Rafinesque's big-eared bat

Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii), sometimes known as the southeastern big-eared bat, is a species of vesper bat native to the southeastern United States.

Rafinesque's big-eared bat
Rafinesque's big-eared bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Corynorhinus
Species:
C. rafinesquii
Binomial name
Corynorhinus rafinesquii
Lesson, 1827
Range map for Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)
Species distribution (in the southeastern United States) based on data from the IUCN.
Synonyms

Plecotus rafinesquii

Description

Rafinesques big-eared bat (5494435840)
A hibernating Rafinesque's big-eared bat in a North Carolina cave.

As its name implies, this species has large ears that are over an inch long. The genus name Corynorhinus means "club-nosed."[2] Similar to the Townsend's big-eared bat, this species has two lumps on either side of its nose. Rafinesque's big eared bat is a medium-sized bat with a length of about 7.5–10 cm (3.0–3.9 in) and a wingspan of 25–30 cm (10–12 in). These bats range in mass from 6–13 g (0.21–0.46 oz).[3] The bat is gray on the dorsal side and white on the underside. The ears and face are a pinkish-brown color while the forearm and wing membrane is dark brown.

Some sources report maximum lifespan as 10 years,[4] although robust data are lacking. More research has been done on the closely related Townsend's big-eared bat and estimates for this species' lifespan range from 16 up to 30 years in the wild.[5]

While uncommon throughout its range, this species is found in a variety of habitats from coastal plains, riparian areas, to mountainous areas like the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. In all cases, these bats are associated with large swathes of relatively mature forest.[1]

Diet

Rafinesque's big-eared bats, like all bats in the southeastern United States, are insectivorous, nocturnal, and locate food primarily by echolocation. They consume a wide range of insects, including mosquitoes, beetles, and flies, although moths make up 90% of the diet. Insects can be caught by gleaning (e.g., from foliage or cave walls) or on the wing (i.e., aerial hawking).[6]

Roosting

Due to seasonality, geographical location, and frequent roost-switching, C. rafinesquii can be found in a variety of locations. Tree roosts may be in living or dead trees but are usually quite large (one study reported average diameter at breast height of tree roosts to be 79 cm with a height of 18.5m).[7] Rafinesque's big-eared bats can also be found in abandoned buildings, under bridges, in wells, and in caves.[8]

Conservation status

While listed as least concern by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (previously listed as vulnerable), Rafinesque's big-eared bats are listed as a Candidate II Species of Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Additionally, it is listed as threatened by state agencies throughout most of its range.[9]

White nose syndrome is a serious disease caused by a fungal pathogen that has devastated several species of bats in the eastern United States. Unlike some other species of bats with which it shares its range, the Rafinesque's big-eared bat does not appear to be affected by the disease. Hypothesized reasons include use of hibernacula that may not provide optimal growing conditions for the causal agent (the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans), relatively frequent arousals from torpor, and/or the usage of shallow bouts of torpor by this species.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Arroyo-Cabrales, J. & Ticul Alvarez Castaneda, S (2008). "Corynorhinus rafinesquii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
  2. ^ Schwartz, Charles Walsh; Schwartz, Elizabeth Reeder (2001). The Wild Mammals of Missouri (2nd ed.). p. 97.
  3. ^ Animal Diversity Web, Reyes, E. (2002) Corynorhinus rafinesquii
  4. ^ Mammalian Species, Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine Jones, C. (1977). No. 69, pp. 1-4 Plecotus rafinesquii
  5. ^ Channel Islands National Park - Townsend's Big-eared Bats, U.S. National Park Service.
  6. ^ [1], Lacki, M.J. and K.M. Ladeur. (2001). Seasonal use of lepidopteran prey by Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii). The American Midland Naturalist 145(1):213-217.
  7. ^ [2], Trousdale, A.W. and D.C. Beckett. (2005). Characteristics of tree roosts of Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in southeastern Mississippi. The American Midland Naturalist 154(2):442-449.
  8. ^ [3], Lance, R.F. et al. (2001). Day-roost selection by Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) in Louisiana forests. Journal of Mammalogy 82(1):166-172.
  9. ^ a b [4], Bat Conservation International and Southeastern Bat Diversity Network. (2013). A conservation strategy for Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) and southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparus). Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX. (specific citations from page 41-43 and page 93)

External links

Andrews Wildlife Management Area

Andrews Wildlife Management Area is located on the Suwannee River, five miles north of Chiefland in Levy County, Florida.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Corynorhinus

The genus Corynorhinus consists of the big-eared bats, or American long-eared bats. Only three species occur in the genus, all occurring in North America. Members of this group were previously in the genus Plecotus, the long-eared bats, and were also then called lump-nosed bats. Populations of these species are generally uncommon and declining. Two subspecies, the Virginia big-eared bat (C. t. virginianus) and the Ozark big-eared bat (C. t. ingens) are federally endangered.

Corynorhinus species are:

Corynorhinus rafinesquii Rafinesque's big-eared bat

Corynorhinus mexicanus Mexican big-eared bat

Corynorhinus townsendii Townsend's big-eared bat

C. t. ingens Ozark big-eared bat (endangered)

C. t. pallescens western big-eared bat

C. t. townsendii Townsend's big-eared bat

C. t. virginianus Virginia big-eared bat (endangered)

D'Arbonne National Wildlife Refuge

D'Arbonne National Wildlife Refuge is a National Wildlife Refuge of the United States located north of West Monroe, Louisiana. It is in Ouachita and Union Parishes on either side of Bayou D'Arbonne near its confluence with the Ouachita River. It lies on the western edge of the Mississippi River alluvial valley. It was established in 1975 to protect bottomland hardwoods and provide wintering habitat for migratory waterfowl. D'Arbonne is one of four refuges managed in the North Louisiana Refuges Complex.

Greenish yellow bat

The greenish yellow bat (Scotophilus viridis) is a species of vesper bat. It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Its natural habitats are dry and moist savanna.

Harlequin bat

The harlequin bat (Scotomanes ornatus) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Scotomanes.

This bat is found in south-eastern Asia from India to China and Vietnam.This is a common and widespread species. It lives in forests and caves and roosts in trees.

Hesperoptenus

Hesperoptenus is a genus of bats within the Vespertilionidae or "Vesper bats" family. Species within this genus are:

Blanford's bat (Hesperoptenus blanfordi)

False serotine bat (Hesperoptenus doriae)

Gaskell's false serotine (Hesperoptenus gaskelli)

Tickell's bat (Hesperoptenus tickelli)

Large false serotine (Hesperoptenus tomesi)

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

List of bats of the United States

Most of the many bat species found in the United States are insectivorous except for three flower eating species that migrate from Mexico.

List of mammals of Missouri

This is a list of known mammals in the US state of Missouri.

List of mammals of Ohio

This list of mammals of Ohio includes a total of 70 mammal species recorded in the state of Ohio. Of these, three (the black bear, Indiana bat, and Allegheny woodrat) are listed as endangered in the state, three (the Norway rat, house mouse, and wild boar) are introduced, two (the gray bat and Mexican free-tailed bat) are considered accidental, and eight (the American bison, elk, cougar, Canada lynx, gray wolf, American marten, marsh rice rat, and southern red-backed vole) have been extirpated from the state.

The following codes are used to designate some species:

(E) - Species listed as endangered in Ohio

(A) - Species considered accidental in Ohio

(Ex) - Species that has been extirpated from Ohio, but can still be found elsewhere

(I) - Species established in Ohio as a result of human intervention

List of mammals of South Carolina

This is a list of mammals that are or were in the past native to South Carolina.

BalaenopteridaeBowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus)

Fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

Humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae)

Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata)

Right whale (Eubalaena glacialis)

Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis)BovidaeBison (Bison bison)CanidaeCoyote (Canis latrans)

Fox

Grey fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus)

Red fox (Vulpes vulpes)

Wolf

Gray wolf (Canis lupus)

Red wolf (Canis rufus)CervidaeElk (Cervus elaphus)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus)DasypodidaeNine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus)DelphinidaeAntillean beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus)

Atlantic pilot whale (Globicephala melaena)

Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontails)

Common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)

Dense-beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)

False killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens)

Grampus (Grampus griseus)

Pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata)

Rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanenis)

Saddleback dolphin (Delphinus delphis)

Short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrohyncha)

Spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris)

Striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba)

True's beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus)DidelphimorphiaVirginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana)EquidaeHorse (Equus caballus)EschrichtiidaeGray whale (Eschrichtius robustus)FelidaeBobcat (Lynx rufus)

Mountain lion (Puma concolor)LeporidaeEastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus)

Marsh rabbit (Sylvilagus palustris)

New England cottontail (Sylvilagus transitionalis)

Swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus)MephitidaeSpotted skunk (Spilogal putorius)

Striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)MolossidaeBrazilian free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis)MuridaeBlack rat (Rattus rattus)

Cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus)

Deer mouse (Peromyscuc maniculatus)

Eastern harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys humulis)

Eastern woodrat (Neotoma Floridana)

Golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli)

Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus)

House mouse (Mus musculus)

Meadow vole (Microtus pennsylvanicus)

Muskrat (Ondatra zibethiscus)

Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus)

Oldfield mouse (Peromyscus polionotus)

Pine vole (Microtus pinetorum)

Red-backed vole (Clethrionomys gapperi)

Rice rat (Oryzomys palustris)

White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus)MustelidaeLeast weasel (Mustela nivalis)

Long-tailed weasel (Mustela frenata)

Mink (Mustela vison)

North American river otter (Lutra canadensis)PhocidaeHarbor seal (Phoca vitulina)

Hooded seal (Cystophora cristata)PhocoenidaeHarbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)PhyseteridaeDwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus)

Pygmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps)

Sperm whale (Physeter catodon)ProcyonidaeRaccoon (Procyon lotor)SciuridaeEastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus)

Grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

Least shrew (Cryptotis parva)

Masked shrew (Sorex cinereus)

Southern short-tailed shrew (Blarina carolinensis)SoricidaeAmerican pygmy shrew (Microsorex hoyi)

Red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)

Short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda)

Smoky shrew (Sorex fumeus)

Southeastern shrew (Sorex longirostris)

Southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans)

Woodchuck (Marmota monax)SuidaeWild boar (Sus scrofa)TalpidaeEastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus)

Hairy-tailed mole (Parascalops breweri)

Star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata)TrichechidaeManatee (Trichechus manatus)UrsidaeBlack bear (Ursus americanus)VespertilionidaeBig brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus)

Eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis)

Eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii)

Evening bat (Nycticeius humeralis)

Hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus)

Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis)

Little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus)

Northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis)

Northern yellow bat (Lasiurus intermedius)

Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Plecotus rafinesqueii)

Seminole bat (Lasiurus seminolus)

Silver-haired bat (Lasionycteris noctivagans)

Southeastern myotis (Myotis austroriparius)ZapodidaeMeadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius)

Woodland jumping mouse (Napaeozapus insignis)ZiphiidaeGoosebeaked whale (Ziphius carvirostris)

Rendall's serotine

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna, moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

It is threatened by habitat loss.

Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge

Sauta Cave National Wildlife Refuge is a 264-acre (107 ha) National Wildlife Refuge located in northeastern Alabama, near the Sauty Creek embayment of Guntersville Lake.

More than 5,000 visitors per year visit the refuge. The facility is unstaffed, but is administered by the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge in Decatur, Alabama. The cave itself is closed to the public.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

U.S. state bats

As of February, 2011, at least three US states had an official bat. The general assembly of North Carolina considered a bill in 2007 that would have made Rafinesque's big-eared bat its state bat. The bill passed 92–15, but died in the state senate.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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