Rangi language

Rangi or Langi (there is no distinction between /r/ and /l/; also known as Irangi, Kilaangi, etc.) is a Bantu language of spoken by the Rangi people of Kondoa District in the Dodoma Region of Central Tanzania. Whilst the language is known as Rangi in English and Kirangi in the dominant Swahili spoken throughout the African Great Lakes, the self-referent term is Kilaangi.

Estimates at the number of Rangi-speakers range from 270,000[4] to 410,000 speakers.[5] Rangi is the largest linguistic group in the Babati-Kondoa region.

Two main varieties of Rangi are identified - that spoken in the Rangi Highlands (known in Swahili as Irangi ya Juu) and that of the Lowlands (Irangi ya Chini). Despite differences, these varieties are mutually intelligible. However, some dialectal variation is also found between the varieties spoken in the main town of Kondoa, as well as in the surrounding villages of Bereko, Bukulu, Isabe, Humai, Kwadinu, Kolo, Choka, Gubali, Nkuku, Bicha, Kingale, Kelema, Paranga, Kidoka, Haubi and Mondo.

Native toTanzania
Native speakers
410,000 (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3lag


Rangi exhibits the basic head-initial syntax commonly associated with Bantu languages. The languages exhibits a dominant SVO word order, with some variation in word order possible for pragmatic reasons. Also complements is language by adding an -ext at the end of most of all the words.

Noun classes

In common with many Bantu languages, Rangi employs a system of noun classes. Rangi has 19 noun classes. Classes 1-10 show regular singular-plural distinctions (with odd numbers representing singular forms and even numbers representing the plural forms). Class 12 is used for (singular) diminutive nouns, class 15 contains infinitival nouns, classes 16 and 17 contain locative nouns, whilst class 19 contains plural diminutives nouns.

Classes 1/2 contain human nouns: kinship terms, professions, ethnicities, nationalities etc.

Class 3/4 contain natural phenomena, trees and plants, body parts which exhibit a part-whole relationship.

Classes 5/6 contain nouns which host the prefix i- or ri-.

Classes 7/8 contain nouns which denote inanimate objects including tools.

Classes 9/10 contain nouns denoting a wide range of entities. The nouns in these classes contain prefixes that consist of an underspecified nasal which assimilates to the place of articulation.

Class 11 has been reconstructed to contain nouns which are long in shape. In Rangi, nouns that cover an extensive area, or have an extensive reach are also included in this class.

Class 12 contains nouns which convey diminutive meanings. In some instances the diminutive prefix ka- appears alongside the 'original' noun class prefix, whilst in other instances the diminutive prefix replaces the noun class prefix.

Class 14 contains non-count nouns and abstract nouns that do not have a plural counterpart. The nouns of class 14 which do have plural counterparts are found in either class 6 or class 10.

Verb-auxiliary order

Rangi has come to the attention of linguists due to a number of features it exhibits which are unusual for Bantu languages. Included in this is the verb-auxiliary ordering found in two tenses in the languages.[6] In the immediate future and general future tense, the auxiliary appears after the verb in declarative main clauses. This order is unusual from a comparative and typological perspective, since East African Bantu languages exhibit predominantly auxiliary-verb order and SVO languages are expected to exhibit auxiliary-verb order. This unusual word order is also found in the neighbouring Mbugwe language, spoken in the Babati region.


Rangi has a seven-vowel system, with a single low vowel and phonemically contrasting front-back pairs at three heights. The vowels are [a], [ɛ], [i], [ɪ], [ɔ], [u] and [ʊ]. Rangi has phonemic vowel length alternation with a distinction attested between long and short vowels. Rangi also exhibits asymmetric vowel height harmony.


  1. ^ Rangi at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Langi". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ Jouni Filip Maho, 2009. New Updated Guthrie List Online
  4. ^ Bergman et al.2007
  5. ^ Grimes 2005
  6. ^ Gibson, Hannah. 2012. Auxiliary placement in Rangi: A Dynamic Syntax perspective. Phd Dissertation, SOAS, University of London.
Burunge language

Burunge is an Afro-Asiatic language spoken in Tanzania in the Dodoma Region, by the Burunge people, a small "group" of about 13,000 native speakers that live in the Northeastern region of Tanzania. The Burunge belong to a cluster of Tanzanian groups known as Southern Cushites, which also categorizes Burunge as part of the South Cushitic language family. The Burunge live in close proximity to other languages such as the Rangi, Gogo and Sandawe, and ultimately, their language and culture is endangered by dwindling number of speakers and absorption by larger tribes.

Haplogroup T-M184

Haplogroup T-M184, also known as Haplogroup T is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. The UEP that defines this clade is the SNP known as M184. Other SNPs – M272, PAGES129, L810, L455, L452, and L445 – are considered to be phylogenetically equivalent to M184. As a primary branch of haplogroup LT (a.k.a. K1), the basal, undivergent haplogroup T* currently has the alternate phylogenetic name of K1b and is a sibling of haplogroup L* (a.k.a. K1a). (Before 2008, haplogroup T and its subclades were known as haplogroup K2. The name K2 has since been reassigned to a primary subclade of haplogroup K.) It has two primary branches: T1 (T-L206) and T2 (T-PH110).

T-M184 is unusual in that it is both geographically widespread and relatively rare (considering that it originated around 40,000 years ago).A living male from Armenia is reportedly the only known case of basal T* (T-M184*). (That is, an example of T-M184* that does not including mutations identifying T-L206 or T-PH110.)

As a whole, T-M184, is found at its highest frequencies among some populations in parts of the Horn of Africa, East India, Madagascar, Kazakhstan and Sicily. Some sources suggest that the arrival of the lineage in these regions is due to relatively recent migrations. T-M184 occurs at frequencies of greater than 30% (in large samples) from populations as diverse as Dir clan ethnic Somalis of Djibouti, Antemoro of Madagascar, Bauri, and Yerukula of East India, Argyns from Kazakhstan and rural Sciaccensis from Sicily.

T2 (T-PH110) is very rare and has been found in three distinct geographical regions: the North European Plain, the Kura-Araks Basin of the Caucasus, and Bhutan. None of these regions, however, now appears to feature populations with high frequencies of haplogroup T-M184.T1 (T-L206) – the numerically dominant primary branch of T-M184 – appears to have originated in Western Asia, possibly somewhere between northeastern Anatolia and the Zagros Mountains, and spread from there into the Arabian Peninsula, East Africa, South Asia, Southern Europe and adjoining regions. T1* may have expanded with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B culture (PPNB). Most males who now belong to haplogroup T-L206 carry the subclade T-M70 (T1a), a primary branch of T-M206. Now most commonly found in North Africa and the Middle East, T-M70 nevertheless appears to have long been present in Europe, having possibly arrived there in the Neolithic epoch with the first farmers. This is supported by the discovery of several members of T1a1 (CTS880) at a 7,000 year old settlement in Karsdorf, Germany and two members in 5800-5400Bc neolithic site in Malak Preslavets, Bulgaria. Autosomal analysis of these remains suggest that some were closely related to modern Southwest Asian populations.


Rangi may refer to:

Rangi (surname), a Jat Gotra found in Haryana and Punjab

Rangi (ethnic group), of Tanzania

Rangi language, the language spoken by the Rangi people

Rangi (video game), a virtual reality adventure puzzle video game

Rangi Chase, New Zealand rugby league footballer

Rangi Topeora (died 1865-1873?), New Zealand tribal leader, peacemaker and composer of waiata

Anaru Rangi (born 1988), New Zealand rugby union footballer

Tutekohi Rangi (1871–1956), New Zealand Māori tohunga and faith healer

Rangi, the primal sky father in Māori mythology

Official languages


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