In the period from 1918 to 1935 of the young Soviet Union any bourgeois military thoughts were put under general suspicion by the communists, the new political establishment. Among others, the Old Russian tradition to wear epaulets and shoulder straps as rank insignia was rigorously abolished and was replaced with a new tradition of rank designations and insignia for the new Red Army and the nascent Soviet Navy.
In the early period of the October revolution new uniforms were used and new units structured on the basis of the former Imperial Russian Army and Navy. The levelling of military grades and neglecting of rank designation were symptomatic of the new order. The first common rank designation throughout the Red Army was "Red Army man" (Russian: kрасноармеец, romanized: krasnoarmyeets) or, in the Workers' and Peasants' Red Navy, "Red Fleet man" (Russian: kраснофлотец, romanized: krasnoflotets).
Personnel designated to command a military unit were unofficially named "red commander" (Russian: красный командир; krasnyi komandir, abbreviated краском; kraskom). Commanders of major units (army or corps sized) were designated "army commander" (Russian: командующий армией; komanduyushchy armyye; abbreviated командарм; komandarm). For more detailed graduation komandarm I and komandarm II were adopted.
Commanding officers of major units below army and corps level were known as:
In the navy from December 1917 until 1918, naval officers of the Imperial Russian Navy who joined its ranks were addressed by their tsarist rank with the addition of front abbreviation "b.", which meant "former", while new officers had to wait till 1924 for their rank designations to be issued.
With no formal Red Army insignia designated, red bows, cap peaks, sleeve patches and the red soviet star were worn, first by the so-called Red Guard units, later by all other Red Army units. In 1920 all the ranks and rank insignia of the Red Army and Navy were regulated by the orders of the Defence Commissar, Leon Trotsky.
The first official emblem of the Red Army was a chest badge (red textile bend and oak leaves twig, in the middle a star with sickle and hammer), introduced in April 1918. From summer of the same year the cap cockade, in form of a five-pointed star with hammer and sickle, was designated. At first two of the points were uppermost, before it was directed that a single point of the star should face the 12 o'clock position.
By orders number 953 and 1691 of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Red Army on structure and design of the cap cockade in shape of a red star, the official design was introduced for use by all personnel of the Red Army.
|Designation||Chest badge & cap cockade of the Red Army in 1922|
|Designation||Chest badge, Soviet star
(with plug & hammer in the center)
|Badge as to
Order № 953
(from April 13, 1922)
|Badge as to|
Order № 1691
(from July 11, 1922)
By order from April 25, 1918 of the "People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs" a temporary committee was established, to develop proposals pertaining to the uniform of the Red Guards. In November 29, 1918 the All-Russian Central Executive Committee approved these proposals and agreed to the rank designations as follows to be used, by both the Red Guards and the Red Army's ground forces as a whole:
In December 18, 1918, the "Revolutionary Military Committee" agreed upon the new uniforms proposed and the ranks. Among other three versions of caps and various rank insignia were adopted, in order to emphasize several appointments. It was followed by the official approval by order number 116 of the "Revolutionary Military Committee" from January 16, 1919 (see pictures 1 to 11). The ground forces of the Red Army and the nascent Soviet Air Force used these ranks until 1924.
With the definite beginning of the rehabilitation of the Soviet Navy in 1923–24 came the introduction of rank appointments for ratings and officers of the Navy. These ranks, however, began to be used during the Civil War years and were sanctioned in 1921.
Uniform insignia followed the traditions of the Imperial Navy but with sleeve insignia for officers and all ratings, but the uniform itself remained the same as its Imperial Russian predecessors.
The following ranks were used by the Soviet military from 1924 to 1935. The new ranks came as a result of new People's Commisariat for Defense regulations concerning military ranks and appointments.
group leading personnel
|Designation of the assignmant in the ...||Collar
(as to order of the RMC USSR № 807 from June 20, 1924)
|... Air Force||... Navy|
|OR1[note 1]||no||Red Army Man
|Red Airman (красновоздухоплаватель, krasnoboedukhoplavately)||Red Fleet Man
|OR5||K1||Fireteam Leader (Kom Zvena)
(командир звена, komandir zvena)
|Junior Engine Minder
(младший моторист, mladshy motorist)
(командир группы, komandir gruppy)
|Assistant of Squad Leader|
(помощник командира отделения, pomoshnik komandira otdeleniya)
|OR6||Squad Leader (KomOt)
(командир отделения, komandir tdeleniya)
|OR7||K2||Assistant of Platoon Commander (PomKom Vzvoda)
(помощник командира взвода, pomoshchik komandira vzvoda)
Deputy Commander of the Battle Station
|OR8||Company Quartermaster (Rotny)
(cтаршина роты, starhina roty)
|Senior Engine Minder
(старший моторист, starshiy motorist)
Chief of the Battle Station
|OF-1[note 2]||K3||Platoon Commander
(командир взвода, komandir vzvoda)
Battle Station Commander
Assistant of Ship Commander 4th rank
||junior pilot||assistant watch officer|
|K5||chef or commissar – company, – battery, – squadron||air detail commander||
||air flight commander||
||air squadron commander||ship commander 2nd rank|
||commander independent flying (battalion sized) unit||senior assistant ship commander 1st rank and equivalents|
|OF5||K9||regimental commander||air park commander||ship commander 1st rank and equivalents|
||air regiment commander||naval/ship brigade commander|
|OF7||K11||divisional commander||air brigade commander||squadron commander|
||No equivalent||flotilla commander|
|K13||assistant commander in chief of the military district||assistant commander in chief of the air force of the Red Army||
||commander in chief of the air forces of the Red Army||No equivalent||No equivalent|
The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union, created on September 1935, took first precedence over all ranks since then. With the new Marshal rank being introduced, the Council of People's Commissars began the process of phrasing out the 1924 rank system.
Individual rank insignia to the (Army) ground forces and (Navy) naval forces (1935–1940) were established by orders 2590 and 2591, effective from September 22, 1935.This was mainly directed to supreme commanders, commanding officers, and personnel in charge to exert command and control in the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, published by order number 176 of the USSR People's Commissariat of Defense, dated from December 03, 1935.Ranks and insignia of the Russian armed forces until 1917
The Imperial Russian Army (Russian: Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия, РИА) and the Imperial Russian Navy (Russian: Российский императорский флот) used ranks and rank insignia derived from the German model. However, the entire rank system was also closely connected to the Russian military traditions. In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the Red Army abolished the entire Imperial system of ranks and rank insignia, while military units and formations of the opposing White movement retained the Imperial rank system until 1923.Ranks and insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces 1943–1955
Ranks and rank insignia of the Soviet Armed Forces in the period 1943–1955 were characterised by a number of changes in the armed forces of the Soviet Union, including the reintroduction of rank insignia badges and the adoption of a number of higher ranks.
Military ranks and insignia by country
|Commonwealth of Nations|