulation, the rank refers to an officer of the rank of « Général de division » who receives the « rank and designation » of a « Général de corps d'armée ». This rank would command an Army Corps, a unit composing several Divisions. The insignia is composed of 4 stars. A Presidential Decree on November 19, 1873 introduced for a first time the notion of "corps armée". A circular on March 17, 1921 depicted that generals commanding an Army Corps (French: corps d'armée) would wear a 4th star, forming with the first three, a diamond shape. The generals commanding the army and the members of the Superior War Council wore a 5th star, superposed in the first 4 stars. Finally a Law Decree of June 6, 1939 made official, the designations and ranks referrals of "Général d'armée", "Général de corps d'armée", "Amiral", "Vice-amiral d'escadre", "Général d'armée aérienne" et "Général de corps aérien".
  2. ^ Title; Honorary or posthumous rank; war time rank; ceremonial rank
Charles Leclerc (general)

Charles Victoire Emmanuel Leclerc (17 March 1772 – 2 November 1802) was a French Army general who served under Napoleon Bonaparte during the French Revolution. He was husband to Pauline Bonaparte, sister to Napoleon. In 1801, he was sent to Saint-Domingue (Haiti), where an expeditionary force under his command captured and deported the Haitian leader Toussaint L'Ouverture, as part of an unsuccessful attempt to reassert imperial control over the Saint-Domingue government. Leclerc died of yellow fever during the failed expedition.

Force de dissuasion

The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961, is the designation of what used to be a triad of air-, sea- and land-based nuclear weapons intended for dissuasion, the French term for deterrence. The French Nuclear Force, part of the Armed Forces of France, is the third largest nuclear-weapons force in the world, following the nuclear triads of the Russian Federation and the United States.

France has deactivated all land-based nuclear missiles. On 27 January 1996, France conducted its last nuclear test (in the South Pacific) before signing the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in September 1996. In March 2008, President Nicolas Sarkozy confirmed reports giving the actual size of France's nuclear arsenal and he announced that France would reduce its French Air Force-carried nuclear arsenal by 30%, leaving the Force de Frappe with 290 warheads.In addition to its nuclear military programme, France has a large peaceful nuclear programme and ranks as one of the world's largest generators of nuclear power.

French Air Force

The French Air Force (French: Armée de l'Air Française) [aʀme də lɛʀ], literally Army of the Air) is the air force of the French Armed Forces. It was formed in 1909 as the Service Aéronautique, a service arm of the French Army, then was made an independent military arm in 1934. The number of aircraft in service with the French Air Force varies depending on source, however sources from the French Ministry of Defence give a figure of 658 aircraft in 2014. The French Air Force has 225 combat aircraft in service, with the majority being 117 Dassault Mirage 2000 and 108 Dassault Rafale. As of early 2017, the French Air Force employs a total of 41,160 regular personnel. The reserve element of the air force consisted of 5,187 personnel of the Operational Reserve.The Chief of Staff of the French Air Force (CEMAA) is a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff (CEMA).

French Armed Forces

The French Armed Forces (French: Forces armées françaises) encompass the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, the National Guard and the Gendarmerie of the French Republic. The President of France heads the armed forces as chef des armées.

France has the fifth largest defence budget in the world and the first in the European Union (EU). It has the largest armed forces in size in the European Union.

French Army Light Aviation

The French Army Light Aviation (French: Aviation Légère de l’Armée de Terre, ALAT, literally Land Army Light Aviation (the army is officially called the 'Land Army' because the air force is officially called the 'Air Army')) is the Army aviation service of the French Army. ALAT was established on 22 November 1954 for observation, reconnaissance, assault and supply duties.

French Foreign Legion

The French Foreign Legion (FFL; French: Légion étrangère, French pronunciation: ​[leʒjɔ̃ etʁɑ̃ʒɛʁ], L.É.) is a military service branch of the French Army established in 1831. Legionnaires are highly trained infantry soldiers and the Legion is unique in that it is open to foreign recruits willing to serve in the French Armed Forces. When it was founded, the French Foreign Legion was not unique; other foreign formations existed at the time in France. Commanded by French officers, it is open to French citizens, who amounted to 24% of the recruits in 2007. The Foreign Legion is today known as a unit whose training focuses on traditional military skills and on its strong esprit de corps, as its men come from different countries with different cultures. This is a way to strengthen them enough to work as a team. Consequently, training is often described as not only physically challenging, but also very stressful psychologically. French citizenship may be applied for after three years' service. The Legion is the only part of the French military that does not swear allegiance to France, but to the Foreign Legion itself. Any soldier who gets wounded during a battle for France can immediately apply to be a French citizen under a provision known as "Français par le sang versé" ("French by spilled blood"). As of 2008, members come from 140 countries.

Since 1831, the Legion has suffered the loss of nearly 40,000 men on active service in France, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Madagascar, West Africa, Mexico, Italy, the Crimea, Spain, Indo-China, Norway, Syria, Chad, Zaïre, Lebanon, Central Africa, Gabon, Kuwait, Rwanda, Djibouti, former Yugoslavia, Somalia, the Republic of Congo, Ivory Coast, Afghanistan, Mali, as well as others. The French Foreign Legion was primarily used to protect and expand the French colonial empire during the 19th century. The Foreign Legion was initially stationed only in Algeria, where it took part in the pacification and development of the colony. Subsequently, the Foreign Legion was deployed in a number of conflicts, including the First Carlist War in 1835, the Crimean War in 1854, the Second Italian War of Independence in 1859, the French intervention in Mexico in 1863, the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, the Tonkin Campaign and Sino-French War in 1883, supporting growth of the French colonial empire in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Second Franco-Dahomean War in 1892, the Second Madagascar expedition in 1895 and the Mandingo Wars in 1894. In World War I, the Foreign Legion fought in many critical battles on the Western Front. It played a smaller role in World War II than in World War I, though having a part in the Norwegian, Syrian and North African campaigns. During the First Indochina War (1946–1954), the Foreign Legion saw its numbers swell. The FFL lost a large number of men in the catastrophic Battle of Dien Bien Phu.

During the Algerian War of Independence (1954–1962), the Foreign Legion came close to being disbanded after some officers, men, and the highly decorated 1st Foreign Parachute Regiment (1er REP) took part in the Generals' putsch. Operations during this period included the Suez Crisis, the Battle of Algiers and various offensives launched by General Maurice Challe including Operations Oranie and Jumelles. In the 1960s and 1970s, Legion regiments had additional roles in sending units as a rapid deployment force to preserve French interests – in its former African colonies and in other nations as well; it also returned to its roots of being a unit always ready to be sent to conflict zones around the world. Some notable operations include: the Chadian–Libyan conflict in 1969–1972 (the first time that the Legion was sent in operations after the Algerian War), 1978–1979, and 1983–1987; Kolwezi in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo in May 1978. In 1981, the 1st Foreign Regiment and Foreign Legion regiments partook to the Multinational Force in Lebanon. In 1990, Foreign Legion regiments were sent to the Persian Gulf and took part in Opération Daguet, part of Division Daguet. Following the Gulf War in the 1990s, the Foreign Legion helped with the evacuation of French citizens and foreigners in Rwanda, Gabon and Zaire. The Foreign Legion was also deployed in Cambodia, Somalia, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the mid- to late-1990s, the Foreign Legion was deployed in the Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville and in Kosovo. The Foreign Legion also took part in operations in Rwanda in 1990–1994; and the Ivory Coast in 2002 to the present. In the 2000s, the Foreign Legion was deployed in Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan, Operation Licorne in Ivory Coast, the EUFOR Tchad/RCA in Chad, and Operation Serval in the Northern Mali conflict. Other countries have tried to emulate the French Foreign Legion model.

French Navy

The French Navy (French: Marine Nationale, lit. National Navy), informally "La Royale", is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces. Dating back to 1624, the French Navy is one of the world's oldest naval forces. It has participated in conflicts around the globe and played a key part in establishing the French colonial empire.

The French Navy consists of six main branches and various services: the Force d'Action Navale, the Forces Sous-marines (FOST, ESNA), the Maritime Force of Naval Aeronautics, the Fusiliers Marins (including Commandos Marine), the Marins Pompiers, and the Maritime Gendarmerie.

As of June 2014, the French Navy employed a total of 36,776 personnel along with 2,800 civilians. Its reserve element consisted of 4,827 personnel of the Operational Reserve. As a blue-water navy, it operates a wide range of fighting vessels, which include the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, various aeronaval forces, attack submarines and ballistic missile submarines, frigates, patrol boats and support ships.

French Revolutionary Army

The French Revolutionary Army (French: Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802. These armies were characterised by their revolutionary fervour, their poor equipment and their great numbers. Although they experienced early disastrous defeats, the revolutionary armies successfully expelled foreign forces from French soil and then overran many neighboring countries, establishing client republics. Leading generals included Jourdan, Bonaparte, Masséna and Moreau.

As a general description of French military forces during this period, it should not be confused with the "revolutionary armies" (armées révolutionnaires) which were paramilitary forces set up during the Terror.

French Royal Army (1652–1830)

The French Royal Army (French: Armée royale française) served the Bourbon kings beginning with Louis XIV and ending with Charles X with an interlude from 1792 until 1814, during the French Revolution and the reign of the Emperor Napoleon I. After a second, brief interlude when Napoleon returned from exile in 1815, the Royal Army was reinstated. Its service to the direct Bourbon line was finished when Charles X was overthrown in 1830 by the July Revolution.

Lieutenant-General (France)

Lieutenant-Général (French: Lieutenant-Général) in France, was a title and rank across various military and security institutions with history dating back well beyond the 18th century. The official historic succession of the "Lieutenant-Général of France" corresponded to Général de division for the French Army, and Vice-Amiral (Vice-Admiral) for the French Navy.

While the French Navy's equivalent of a Lieutenant General is a Vice-Admiral, the equivalent of today's Lieutenant-Général in the French Armed Forces would be partially that of Général de corps d'armée (French: Général de corps d'armée), such was due to the fact that the concept of an Army Corps (French: Corps d'Armée) wasn't adopted first until November 19, 1873 by a Presidential Decree, and the actual rank of Général de corps d'armée was not officially formed until a Law Decree on June 6, 1939.For the French Army and French Navy during the Ancien Régime, the rank corresponded to Lieutenant-General of the Armies (French: Lieutenant-Général des Armées), and Lieutenant-General of the Naval Armies (French: Lieutenant-Général des Armées Navales) for the Navy, such as in the Levant Fleet and Flotte du Ponant.

List of equipment of the French Army

Modern equipment of the French Army is a list of equipment currently in service with the French Army. Figures are provided by the French Ministry of Defense for 2018.

Major (France)

Major (French: Major) in France, is a senior superior military rank (French: grade militaire) across various military and security institutions with history dating back well beyond the 18th century.

Typically, the contemporary rank of Major is situated differently in the military hierarchy of each country and corresponds in general to the rank of Major, whose French official equivalent is Commandant in the French Army and French Air Force, Chef d'Escadron in the National Gendarmerie and Capitaine de corvette in the French Navy.

The official rank and designation of Major of France (French: Major de France) is unique.

While the rank functions of Major (French: Major) in France, can be similarly compared to that of a Sergeant Major, it is higher (rank of Major) than a Chief Warrant Officer (French: Adjudant-Chef), and similar to a Master Chief (depending on the service branch of the respective country); the rank of Major (French: Major) is still different.

Major was a senior superior Officer rank first, with a history of various military traditions in various corps, then recently in time became attached to the sub-officer (non-commissioned) corps as of 2009.

The rank of Major (French: Major) of the French Armed Forces can be the closest equivalent in terms of authenticity, and even still different, to the American referral of Mustang officers, since the rank of "Major" was already a superior Officer (French: Officier Supérieur) (a superior combat military officer rank ascended through the enlisted corps by service or promotions in combat units until 2009) which was part of the "Corps of Majors", situated between the French Officer Corps and the French Non-Commissioned Officer Corps. However, the history rank of the Majors of France (French: Les Majors de France) is still very different.

In the French Armed Forces, the official rank and referral of Major (French: Major) included the same rank designation across the board, this time however as of 2009, attached to the non-commissioned ranks (sub-officer corps) of the French Army, the ranks of the French Navy, the ranks of the French Air Force and ranks of the National Gendarmerie.

The title is also often associated with another rank, which can be that of the general (French: général) or a senior warrant officer (French: Adjudant).

Military Fuel Service (France)

The Service des essences des armées (SEA), which translates as the Fuel Service of the Armies is an inter-service branch of the French Army subordinate to the head of the defence staff. Recruits are taken both from the French military as a whole and from civilian life. Ranks are based on training.

National Gendarmerie

The National Gendarmerie (French: Gendarmerie nationale [ʒɑ̃daʁməʁi nasjɔnal]) is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police. It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior—with additional duties to the Ministry of Defense. Its area of responsibility includes smaller towns, rural and suburban areas, while the Police Nationale—a civilian force—is in charge of cities and downtowns. Due to its military status, the Gendarmerie also fulfills a range of military and defense missions. The Gendarmes also have a cybercrime division. It has a strength of more than 100,000 personnel as of 2014.The Gendarmerie is heir to the Maréchaussée (Marshalcy—see below), the oldest police force in France, dating back to the Middle Ages. It has influenced the culture and traditions of gendarmerie forces all around the world—and especially in the former French colonial empire.

National Guard (France)

The National Guard (French: Garde nationale) is a French military, gendarmerie, and police reserve force, active in its current form since 2016 but originally founded in 1789 after the French Revolution.

For most of its history the National Guard, particularly its officers, has been widely viewed as loyal to middle-class interests. It was founded as separate from the French Army and existed both for policing and as a military reserve. However, in its original stages from 1792 to 1795, the National Guard was perceived as revolutionary and the lower ranks were identified with sans-culottes. It experienced a period of official dissolution from 1827 to 1830, but was reestablished. Soon after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71, the National Guard in Paris again became viewed as dangerously revolutionary, which contributed to its dissolution in 1871.In 2016, France announced the reestablishment of the National Guard in response to a series of terrorist attacks in the country.

Outline of France

The following outline is provided as an overview and topical guide of France:

France – country in Western Europe with several overseas regions and territories. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. From its shape, it is often referred to in French as l’Hexagone ("The Hexagon").

Social background of officers and other ranks in the French Army, 1750–1815

Social background of officers and other ranks in the French Army, 1750–1815 discusses career paths and social stratification in the French Army from the mid-eighteenth century to the end of the Napoleonic wars. The Royal army during the Ancien regime was recruited through volunteer enlistment. Almost 90% of the recruits came from the peasantry and the working class, while about 10% came from the petty bourgeoisie. Privates were usually promoted directly to the rank of sergeant, bypassing the rank of corporal. At the time of the French revolution, a third of the sergeants came from the petty bourgeoisie or higher classes. Three career paths existed for officers; one privileged for the high nobility, one standard for the middle and lower nobility and the higher bourgeoisie, and one exceptional for promoted sergeants. The high nobility quickly reached high rank, the mean age of promotion to colonel was 36 years. The standard career path was based on seniority and was rather inert; the mean age of promotion to captain was 45 years. Promoted sergeants could normally not reach higher than to substantive lieutenants and captains by brevet, although their social background significantly deviated from the rank and file; over two-thirds came from the petty bourgeoisie or higher classes. The different career paths created a lack of social homogeneity in the officer corps. The military reforms after the Seven Years' War attempted to create a professionalized officer corps built on the petty nobility. But since the privileged career of the high nobility was retained, the attempt failed. In consequence, many noblemen in the officer corps sided with the bourgeoisie in the struggle against the class prerogatives of the high nobility. The French revolution changed everything. Conscription replaced volunteer enlistment. Regulations favoring sergeants as well as the flight of the nobility created an officer corps who under Napoleon contained a large majority of former sergeants. The Grand Armée was an army officered by the bourgeoisie; over half of the officers came from the higher bourgeoisie, a third from the petty bourgeoisie, and a sixth from the peasantry. The number of officers from the old nobility was higher than the number from the working class. Three-fourths were former sergeants, while one-fourth was appointed directly from civilian life.

Ségur Ordinance

The Ségur Ordinance of 1781 was a French law that required French officer candidates to produce proof of having at least four generations of nobility. Philippe Henri and Marquis de Ségur sponsored the law, also receiving support from the minister of war and the French Military council. The ordinance was approved by Louis XVI on May 22, 1781.

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