Raimondo Montecuccoli

Raimondo, Count of Montecuccoli (Italian pronunciation: [raiˈmondo monteˈkukkoli] German: Raimondo Graf Montecuccoli; 21 February 1609 – 16 October 1680) was an Italian-born professional soldier who served the Habsburg Monarchy. He was also a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Duke of Melfi, in the Kingdom of Naples.

Montecuccoli was considered as the only commander to be the equal of the French general Turenne, (1611–1675), and like him, was closely associated with the post-1648 development of linear infantry tactics.[1]

Raimondo Montecuccoli
HGM Grießler Montecuccoli
Raimondo Montecuccoli, Duke of Melfi by Elias Grießler
Born21 February 1609
Pavullo nel Frignano, Duchy of Modena and Reggio
Died16 October 1680 (aged 71)
Linz, Archduchy of Austria
Buried
Allegiance Holy Roman Empire
Service/branchImperial Army
Years of service1628–1678
RankGeneralfeldmarschall
Battles/warsThirty Years' War

First War of Castro
Second Northern War
Austro-Turkish War

Dutch War Rhineland Campaign

AwardsOrder of the Golden Fleece

Early life

Montecuccoli was born on 21 February 1609 in the Castello di Montecuccolo in Pavullo nel Frignano, near Modena.

Early military service

At the age of sixteen Montecuccoli began as a private soldier under his uncle, Count Ernest Montecuccoli (died 1633), a distinguished Austrian general. Four years later, after much active service in Germany and the Low Countries, he became a captain of infantry. He was severely wounded at the storming of New Brandenburg, and again in the same year (1631) at the first battle of Breitenfeld, where he fell into the hands of the Swedes.[2]

He was again wounded at Lützen in 1632, and on his recovery was made a major in his uncle's regiment. Shortly afterwards he became a lieutenant-colonel of cavalry. He did good service at the first battle of Nordlingen (1634), and at the storming of Kaiserslautern in the following year won his colonelcy by a feat of arms of unusual brilliance, a charge through the breach at the head of his heavy cavalry.[2]

He fought in Pomerania, Bohemia and Saxony (surprise of Wolmirstadt, battles of Wittstock and Chemnitz), and in 1639 he was taken prisoner at Melnik and detained for two and a half years in Stettin and Weimar. In captivity he studied military science, and also geometry by the way of Euclid, history of Tacitus, and Vitruvius' architecture, all the while planning his great work on war.[2]

Commanding officer

Returning to Italy and to the field in 1642, Montecuccoli commanded mercenaries loyal to the Duke of his native Modena during the First War of Castro,[3][4] but when that conflict ground to an unproductive stalemate he departed. His involvement, though understandable given his allegiance to Modena, was nonetheless unusual in that his service pitted him against the papal forces of Pope Urban VIII.

Pavullo-Castello Montecuccoli01
The Castello Montecuccoli in Modena

In 1643 he was promoted to lieutenant-field-marshal and obtained a seat in the Council of War. In 1645–46 he served in Hungary against Prince Rákóczy of Transylvania, on the Danube and Neckar against the French, and in Silesia and Bohemia against the Swedes. The victory of Triebel in Silesia won him the rank of General of Cavalry, and at the battle of Zusmarshausen in 1648 his stubborn rearguard fighting rescued the imperialists from annihilation.[2]

For some years after the Peace of Westphalia Montecuccoli was chiefly concerned with the business of the council of war, though he went to Flanders and England as the representative of the emperor, and to Sweden as the envoy of the pope to Queen Christina, and at Modena his lance was victorious in a great tourney.[2]

In 1657, soon after his marriage with Countess Margarethe de Dietrichstein, he was ordered by the Emperor to take part in the Habsburg expedition (as agreed between the King of Poland and the Emperor) against Prince Rákóczy, Charles X Gustav of Sweden and the Cossacks, who had already, in 1655, attacked the Kingdom of Poland in the war known in Poland as The Deluge or elsewhere as the Second Northern War. During the conflict he was promoted to commanding officer of the division.[2]

He became field-marshal in the imperial army and his division, along with Stefan Czarniecki's division, Frederick William's army and Danish forces, participated in the struggle in Denmark against the invading Swedes. Eventually the war ended with the Peace of Oliva in 1660 and Montecuccoli returned to his sovereign.[2]

From 1661 to 1664 Montecuccoli, with inferior numbers, defended Austria against the Turks but at St. Gotthard Abbey, on the Rába, he and Carl I. Ferdinand Count of Montenari defeated the Turks so comprehensively that they entered into a twenty-year truce. They were given the Order of the Golden Fleece, and Montecuccoli became president of the council of war and director of artillery. He also devoted much time to compiling his various works on military history and science. He opposed the progress of the French arms under Louis XIV, and when the inevitable war broke out he received command of the imperial forces. In the campaign of 1673 he completely outmanoeuvred his rival Turenne on the Neckar and the Rhine, captured Bonn and joined his army with that of William III, the prince of Orange on the lower Rhine.[2]

He retired from the army when, in 1674, the Great Elector was named command in chief, but the brilliant successes of Turenne in the winter of 1674 and 1675 brought him back. For months the two famous commanders manoeuvred against each other in the Rhine valley, but on the eve of a decisive battle Turenne was killed and Montecuccoli promptly invaded Alsace, where he engaged in another war of manoeuvre with the Great Condé. The siege of Philippsburg was Montecuccoli's last achievement in war.[2]

Retirement and death

The rest of Montecuccoli's life was spent in military administration and literary and scientific work at Vienna. In 1679 the emperor made him a prince of the empire, and shortly afterwards he received the dukedom of Melfi from the King of Spain.[2]

Montecuccoli died in an accident at Linz in October 1680.[2]

Assessment

Raimondo-montecuccoli
Count Raimondo Montecuccoli

As a general, Montecuccoli shared with Turenne and Condé the first place among European soldiers of his time. For his success in halting the Turkish advance he had been hailed the savior of Europe. He was also influential as a military theorist, with perhaps his most famous quote being "For war you need three things: 1. Money. 2. Money. 3. Money." [5] His Memorie della guerra profoundly influenced the age which followed his own.[2] "Unequalled as a master of 17th-century warfare, Montecuccoli excelled in the art of fortification and siege, march and countermarch, and cutting his enemy’s lines of communications. In advocating standing armies, he clearly foresaw future trends in the military field".

Family

In 1657, Montecuccoli married Countess Margarethe de Dietrichstein.[2] With the death of his only son Leopold Philip Montecuccoli in 1698 the principality became extinct, but the title of count descended through his daughters to two branches, Austrian and Modenese.[2]

Bibliography

The Memorie della guerra was published at Venice in 1703 and at Cologne in 1704. A French edition was issued in Paris in 1712 and a Latin edition appeared in 1718 at Vienna, and the German Kriegsnachrichten des Fürsten Raymundi Montecuccoli was issued at Leipzig in 1736. Of this work there are manuscripts in various libraries, and many memoirs on military history, tactics, fortification, written in Italian, Latin and German, remain still unedited in the archives of Vienna. The collected Opere di Raimondo Montecuccoli were published at Milan (1807), Turin (1821) and Venice (1840), and include political essays and poetry.[2]

Memorials

In 1934 the Italian navy launched the Raimondo Montecuccoli, a Condottieri class light cruiser named in his honour which served with the Regia Marina during World War II.

Notes

  1. ^ Guthrie, William (2003). The Later Thirty Years War: From the Battle of Wittstock to the Treaty of Westphalia (Contributions in Military Studies). Praeger. p. 239. ISBN 978-0313324086.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Chisholm 1911, p. 714.
  3. ^ Black 2002, p. 162.
  4. ^ Paoletti 2008, p. 28.
  5. ^ See Chapter 6 of Book 3, A Warriors Life (2013), Roger Gard's translation of Servitude et grandeur militaires by Alfred de Vigny along with Gard's notes.

References

  • Anonymous (2012). Raimondo Montecuccoli (Online ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica Inc.
  • Black, Jeremy (2002). European Warfare, 1494–1660. Routledge. p. 162.
  • Paoletti, Ciro (2008). A Military History of Italy. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 28.
Attribution
Austro-Turkish War (1663–64)

The Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664) or fourth Austro-Turkish War was a short war between the Habsburg Monarchy and the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman aim was to resume the advance in central Europe, conquer Vienna and subdue Austria. However, the Habsburg army under Raimondo Montecuccoli succeeded in halting the Ottoman army on its way to Vienna in the Battle of Saint Gotthard and destroy it, while another Austrian army won another victory at Léva. Despite these serious Ottoman defeats, the war ended for them with the rather favourable Peace of Vasvár.

Battle of Altenheim

The Battle of Altenheim took place on 1 August 1675 during the 1672-1678 Franco-Dutch War near Altenheim, in modern Baden-Württemberg, between a French army jointly commanded by the Marquis de Vaubrun and the Comte de Lorges and an Imperial Army under Raimondo Montecuccoli. Having lost their commander Marshall Turenne on 27 July, the French retreated over the Rhine, using the bridge at Altenheim; the Imperialists tried to prevent them but were unable to do so, despite heavy casualties on both sides.

Battle of Saint Gotthard (1664)

The Battle of Saint Gotthard (Hungarian: Szentgotthárdi csata; Turkish: Saint Gotthard Muharebesi; German: Schlacht bei Mogersdorf and Schlacht bei St. Gotthard; French: Bataille de Saint-Gothard) was fought on August 1, 1664 as part of the Austro-Turkish War (1663–1664), between the Imperial Army led by Generalleutnant Raimondo Montecuccoli, Jean de Coligny-Saligny, Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, together with the Army of the Holy Roman Empire led by Reichsgeneralfeldmarschall Prince Leopold of Baden and Reichsgeneralfeldmarschalleutnant Georg Friedrich of Waldeck and the army of the Ottoman Empire under the command of Köprülü Fazıl Ahmed Paşa.

The battle took place near Szentgotthárd and Mogersdorf in Western Hungary, near the present-day Austro-Hungarian border and is known as the Battle of Mogersdorf in Austria. The Turks were militarily defeated but were able to negotiate the Peace of Vasvár, which was highly favorable to them until their empire collapsed at which point it was no longer favorable to them.

Battle of Salzbach

The Battle of Salzbach or Sasbach was fought July 27, 1675, between the armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire, during the Franco-Dutch War. The term "battle" is something of a misnomer because the encounter consisted primarily of an artillery duel. However, it was costly for the French: the great French marshal, the Vicomte de Turenne, was killed by a cannonball. The Imperial army was commanded by the Italian Field Marshal Raimondo Montecuccoli.

Condottieri-class cruiser

The Condottieri class was a sequence of five different light cruiser classes of the Regia Marina (Italian Navy), although these classes show a clear line of evolution. They were built before World War II to gain predominance in the Mediterranean Sea. The ships were named after military commanders (condottieri) of Italian history.

Each class is known after the first ship of the group:

Giussano class:

Alberto da Giussano

Alberico da Barbiano

Bartolomeo Colleoni

Giovanni delle Bande NereCadorna class:

Luigi Cadorna

Armando DiazMontecuccoli class:

Raimondo Montecuccoli

Muzio AttendoloDuca d'Aosta class:

Emanuele Filiberto Duca d'Aosta

Eugenio di SavoiaDuca degli Abruzzi class:

Duca degli Abruzzi

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Italian cruiser Muzio Attendolo

Muzio Attendolo was a Condottieri-class light cruiser of the Italian Regia Marina which fought in World War II. She was sunk in Naples by bombers of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) on 4 December 1942. Although salvaged after the war, she was damaged beyond repair and was scrapped.

Italian cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli

Raimondo Montecuccoli was a Condottieri-class light cruiser serving with the Italian Regia Marina during World War II. She survived the war and served in the post-war Marina Militare until 1964.

Johann Hartmann von Rosenbach

Johann Hartmann von Rosenbach (1609–1675) was the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg from 1673 to 1675.

Johann Hartmann von Rosenbach was born in Stammheim, Florstadt on 15 September 1609.

The cathedral chapter of Würzburg Cathedral elected him Prince-Bishop of Würzburg on 13 March 1673, with Pope Clement X confirming his appointment on 10 September 1674. He was consecrated as a bishop by Stephan Weinberger, auxiliary bishop of Würzburg on 6 January 1675.

During his time as Prince-Bishop, the Franco-Dutch War spilled into the Prince-Bishopric of Würzburg, with forces under Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, Vicomte de Turenne invading the bishopric. These forces were eventually beaten back by troops under the command of Raimondo Montecuccoli.

He died on 19 April 1675.

Kirov-class cruiser

The Kirov-class (Project 26) cruisers were a class of six cruisers built in the late 1930s for the Soviet Navy. After the first two ships, armor protection was increased and subsequent ships are sometimes called the Maxim Gorky class. These were the first large ships built by the Soviets from the keel up after the Russian Civil War, and they were derived from the Italian cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli, being designed with assistance from the Italian Ansaldo company. Two ships each were deployed in the Black and Baltic Seas during World War II, while the last pair was still under construction in the Russian Far East and saw no combat during the war. The first four ships bombarded Axis troops and facilities after the Germans invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941. All six ships survived the war and lingered until the 1970s in training and other secondary roles before being scrapped.

Leopold Philip Montecuccoli

Leopold Philip Fürst Montecuccoli (1663 – January 6, 1698) was an Austrian Field Marshal.

Leopold Philip Montecuccoli was the son of the famous Imperial Field Marshal Raimondo Montecuccoli and Maria Margareta von Dietrichstein (1637–1676), daughter of Max von Dietrichstein, Oberhofmeister of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor.

As his father, Leopold Philip entered in the service of the Imperial Habsburg army. When his father died in 1680, he took over command as Colonel of his Cuirassier-Regiment and became later Field Marshal-Lieutenant. He also became captain of the Imperial Trabanten-Leibgarde, Geheimrat and Knight in the Order of the Golden Fleece. In 1689 his title was raised to Reichsfürst. In 1695 Montecuccoli purchased a plot of land in the area of Laxenburg in order to establish a summer residence close to the Habsburg-family's castles. This plot was developed further after his death and is nowadays known under the name Palais Kaunitz-Wittgenstein.He married Countess Maria Antonia Colloredo. When he died in 1698 at the age of 35, Philip and Maria had no children, and his title became extinct.

List of cruisers of Italy

This is a list of all modern cruisers built by Italy, starting from the 1880s.

Montecuccoli

Montecuccoli is the name of an Italian noble family, descending from Montecuccoli Castle, Pavullo nel Frignano in the former Duchy of Modena. In later parts of its history, a branch of it became thoroughly Austrian in identity and loyalty, though keeping the Italian name.

Count Ernesto Montecuccoli (1582-1633), general for the Holy Roman Empire in the Thirty Years' War

Leopold Philip Montecuccoli (1663–1698), Austrian Field Marshal

Raimondo Montecuccoli (1609–1680), Italian military general in Austrian service

Rudolf Montecuccoli (1843–1922), chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy

Sebastiano de Montecuccoli (died 1536), Italian nobleman in French service

Operation Harpoon (1942)

Operation Harpoon (the Battle of Pantelleria) was one of two simultaneous Allied convoys sent to supply Malta in the Axis-dominated central Mediterranean Sea in mid-June 1942, during the Second World War. Operation Vigorous was a westward convoy from Alexandria and the convoy of Operation Harpoon travelled east from Gibraltar. Two of the six ships in the Harpoon convoy completed the journey, at the cost of several Allied warships. The Vigorous convoy was driven back by the Italian fleet and attacks by Axis aircraft.

News of the two operations had been unwittingly revealed beforehand to the Axis by the US Military Attaché in Egypt, Colonel Bonner Fellers, who had been submitting detailed military reports on British activities to Washington in a code that was later revealed by Ultra intercepts to have been broken by the Servizio Informazioni Militare (Italian military intelligence).

Pavullo nel Frignano

Pavullo nel Frignano (Frignanese: Pavóll) is a town and comune in the province of Modena, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the Modenese Apeninnes. It is home to the medieval Castle of Montecuccolo, birthplace of the 17th century condottiero Raimondo Montecuccoli, and of the pieve of San Giovanni Battista di Renno (8th-9th century AD). The town was extensively damaged during World War II due to its proximity to the Gothic Line.

The economy is mostly based on agriculture. The 2006 World Cup winning Italian footballer Luca Toni was born in Pavullo nel Frignano.

The airport Pavullo nel Frignano Airport is in the commune.

Raimondo

Raimondo is both an Italian given name and a surname. Its English equivalent is Raymond. Notable people with the name include:

Given name:

Raimondo Boucheron (1800–1876), Italian composer, chiefly of sacred music

Raimondo D'Inzeo (born 1925), successful Italian show jumping rider

Raimondo del Balzo Orsini (died 1406), remarkable nobleman of the Kingdom of Naples

Raimondo delle Vigne (1330–1399), leading member of the Dominican Order

Raimondo di Sangro (1710–1771), Italian nobleman, inventor, soldier, writer and scientist

Raimondo Epifanio (1440–1482), Italian painter of the Renaissance period

Raimondo Feletti (1887–1927), Italian physician and zoologist

Raimondo Franchetti has been the name of more than one Italian Baron

Raimondo Guarini (1765–1852), Italian archaeologist, epigrapher, poet, college president, and teacher

Raimondo Manzini (1901–1988), veteran Catholic journalist, former Christian Democratic member of Italy's Parliament

Raimondo Montecuccoli (1608–1680), Italian military general, prince of the Holy Roman Empire and Neapolitan duke of Melfi

Raimondo Ponte (born 1955), former Swiss-Italian footballer

Raimondo Prinot, Italian luger who competed during the 1960s

Raimondo Spiazzi (1918–2004), Italian Catholic theologian, advisor to Pius XII, and Mariologist

Raimondo Tommaso D'Aronco (1857–1932), Italian architect

Raimondo Viale Don Raimondo Viale (1907–1984), Italian Catholic priest

Raimondo Vianello (1922–2010), Italian film actor, comedian, and television hostSurname:

Gina Raimondo (born 1971), American politician and governor of Rhode Island

Justin Raimondo (born 1951), American author and the editorial director of the website Antiwar

Miguel Ángel Raimondo (born 1943), Argentine football midfielder

Rudolf Montecuccoli

Rudolf, graf Montecuccoli degli Erri (22 February 1843-16 May 1922) was chief of the Austro-Hungarian Navy from 1904 to 1913 and largely responsible for the modernization of the fleet before the First World War.

Siege of Bonn (1673)

The Siege of Bonn took place from 3 to 12 November 1673 in Bonn, Germany, during the Franco-Dutch War. Having forced the armies of Louis XIV to retreat, the Dutch in 1673 went on the offensive. At Bonn, a garrison consisting of troops from France and the Electorate of Cologne was besieged by a force from the Dutch Republic (commanded by stadtholder William III), the Holy Roman Empire (commanded by Raimondo Montecuccoli), and Spain. The allied forces captured the garrison following a nine-day siege.

In 1689 Bonn was again the site of a major siege.

Siege of Toruń (1658)

The Siege of Toruń was one of the battles during the Swedish invasion of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Second Northern War / Deluge). It started on 2 July 1658 and ended on 30 December 1658. Swedish garrison capitulated and Toruń returned to Polish hands.

In mid- September 1657, after the Siege of Krakow (1657), the Holy Roman Empire army of 15,000, allied to the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, marched northwards. In late September, the Austrians concentrated near Plock. Polish King Jan Kazimierz wanted to use them to capture the fortified city of Toruń, but Austrian preparations for the siege were very slow and not completed before winter. Due to weather conditions, all military activities were postponed until spring 1658, and the Austrians spent the winter in Greater Poland.

Polish plans for 1658 were concentrated on gradual recapture of the province of Royal Prussia. First objective was Toruń, a strategically located Vistula river port, with modern fortifications. Due to Dano-Swedish War, most Austrians, under Field Marshal Raimondo Montecuccoli, left Poland and marched to Jutland.

On July 2, 1658, Austrian division of 4,000, under General Jean-Louis Raduit de Souches began the siege of Toruń. The Austrians were reinforced by Polish infantry, while the city was defended by a Swedish garrison of 2,400, commanded by General Barthold Hartwig von Bulow. Swedes were supported by German-speaking, Protestant residents of Toruń.

In the first weeks, Austrian and Polish commandants limited their activities to blocking the city. On July 26, artillery barrage initiated an assault, which resulted in capture of several Swedish strongpoints. On August 1, Krzysztof Grodzicki arrived with 3,000 infantry. Soon afterwards, Jan Fryderyk Sapieha brought 1,000 soldiers, also the division of Stefan Czarniecki (4,000 cavalry) joined the Polish - Austrian forces. Furthermore, Brandenburg-Prussia division under Boguslaw Radziwill, which had switched alliances, cooperated with Poles. The division of Czarniecki remained near Toruń until early September, when it left Poland, marching towards Denmark. On October 12, Czarniecki and his soldiers reached Hamburg.

In September 1658, Polish-Austrian forces were reinforced with a division of Jerzy Lubomirski, and on September 23, Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga arrived to Torun, together with her court. By that time, the Polish army stationed near the city had almost 19,000 soldiers, while Austrian forces numbered 4,600, with 40 cannons. Main assault took place in the night of November 16/17, when Polish-Austrian soldiers captured three bastions, losing 1,000 men. The Swedish garrison finally capitulated on December 30. During the siege, the Swedes lost 1,200 men, while Poles and Austrians lost 1,800 soldiers, including 1,500 Poles.

Szentgotthárd

Szentgotthárd (German: St. Gotthard; Slovene: Monošter) is the westernmost town of Hungary. It is situated on the Rába River near the Austrian border, and is home to much of Hungary's small Slovene ethnic minority.

The town took its name from, and grew up round, the Cistercian Szentgotthárd Abbey, founded here in 1183.

In 1664, it was the site of the Battle of Saint Gotthard, where an Austrian army led by Raimondo Montecuccoli defeated the Ottoman Empire so that the Turks had to agree to the Peace of Vasvár, which held until 1683.

A second Battle of Saint Gotthard in 1705 was a victory for Rákóczi's anti-Habsburg Hungarian rebels.

During World War II, Szentgotthárd was captured by Soviet troops of the 3rd Ukrainian Front on 31 March 1945 in the course of the Vienna Offensive.

The town serves as the cultural centre of the Hungarian Slovenes.

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