Rafael Sánchez Mazas

Rafael Sánchez Mazas (February 18, 1894 – October 1966) was a Spanish nationalist writer and a leader of the Falange, a right-wing political movement created in Spain before the Spanish Civil War.

Sánchez Mazas received a law degree at the Real Colegio de Estudios Superiores de María Cristina, El Escorial and in 1915 published Pequeñas memorias de Tarín. He then wrote for the magazine Hermes and the newspapers ABC, El Sol and El Pueblo Vasco. His work brought him to Morocco in 1921 (for El Pueblo Vasco) and Rome in 1922 (for ABC). He lived in Italy for seven years and married Liliana Ferlosio. While there he identified with the developing fascist movement.

Returning to Spain in 1929, he became an advisor for José Antonio Primo de Rivera, the main ideologist of the Falange. In 1933, he helped to create the weekly newspaper El Fascio, which was banned by the authorities after its second issue was published.

After the creation of Falange Española on October 29, 1933, Sánchez Mazas was appointed a member of the Council, and he remained an active member up until the breakout of the Civil War (July 1936-April 1939). In February 1934, he wrote Oración por los muertos de Falange. He also co-wrote Cara al Sol, the anthem of Falange Española.

Sánchez Mazas was arrested and imprisoned in Madrid in March 1936, as the Falange was outlawed. He was given a short leave on the occasion of the birth of his fourth son, but he failed to report back and instead took up political asylum at the Chilean Embassy in Madrid. In 1937 he attempted to flee the country, but was arrested in Barcelona in November. Confined in the prison-ship Uruguay until January 24, 1939, he was taken for execution with about fifty other inmates to the Monastery of Santa Maria del Collell in Girona.

The execution was carried out on January 30, but as the squad fired at the prisoners Sánchez Mazas leapt out of the group and escaped into the forest. A manhunt was organised and he was found hiding under some bushes shortly after. However, the Republican soldier who found him decided not to report him and spared his life. After a few days he joined the Nationalist lines.

Rafael Sánchez Mazas en una delegacion franquista enviada a Roma en 1939
Rafael Sánchez Mazas in 1939.

In the Francoist State

As one of the camisas viejas (literally "old shirts", referring to Falangists from before the Civil War), Sánchez Mazas was appointed to Franco's cabinet of August 8, 1939, as a minister without portfolio and vice-president of the Junta Política.[1]

When Spanish troops occupied internationally administered Tangier in June 1940, Sánchez Mazas made a speech stressing the Spanish character of the city. His addition of nationalist rhetoric to an already politically delicate situation earned him a severe dressing down from Franco's brother-in-law and fellow minister, Ramón Serrano Suñer, who later claimed to have been so angry that he tried to punch Sánchez Mazas in the face.[2]

In 1940 he was appointed a member of the Real Academia Española but failed to attend his inauguration ceremony.

His life story inspired Javier Cercas to write Soldados de Salamina, a novel published in 2001. A movie of the same name was directed by David Trueba. His sons Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio and Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio and his grandson Máximo Pradera are known artists.


  1. ^ Payne, S.G. The Franco Regime, 1936–1975. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 1987. p 238.
  2. ^ Payne 1987, p. 268 & note 8.
Art and culture in Francoist Spain

You have to impose, in short, the order of culture, the essential ideas that have inspired our glorious movement, which combine the purest lessons of universal and Catholic tradition with the demands of modernity

Art and culture in Francoist Spain is a historiographic term, with little use beyond the chronological placement of artists and cultural events, or political identification. The term is used generically, without involving ideological or aesthetic evaluation of the entire art and culture of Francoist Spain (1939–1975), which would only be suitable for art and culture more identified with the Franco regime, where other expressions are sometimes used: 'Fascist art and culture in Spain', 'Falangist art and culture', or 'nationalist-catholic (nacional-católica) art and culture', and so forth. The terms 'Spanish Fascist art', 'Fascist Spanish painting', 'Spanish fascist sculpture', 'Spanish fascist architecture', 'Spanish fascist culture', 'Spanish fascist literature', and so on, are infrequently used, but there are examples, as in the writing of Spanish historian Julio Rodriguez-Puértolas. Such terms have a wide application, which can be restricted to cultural products more identified with Spanish Falangism and the azul (blue) familias del franquismo (organizations affiliated with Francoism), although very often these more specific terms are generalized, to cover all of the art identified as "nacional" ('national') in Francoist Spain.

Cara al Sol

Cara al Sol (English: Facing the Sun) is the anthem of the Falange Española de las JONS. The lyrics were written in December 1935 and are usually credited to the leader of the Falange, José Antonio Primo de Rivera. The music was composed by Juan Tellería and Juan R. Buendia.

The circumstances of its creation are unusual. The Falangists needed a stirring song of their own to counter the popular appeal of El Himno de Riego (the official anthem of the Second Spanish Republic) and A las barricadas (a very popular Anarchist song).

To solve the problem, Primo de Rivera formed a committee [1], meeting on 2 December 1935 in the home of Marichu de la Mora Maura. Those present included José María Alfaro, Rafael Sánchez Mazas, Agustín (Así) de Foxá, Mourlane Michelena, Dionisio Ridruejo, Agustín Aznar, and Luis Aguilar. The result of their efforts, following a period of sub-committee review (at the Cueva del Orkompon, a Basque bar in Calle Miguel Moya, Madrid) was provisionally entitled the Himno de Falange Española. It was first performed in Madrid in 1936.

Its popularity was boosted by Primo de Rivera's execution on 20 November 1936 and his subsequent glorification by the Spanish Nationalists.

During the Spanish Civil War the Falange, which was since its inception quite military or paramilitary, like other equivalent youth parties in countries under totalitarian regimes, became an important part of the National Army (or National Movement), both ideologically and militarily, still as an independent organization but strengthening the regular insurgent army in the combat lines, which caused plenty of Falangist casualties, and Cara al sol was their anthem throughout "the war days", the lyrics acquiring an even more special signification for its remembering of the "fallen comrades".

In Francoist Spain, the Falange was merged with other far-right groups to form the "Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS", the only legal political party. Cara al Sol became an official hymn together with the Oriamendi, the hymn of the Carlist movement, often played alongside the official anthem, the Marcha Real, and was regarded as the battle song of the Spanish far right.

Since the transition to democracy, the song has often been played at far-right gatherings and rallies.

Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio

José Antonio Julio Onésimo Sánchez Ferlosio, better known as Chicho Sánchez Ferlosio (Madrid, April 8, 1940 - July 1, 2003), was a Spanish singer-songwriter, and the author of numerous songs performed by other artists, such as Rolando Alarcón, Joan Baez, Soledad Bravo, Víctor Jara, Quilapayún and Joaquín Sabina.

He was the son of the writer and founding member of the Falange, Rafael Sánchez Mazas, brother of the writer Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio and the mathematician and philosopher Miguel Sánchez Ferlosio.

Falange Española de las JONS

The Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FE de las JONS) (English: Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National Syndicalist Offensive) was a fascist political party founded in 1934 as a merger of the Falange Española and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista. The Falange Española de las JONS ceased to exist as such when, during the Civil War, General Francisco Franco merged it with the Traditionalist Communion in April 1937 to form the similarly named Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, which became the sole legal party in Spain until its dissolution in 1977.


Falangism (Spanish: falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards, of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries. Under the leadership of Francisco Franco, it largely became an authoritarian, conservative ideology connected with Francoist Spain.Opponents of Franco's changes to the party included former Falange leader Manuel Hedilla. Falangism places a strong emphasis on Catholic religious identity, though it has held some secular views on the Church's direct influence in society as it believed that the state should have the supreme authority over the nation. Falangism emphasized the need for total authority, hierarchy and order in society. Falangism is anti-communist, anti-democratic and anti-liberal; under Franco, the Falange abandoned its original anti-capitalist tendencies, declaring the ideology to be fully compatible with capitalism.The Falange's original manifesto, the "Twenty-Seven Points", declared Falangism to support the unity of Spain and the elimination of regional separatism, the establishment of a dictatorship led by the Falange, utilizing violence to regenerate Spain, and promoting the revival and development of the Spanish Empire. The manifesto supported a social revolution to create a national syndicalist economy that creates national syndicates of both employees and employers to mutually organize and control the economic activity, agrarian reform, industrial expansion and respect for private property with the exception of nationalizing credit facilities to prevent capitalist usury. It supports criminalization of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers as illegal acts. Falangism supports the state to have jurisdiction of setting wages. The Franco-era Falange supported the development of cooperatives such as the Mondragon Corporation because it bolstered the Francoist claim of the nonexistence of social classes in Spain during his rule.The Spanish Falange and its affiliates in Hispanic states across the world promoted a form of panhispanism known as hispanidad that advocated both cultural and economic union of Hispanic societies around the world.Falangism has attacked both the political left and the right as its "enemies", declaring itself to be neither left nor right, but a syncretic third position. However, scholarly sources reviewing Falangism place it on the far right.

List of members of the Real Academia Española

This article provides a list of all full members (académicos de número), past and present, of the Real Academia Española, the Spanish language regulator institution, as of July 1, 2006. Each member is elected for life by the rest of the academicians from among prestigious Spanish-language authors. Each academician has a seat assigned, labelled with a letter of the Spanish alphabet (distinguishing upper case and lower case).

List of people from the Basque Country

This is a list of notable Basque people. For this purpose, people considered are those hailing from the extended Basque Country (includes the Basque Autonomous Community, the French Basque Country and Navarre).

In particular

born or resident in the Basque Country, unless self-identifying as not Basque (e.g. people self-identifying as Spanish or French rather than Basque.)

people born outside the Basque Country of Basque ancestry that either speak Basque or self-identify as being of Basque stock.This list does not contain people outside the Basque Country who happen to have one or more Basque surnames. For people of Basque ancestry in general, please see People with Basque ancestors.

List of people of the Spanish Civil War

This is a list of notable people associated with the Spanish Civil War.


Mazas is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

Jacques Féréol Mazas (1782–1849), French violinist

Rafael Sánchez Mazas (1894–1966), Spanish writer and member of Franco's Falange movement

Melchor Rodríguez García

Melchor Rodríguez García (also known as El Ángel Rojo - Red Angel; 1893, —February 14, 1972), was a Spanish politician, a notable anarcho-syndicalist, and the head of prison authorities in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. Paul Preston in his book "The Spanish Holocaust" describes Melchor Rodríguez García as having been a bullfighter until he was gored. No details are given. He was the last Mayor of Madrid before the francoist forces took over the city.

Pedrito de Andía's New Life

Pedrito de Andía's New Life (Spanish:La vida nueva de Pedrito de Andía) is a 1965 Spanish film directed by Rafael Gil and starring Joselito, Karin Mossberg and Carmen Bernardos.

Rafael Sánchez

Rafael Sánchez may refer to:

Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio, Spanish writer

Rafael Sánchez Guerra, president of Real Madrid from 1935 to 1939

Rafael Sánchez Mazas, founder and leader of Falange, a former Spanish political party

Rafael Sánchez Navarro, Spanish-Mexican actor

Rafael Molina Sánchez, Spanish bullfighter

Luis Rafael Sánchez, Puerto Rican playwright

Rafael Sánchez (wrestler), Dominican wrestler

Rafael Sánchez (footballer) (born 1998), Venezuelan footballer

Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio

Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio (4 December 1927 – 1 April 2019) was a Spanish writer. In 2004 he was awarded the Premio Cervantes for his literary oeuvre.He was married to fellow writer Carmen Martín Gaite.

Ricardo Zamora

Ricardo Zamora Martínez (Spanish pronunciation: [riˈkaɾðo θaˈmoɾa maɾˈtineθ]; 14 February 1901 – 8 September 1978) was a Spanish footballer and manager. He played as a goalkeeper for, among others, RCD Espanyol, FC Barcelona and Real Madrid. As an international he played for both the Catalan XI and Spain. As a manager, he won two La Liga titles with Atlético Aviación and briefly managed Spain.

Zamora, nicknamed El Divino, was noted for wearing a cloth cap and a white polo-neck jumper on the field, a look later copied by several of his contemporaries. He claimed it was to protect him from both the sun and his opponents. As a goalkeeper, he was primarily known for his athleticism, quick reflexes, shot-stopping abilities, and bravery in goal. In 1929 while playing for Spain against England, he carried on playing despite breaking his sternum. Spain won the game 4–3, becoming the first team from outside the British Isles to defeat England. Zamora is also remembered for a spectacular last minute save he made in the 1936 Copa del Presidente de la República Final while playing for Real Madrid against FC Barcelona. Regarded as one of the greatest goalkeepers of his generation, along with Gianpiero Combi and František Plánička, as well as one of the greatest of all time, in 1999, the IFFHS elected him the best Spanish goalkeeper – as well as the fourth best in Europe and fifth best overall – of the twentieth century; in the same year, he was voted one of the greatest players of the 20th century by World Soccer magazine. The award for the best goalkeeper in La Liga, the Ricardo Zamora Trophy, is named in his honour. Zamora was also Spain's most capped player for 45 years until being surpassed by José Ángel Iribar.Zamora was also the subject of controversy throughout his career. He allegedly enjoyed drinking Cognac and smoking up to three packs of cigarettes a day. During the 1920 Olympic Games he was sent off against Italy after punching an opponent and on the way back from the same tournament he was arrested, imprisoned and fined for attempting to smuggle Havana cigars. In 1922 he was suspended for a year when he lied to the tax authorities about the signing on fee he received when he returned to RCD Espanyol. He also received 40,000 pesetas of the 150,000 peseta fee that took him from Espanyol to Real Madrid.Zamora's apparent political allegiances were also the subject of debate and controversy. Despite playing regularly for the Catalan XI, he was accused of rejecting Catalan nationalism. In 1934 he was awarded an Order of the Republic medal by his namesake Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, president of the Second Spanish Republic, but during the Spanish Civil War he was exploited by Nationalist propagandists and he played in a benefit game for their cause. During the 1950s he was awarded the Great Cross of the Order of Cisneros by Franco.He died in 1978 and is interred in the Montjuïc Cemetery in Barcelona.

Signos Magazine

Signos Magazine was a Spanish magazine of poetry founded 1986 by Leopoldo Alas Minguez, Luis Cremades, Mario Miguez and Daniel Garbade. Edited first by Ediciones Libertarias and later El Observatorio, it was directed by Leopoldo Alas. After its closure in 1992, Signos turned into an editorial for contemporary Spanish poetry.

Soldiers of Salamina (film)

The Soldiers of Salamis (Spanish: Soldados de Salamina) is a 2003 Spanish film directed by David Trueba, based on the book by Javier Cercas. Starring Ariadna Gil and Ramón Fontserè, the film was nominated for eight Goya Awards in 2004, and won the award for Best Cinematography. It was also screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 2003 Cannes Film Festival. The exteriors of the film were shot in Girona, (Spain).

Soldiers of Salamis

Soldiers of Salamis (Spanish: Soldados de Salamina) is a novel about the Spanish Civil War published in 2001 by Spanish author Javier Cercas. The book was acclaimed by critics in Spain and was top of the best-seller book list there for many months. A film adaptation Soldados de Salamina was released in 2003. The English translation by Anne McLean won the Independent Foreign Fiction Prize for 2004.

Spain during World War II

The Spanish State under Francisco Franco did not officially join the Axis Powers during World War II, although Franco wrote to Hitler offering to join the war on 19 June 1940. Franco's regime supplied Germany with the Blue Division to fight specifically on the Eastern Front against the Soviet Union, in recognition of the heavy assistance Spain had received from Germany and Italy in the Spanish Civil War. Despite ideological sympathy and allowing volunteers to serve on the Eastern Front, Franco later stationed field armies in the Pyrenees to deter a German occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. The Spanish policy frustrated Axis proposals that would have encouraged Franco to take British-controlled Gibraltar. Franco considered joining the war and invading Gibraltar in 1940 after the Fall of France, but knew his armed forces would not be able to defend the Canary Islands and Spanish Morocco from a British attack.

Tangier International Zone

The Tangier International Zone (Arabic: منطقة طنجة الدولية‎ Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya, French: Zone Internationale de Tanger, Spanish: Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a 373-square-kilometre (144 sq mi) international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.

The zone was governed in accordance with the Tangier Protocol, although the Sultan of Morocco retained nominal sovereignty over the zone and jurisdiction over the native population.The international zone of Tangier had, by 1939, a population of about 60,000 inhabitants and 150,000 by 1950.

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