Ranchi (/ˈrɑːntʃi/ pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement, which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas.
The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi. "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi. One of the historically significant neighbourhoods of Rachi is Doranda (duran "दुरङ" means song and daah "दअः" means water in the Mundari language). Doranda lies between the Hinoo (Bhusur) & Harmoo Rivers, where the civil station, treasury and church established by the British Raj were destroyed by rebel forces during the Sepoy Mutiny.
Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission. Ranchi is well known for being the hometown of former Indian cricket captain MS Dhoni.
|Nickname(s): City of waterfalls|
Location in Jharkhand
|• Body||Ranchi Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||Asha Lakra|
|• Deputy mayor||Sanjeev Vijayvargiya|
|• Metropolis||175 km2 (68 sq mi)|
|Elevation||651 m (2,136 ft)|
|• Density||6,100/km2 (16,000/sq mi)|
|• Metro||1,126,741 (39th)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||JH-01 (earlier BR 14)|
|Sex ratio(per 1000 male)||950|
Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.
Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.
Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas. The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.
|Climate data for Ranchi|
|Average high °C (°F)||23.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||16.7
|Average low °C (°F)||9.8
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||16.7
As of 2011 India census, Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,120,374, making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68% (census 2011).
The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.
Birsa Munda Airport (Airport Code IXR) of Ranchi has direct flights from Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Patna, Hyderabad, Bhubaneswar. Major airlines like Air India, GoAir, Indigo, SpiceJet, Vistara and Air Asia do connect Ranchi. Plans are underway to connect Ranchi directly with cities like Chennai and Ahmedabad directly. The new domestic terminal, now operational 24 hours, is spread over 19,676 square meters of land furnished with imported equipment, and has the capacity to handle 500 domestic passengers.
In addition, domestic cargo complex at Birsa Munda Airport was inaugurated by Chief Minister Raghubar Das with a daily capacity of 50 MT, catering to 14 flights that operate in and out of Ranchi now.
Ranchi Railway Station (Station Code RNC) is well connected with direct trains from Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai and other major cities.  It consists of six platforms with all standard necessities. It is well connected to Ranchi Airport and Bus Terminals. The Ranchi Railway station caters to 36 halting trains, 27 originating trains and 27 terminating trains.
Ranchi is home to many Research Institutions. Major among them, are:
An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.
Ranchi has the following FM radio stations: (Listed in increasing order of frequency)