Ranchi (/ˈrɑːntʃi/ pronunciation ) is the capital of the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi was the centre of the Jharkhand movement,[3] which called for a separate state for the tribal regions of South Bihar, northern Orissa, western West Bengal and the eastern area of what is present-day Chhattisgarh. The Jharkhand state was formed on 15 November 2000 by carving out the Bihar divisions of Chota Nagpur and Santhal Parganas. Ranchi has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under PM Narendra Modi's flagship Smart Cities Mission.[4]

Ranchi 9238
Ranchi skyline from a hill
From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
From top left to right :- Kanke, Ranchi Railway Station , Rajendra Chowk , Birsa Munda International Airport , JSCA International Cricket Stadium , Line tank pond , Kadru flyover-Hotel Radisson Blu , Nucleus mall , GEL church complex .
City of waterfalls
Ranchi is located in Jharkhand
Location in Jharkhand
Ranchi is located in India
Ranchi (India)
Ranchi is located in Asia
Ranchi (Asia)
Ranchi is located in Earth
Ranchi (Earth)
Coordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°ECoordinates: 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E
 • BodyRanchi Municipal Corporation
 • MayorAsha Lakra (BJP)
 • Deputy mayorSanjeev Vijayvargiya
 • Metropolis652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,295 km2 (500 sq mi)
651 m (2,136 ft)
 • Metropolis2,187,391
 • Rank25th
 • Density3,400/km2 (8,700/sq mi)
 • Metro2,259,964 (24th)
 • OfficialHindi, English
 • RegionalNagpuri dialect of Hindi
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
834001(83 xxxx)
Telephone code0651
Vehicle registrationJH-01 (earlier BR 14)
Sex ratio(per 1000 male)950
Websitewww.ranchi.nic.in www.ranchimunicipal.com


The name Ranchi is derived from the previous name of the Oraon village at the same site, Archi.[5] "Archi" derives from the Oraon word for bamboo grove or stave. According to legend, after an altercation with a spirit, a farmer beat the spirit with his bamboo stave. The spirit shouted archi, archi, archi and vanished. Archi became Rachi, which became Ranchi.[6] Another etymological evidence suggests Ranchi to be derived from 'rici' (Mundari for Black Kite Milvus migrans), as the modern day landmark of Ranchi city, the Pahari Mandir, is also known as Rici Buru - the hill of the kites[7], and the city originated on the foothills of Rici Buru with the construction of bada talaab by Commissioner Thomas Wilkinson at the same site. The entire administration of SWFA was run from Commissioner's office situated at the foothill of Rici Buru.


Ranchi lies at 23°22′N 85°20′E / 23.36°N 85.33°E near to the Tropic of Cancer . Its municipal area is 652.02 km2 (251.75 sq mi), and its average elevation is 651 m above sea level.

4 umbrellas of farmers, rains in Jharkhand India 2016
Ranchi is surrounded by lush agriculturally fertile land.

Ranchi is located in the southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau, which is the eastern section of the Deccan plateau.

Ranchi has a hilly topography and its dense tropical forests a combination that produces a relatively moderate climate compared to the rest of the state. However, due to the uncontrolled deforestation, and development of the city, the average temperature has increased.[8]


Although Ranchi has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Climate Classification: Cwa), its location and the forests surrounding it combine to produce the unusually pleasant climate for which it's known. Summer temperatures range from 20 °C to 42 degrees, winter temperatures from 0 °C to 25 degrees. December and January are the coolest months, with temperatures dipping to the freezing point in some areas(Kanke). The annual rainfall is about 1430 mm (56.34 inches). From June to September the rainfall is about 1,100 mm.[9]

Climate data for Ranchi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 16.7
Average low °C (°F) 9.8
Average precipitation mm (inches) 16.7
Source: IMD



As of 2011 India census,[10] Ranchi municipal corporation has a population of 1,126,741,[11] making it the 46th largest urban city in India. Males constitute 51.3% of the population and females 48.7%. Ranchi city has an average literacy rate of 87.68% (census 2011).

The city witnessed a sudden surge in population after the declaration of the new state of Jharkhand in 2000. Owing to the rising employment opportunities and opening of numerous regional and state level offices, banks, and FMCG companies, the city witnessed a rapid influx of employment seeking migrants. As per a study done by ASSOCHAM in late 2010, Ranchi was one of the highest employment generating Tier-III cities in India with a share of 16.8%, followed by Mangalore and Mysore.[12]


Hindi is the official language of the Ranchi city. The populace of Ranchi converse mainly in Hindi. A number of Hindi dialects such as Nagpuri, Khortha also spoken. Tribal language Mundari is also spoken by Munda tribe.


Hinduism is the prominent religion of Ranchi city followed by 64.31% of the population. Islam is the second most followed religion in the city by 16.42% of the people. Minorities are Christians 8.52%, Sikhism 0.39%, Jains 0.22%, Buddhists 0.06%, those that didn't state a religion are 0.35%, and others are 9.72%.[14]



Ranchi is centre for numerous sports activities, including cricket, hockey, football, and many others.[16] The 34th National Games were successfully held in Ranchi in February 2011.

Ranchi Rhinos Logo
Ranchi Rhinos field hockey team is based in the city
JSCA cricket stadium Entrance
JSCA Cricket Stadium Entrance

An International Cricket stadium with an indoor stadium and a practice ground has been constructed. So far, this stadium has hosted three One day International matches and one T20 International match. Apart from that, this stadium has hosted two IPL 6 matches for Kolkata Knight Riders, three champions league 2013 matches and Celebrity Cricket League Matches for Bhojpuri Dabanggs. A tennis academy, which was inaugurated by Sania Mirza and Shoaib Malik, also runs besides the cricket stadium.[17]

The Ranchi franchise for Hockey India League was bought by Patel-Uniexcel Group and the team named Ranchi Rhinos.[18]

Sports teams

Stadiums in Ranchi

Points of Interest

Asian Black Bear Ursus thibetanus by Dr. Raju Kasambe 02
Asian Black Bear at Jharkhand Zoo in Ranchi
Royal Bengal Tiger Panthera tigris tigris by Dr. Raju Kasambe DSCN7888 (78)
Bengal Tiger at Jharkhand Zoo

People from Ranchi

Cool Maal launches official merchandise of Mahendra Singh Dhoni
Cricketer Mahendra Singh Dhoni is from Ranchi

See also

  • Ranchi Metropolitan Region


  1. ^ "Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Census 2011" (PDF). The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  2. ^ "Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above" (PDF). censusindia. The Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  3. ^ "Jharkhand Movement". Country Studies. Archived from the original on 2005-03-18. Retrieved 2009-05-07.
  4. ^ "Only 98 cities instead of 100 announced: All questions answered about the smart cities project". Firstpost. 2015-08-28. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  5. ^ Cultural Configuration of Ranchi, Lalita Prasad Vidyarthi, Rajendra Behari Lal, India. Planning Commission. Research Programmes Committee, 1969, pg 306.
  6. ^ Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society Of Bengal, Volume 4, No. 11, 1927, "The Etymology of Ranchi", pg 601.
  7. ^ Samar,, Bosu Mullick,. Sylvan tales : stories from the Munda country. Kolkata, India. ISBN 9789384465056. OCLC 935915532.
  8. ^ "Sultry weather likely to continue in city, for now - Times of India". Retrieved 2016-06-24.
  9. ^ "Ranchi, India Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)".
  10. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01.
  11. ^ "Ranchi District Population Census 2011, Jharkhand literacy sex ratio and density".
  12. ^ Assocham report, 2010 Archived 14 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ "Ranchi City Census 2011 data". https://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/261-ranchi.html. External link in |website= (help)
  14. ^ "Ranchi City Census 2011 data". https://www.census2011.co.in/census/city/261-ranchi.html. External link in |website= (help)
  15. ^ "Central Institute of Psychiatry,Ranchi". cipranchi.nic.in. Retrieved 2018-09-30.
  16. ^ "Sports".
  17. ^ "Sania and Shoaib in Ranchi".
  18. ^ "Ranchi franchise becomes third team in Hockey India League". The Times Of India. 2012-09-14.
  19. ^ "Jharkhand Zoo Authority". Archived from the original on 19 March 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Rajesh Chauhan". ESPN Cricinfo. Retrieved 30 January 2015.

External links

Birsa Munda Airport

Birsa Munda Airport (IATA: IXR, ICAO: VERC), also known as Ranchi Airport, is the primary airport serving the city of Ranchi, the capital city of the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is named after Indian tribal freedom fighter Birsa Munda and is currently managed by Airports Authority of India. The airport is located in Hinoo, approximately 5 km (3.1 mi) from the centre of the city. The whole airport sprawls over an area of 1568 acres. The airport is used by more than 1.5 million passengers annually and is the 28th busiest airport in India.

Chota Nagpur Plateau

The Chhota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh. The Indo-Gangetic plain lies to the north and east of the plateau, and the basin of the Mahanadi River lies to the south. The total area of the Chota Nagpur Plateau is approximately 65,000 square kilometres (25,000 sq mi).

Delhi Waveriders

Delhi Waveriders (DLW) is a field hockey franchise based in Delhi that plays in the Hockey India League. It is owned by The Wave Group. The captain of the team for HIL 2016 is Simon Child with Rupinder Pal Singh being the Vice-Captain of the team. Mr. Cedric Dsouza is the chief coach of the team for HIL2016.

Hatia railway station

Hatia Station, station code HTE, is the railway station serving the capital city of Ranchi in the Ranchi district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Hatia Station belongs to the Ranchi division of the South Eastern Railway Zone of the Indian Railway. The Hatia Station railway station is connected to most of the major cities in India by the railway network. It is situated on Ranchi-Rourkela railway section.

Ranchi has trains running frequently to Delhi and Kolkata. The city is a major railway hub and has four major stations: Ranchi Junction Hatia Station, Tatisilwai Station and Namkom Station. Many important trains start from Ranchi Junction as well.

Indian Institute of Management Ranchi

The Indian Institute of Management Ranchi (IIM Ranchi) is a public business school located in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. It is the ninth Indian Institute of Management to be established.

Inaugurated on 6 July 2010, IIM Ranchi offers two-year Post Graduate Diploma in Management (PGDM) and Post Graduate Diploma in Human Resource Management (PGDHRM), four-year Fellowship Programme and Executive Programmes.

JSCA International Stadium Complex

Jharkhand States Cricket Association International Cricket Stadium, also known as JSCA International Stadium Complex, is situated in Ranchi, India an eastern city of India.

It serves Jharkhand State Cricket Association to organise International Matches in Jharkhand and is the home ground of the Jharkhand cricket team and Indian Premier League team Chennai Super Kings. Two home games of IPL Team Chennai Super Kings will be held at JSCA stadium. It was inaugurated in January 2013. As of 19 Aug, 2017 it has hosted 1 Test, 4 ODIs and 1 T20I.

Jhalda railway station

Jhalda Station, station code JAA, is the railway station serving the city of Jhalda which is in the Purulia district in the Indian state of West Bengal. Jhalda railway station belongs to the Ranchi division of the South Eastern Railway Zone of the Indian Railway. Jhalda railway station is located between Muri and Bokaro Steel City.


Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000. The state shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh to the northwest, Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,710 km2 (30,778 sq mi).

The city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka its sub capital.

Jharkhand suffers from resource curse; It accounts for more than 40% of the mineral resources of India, but it suffers widespread poverty as 39.1% of the population is below the poverty line and 19.6% of the children under five years of age are malnourished. The state is primarily rural, with only 24% of the population living in cities.

List of schools in India

This is a list of schools in India grouped by state/UT.

National Highway 39 (India)

National Highway 39 (NH 39) is a National Highway in India. This highway passes through the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand.

Netaji S.C.Bose Gomoh–Hatia line

The Netaji S.C.Bose Gomoh–Hatia line is a railway line connecting NSC Bose Gomoh and Hatia in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It is under the jurisdiction of East Central Railway and South Eastern Railway.

Ramgarh district

Ramgarh district is one of the 24 districts in the Indian state of Jharkhand. It was also a military district during the British Regime, referred to then as Ramghur district.

Ranchi Junction railway station

Ranchi Junction railway station, station code RNC, is the railway station serving the capital city of Ranchi in the Ranchi district in the Indian state of Jharkhand. Ranchi Station is also the headquarters of the Ranchi division of the South Eastern Railway Zone of the Indian Railway. The Ranchi Junction railway station is connected to most of the major cities in India by the railway network.

Ranchi has trains running frequently to Delhi, Kolkata and Patna. The city is a major railway hub and has four major stations: Ranchi Junction, Hatia Station, Tatisilwai Station and Namkom Station.

Ranchi Metro

Ranchi Metro (Hindi: रांची मेट्रो) is a 16.2 Km planned rapid transit system for the city of Ranchi in Jharkhand, India. It would be owned and operated by state run Ranchi Metro Rail Corporation.

Ranchi Road railway station

Ranchi Road railway station is a small railway station in Ramgarh district, Jharkhand. Its code is RRME. It serves Ramgarh town. The station consists of two platforms. The platforms are not well sheltered. It lacks many facilities including water and sanitation. It is located on Gomoh-Barkakana branch line.It is located in the Northern side of the Ramgarh city. The named Ranchi Road comes after Ranchi which once connected only by narrow gauge line and at that time Ranchi Road was the nearest Broad gauge station to the Ranchi.

Ranchi University

Ranchi University (RU) is a public teaching-cum-affiliating university located in Ranchi, the capital city of Jharkhand, India. Established in 1960, the university now spans five districts of Jharkhand, namely, Ranchi, Gumla , Khunti, Simdega and Lohardaga. The current acting Vice-Chancellor of Ranchi University is R. K. Pandey. Despite so many divisions, Ranchi University continues to play a leading role in imparting higher educate in the state.

At present the University has 23 post graduate departments, 15 constituent colleges, and 49 affiliated colleges, imparting teaching in medicine, psychiatry, law, engineering, business management, education, and general courses. Besides these institutions there is UGC sponsored Academic Staff College.

Ranchi district

Ranchi district is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state in eastern India. Ranchi city, the capital of Jharkhand state is the district headquarters. It was established as a district in 1899.

As of 2011 it is the most populous district of Jharkhand (out of 24).

Vivekananda Vidya Mandir

Vivekananda Vidya Mandir is an English Medium co-educational school from KG to Class XII affiliated to the CBSE Board, New Delhi. It is oldest premier CBSE Senior secondary School at HEC Campus in Ranchi, Jharkhand. It is very peace making school in Ranchi.

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