Ranks and insignia of the Russian armed forces until 1917

The Imperial Russian Army (Russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, РИА) and the Imperial Russian Navy (Russian: Российский императорский флот) used ranks and rank insignia derived from the German model. However, the entire rank system was also closely connected to the Russian military traditions. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the Red Army abolished the entire Imperial system of ranks and rank insignia, while military units and formations of the opposing White movement retained the Imperial rank system until 1923.

Army ranks and rank designation

The following ranks and their respective insignia were also used by the personnel of the Imperial Russian Air Servicefrom 1912 to 1917.

General officers

designation Commander-in-chief & higher commanders
1904-ir85-e19
1904ic-p11
1904c-p18ga
Imperial Russian Army 1904ic-p10
1904ic-p09
Imperia-Rus.png
1904ic-p08
Rank insignia
epaulettes and
shoulder boards
Герб Российского государства.png
Rank Generalfeldmarschall General of the branch Generalleutnant Generalmajor
Russian transliteration General-feldmarshal General roda voysk General-leytenant General-mayor
Table of Ranks
class
K-1 K-2 K-3 K-4

Officers

Designation Field and junior grade officers

epaulette
1908ur03-e15 1908ur03-e14 1908ur03-e12 1908ur03-e11 1908ur03-e10 1908ur03-e09
shoulder
board
1904ic-p07 1904ic-p06 1880iac-06 1904ic-p05 1904ic-p04 1904ic-p03 1904ic-p02 1904ic-p01
Rank Polkovnik Podpolkovnik Major
(abolished 1884)
Captain Staff-captain Poruchik Podporuchik Praporshik
Russian transliteration Полковник Подполко́вник Майор
(abolished 1884)
Капитан Штабс-капитан Пору́чик Подпору́чик Пра́порщик
Cavalry equivalent Polkovnik Podpolkovnik Major
(abolished 1884)
Rittmeister Staff-rittmeister Poruchik Kornet -
Cossacks equivalent Cossack colonel Lieuetenant colonel
(until 1884)
Voyskovoy starshina
(since 1884)
Voyskovoy starshina
(until 1884)
Yesaul Podyesaul Sotnik Khorunzhyi -
Rank group Stab-ofitsery (field officer ranks) Ober-ofitsery (company officer ranks)
Table of ranks
class
K-5 K-6 K-7 K-8 K-9 K-10 K-12 K-13

Non-commissioned officers & enlisted men

Designation Non-commissioned officers & enlisted men (example boards- 1st Neva Infantry regiment)
1911-ir001-p07 1911-ir001-p06 1911-ir001-p05 1911-ir001-p04 1911-ir001-p03 1911-ir001-p02 1911-ir001-p01

shoulder
board
Rank Zauryad-praporshchik Podpraporshchik Feldwebel Senior unteroffizier Junior unteroffizier Gefreiter Private
Russian transliteration ... ... Feldvevel Starshy unter-ofitser Mladshy unter-ofitser Yefreytor Ryadovoy
Cavalry Zauryad-praporshchik Podpraporshchik Wachtmeister Senior unteroffizier Junior unteroffizier Gefreiter Uhlan
Cossacks Podhorunzhiy Wachtmeister Warden Junior unteroffizier First cossack Cossack
Artillery Zauryad-praporshchik Podpraporshchik Feldwebel Senior Feuerwerker Junior Feuerwerker Bombardier Gunner
Rank group Unter-ofitsery (NCOs) Rydovye (enlisted men)

Other regiments and cadet corps

The following shoulder board insignias of the Imperial Army used by specific units and cadet corps are illustrated below:

Orenburg Neplyuev Cadet Corps
15th King Nikola I of Montenegro Rifle Regiment
5th Kargopol Dragoon Regiment
Oryol Cadet Corps
Pogony russkikh imperatorskikh kadetskikh korpusov(Pskov)
Pskov Cadet Corps
VKKK 02
Grand Duke Vladimir Kiev Cadet Corps

Naval ranks and rank insignia

The Imperial Russian Navy () of the Russian Empire, had been established at the end of the 17th century under the regency of Peter the Great and by the personal leadership of Franz Lefort. It existed until the October Revolution of 1917.[1]

Rank, category and designation Flag officers and general ranks Staff officers (Russian: Shtabs-ofitsery) Senior officers (ober-ofitsery)
Class
as to Table of Ranks
K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 K8 K9 K10
Epaulette Maritime
service
Generaladmiral
(General-admiral)
Admiral Viceadmiral
(Vitse-admiral)
Rear admiral
(Kontr-admiral)
Captain (Navy)
(Kapitan 1-go ranga)
Commander
(Kapitan 2-go ranga)
Lieutenant commander
(1907-1911)
(Kapitan-leytenant)
Lieutenant (naval)
(after 1909)
(Starshi leytenant)
Sub-lieutenant
(Leytenant)
Michman
(after 1909) (until 1909)
1904mor-e21 1904mor-e20 1904mor-e19 1904mor-e18 1904mor-e17 1904mor-e16 1907mor-e15 1909mor-e14 1904mor-e13 1909mor-e12 1904mor-e11
Shore
Establishment

(after 1913)
no equivalent General Lieutenant general
(General-leytenant)
Major general
(General-mayor)
1913mor-e18 1913mor-e17 1913mor-e16
Shoulder
board
Maritime
service
Generaladmiral
(General-admiral)
Admiral Viceadmiral
(Vitse-admiral)
Rear admiral
(Kontr-admiral)
1904mor-17 1904mor-16 1907mor-15 1909mor-14 1904mor-13 1909mor-12 1904mor-11
1904mor-21 1904mor-20 1904mor-19 1904mor-18
Shore
establishment

(after 1913)
no equivalent General Lieutenant general
(General-leytenant)
Major general
(General-mayor)
1913mor-p18 1913mor-p17 1913mor-p16

Non-commissioned officers & enlisted ratings, naval services

Designation Petty officers & enlisted ratings
IRN Guardmarine1 1917 IRN StarshyBotsman 1917v IRN Conductor-SenFieldSurg 1917v IRN Bootsmann 1917 IRN BootsmannMaat 1917 IRN Quartermaster 1917 Imperial Russian Navy AbleMatros 1917 IRN Matros 1917
Rating insignia
shoulder boards
Rating insignia Gardemarin
(abolished 1883)
Senior
boatswain
Conductor
Senior (army) field surgeon
Boatswain Coxswain Unteroffizier (since 1909)
Quartermaster (until 1908)
Seaman 1st rank Seaman 2nd rank
Russian transliteration (Gardmarin) (Starshy botsman) (Konduktor
Starshy feldsher
)
(Botsman) (Botsmanmat) (Unter-ofizer
Kwartirmeister
)
(Matros pervoi stati) (Matros vtoroi stati)

Ranks of coastal services

Ranks similar to those of the Imperial Army were, beginning in the late 18th century, used by the coastal services of the Imperial Russian Navy.

General officers

Designation Higher commanders
Naval Ensign of Russia.svg
Rank designation
epaulettes
and shoulder boards
1908kki-e18
1904-adm-p18
1908kki-e17
1904-adm-p17
1908kki-e16
1904-adm-p16
Rank General of the fleet Lieutenant general Major general
Russian transliteration (Флота генерал)
(Flota general)
(Генера́л-лейтена́нт)
(General-leitenant)
(Генера́л-майо́р)
(General-maior)

Officers

Designation Field and junior grade officers
1908kki-e15 1904-adm-p15 1908kki-e14 1904-adm-p14 1830kma-e13 1855kma-p13 1904-adm-p12 1904-admn-p11 1904-adm-p10 1904-adm-p09 1904-admn-p08
Rank insignia
epaulettes
and shoulder boards
Rank Brigadier
(abolished 1798)
Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major
(abolished 1884)
Captain Staff captain Lieutenant Sub-lieutenant Ensign
Russian transliteration Brigadir Polkovnik Podpolkovnik Mayor Kapitan Shtabs-kapitan Poruchik Podporuchik Praporshchik
Rank group Staff officer Junior officer

Non-commissioned officers & enlisted men

Designation Non-commissioned officers & enlisted men
Naval Ensign of Russia.svg 1904mor-06 1908mor-05 1908mor-04 1908mor-03 1908mor-01 1908mor-01
Rank insignia
shoulder strap
Rank Warrant officer
(1855-1917)
Bootsman Senior under officer Junior under officer Sea gefreiter Sea soldat
Russian translation (Старший боцман, кондуктор) (Боцман) (Старший унтер-офицер,
starschy unter-ofizer)
(Младший унтер-офицер,
mladschy unter-ofizer)
(Матрос 1-й статьи,
Matros 1 statji)
(Матрос 2-й статьи,
Matros 2 statji)
Rank group NCO Soldier

Sleeve insignia of the Russian Navy from April 16, 1917

By order № 125 of the Navy Ministry of the Russian Provisional Government, from April 16, 1917 was provided:

  1. Abolishment of the hitherto used shoulder rank insignia
  2. Abolishment of the (naval)scarf
  3. Deletion of any monogram, or initial letter on weapons and equipment
  4. Paint over of the cockade center on caps with red color, until availability of the peaked cap with new national emblem

The traditional shoulder rank insignia were replaced by golden sleeve strips for naval officers, admiralty officers, and naval engineers, as well as – after completion of mandatory examinations – praporshchiks and officers of the hydrographical service.

Silver sleeve strips were introduced to officers of the admiralty staff, before completion of mandatory examinations, as well to ship engineers, officials of the naval administration and naval physicians with officer rank or status.

Both cuff insignias were used in uniforms with the executive curl.

As discrimination criteria to specific appointments or assignments additional corps colours on the lower part of sleeve stripes was determinate:

  • red = ship engineers;
  • raspberry coloured = naval administration;
  • dark blue = hydrographical service;
  • white = physicians

The table below shows examples of rank insignia of the Russian Navy, to be worn on the lower part of uniform cuffs, as to the order № 125 of the Russian Navy Ministry from April 16, 1917.

Designation Gold sleeve strips to naval officers ... hydrographical service

Sleeve
insignia
RN F8Admiral 1917 cuff RN F7ViceAdmiral 1917 cuff RN F6RearAdmiral 1917 cuff RN F6Kap1r 1917 cuff RN F6Kap2r 1917 cuff RN F6st.leutenant 1917 cuff RN F6leutenant 1917 cuff RN F6michman 1917 cuff.jpg RN F6роruch 1917 cuff.jpg RN F6podporuch 1917 cuff.jpg
Rank Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Captain 1st rank
(Captain naval)
Captain 2nd rank
(Commander)
Senior lieutenant
(lieutenant commander)
Lieutenant (naval) Michman Podporuchik Praporshchik
Russian transliteration (Admiral) (Vitse-admiral) (Kontr-admiral) (Kapitan 1-go ranga) (Kapitan 2-go ranga) (Starshy leytenant) (Leytenant)
Class
(as specified in the Table of Ranks)
Admiral ranks Shtab-ofitsery (Staff officers) Ober-offitsery (upper officers)
K-2 K-3 K-4 K-6 K-7 K-8 K-9 K-10 K-12 K-14

See also

References

  1. ^ Erich Donnert: Peter the Great (de: Peter der Große), Koehler & Amelang, Leipzig, page. 130
Ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation's armed forces 1994–2010

Ranks and insignia of the Russian Federation's armed forces from 1994 to 2010 were affected by the disintegration of the former Soviet armed forces, and there were other changes in insignia design when the newly established Russian Federation came into existence. The ranks depicted below were replaced with those adopted by decree № 293 of the President of the Russian Federation on 11 March 2010. The transition began with the issue of new military uniforms to the armed services in 2008 in the Moscow area and in 2010 nationwide. The ranks of marshal of the branch and chief marshal were officially abolished as a result of the 1994 regulations.

Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955

Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces in the period 1943–1955 were characterised by a number of changes in the armed forces of the Soviet Union, including the reintroduction of rank insignia badges and the adoption of a number of higher ranks.

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