Radio National broadcasts national programming in subjects that include news and current affairs, the arts, social issues, science, drama and comedy. Some programs are relayed on Radio Australia, the ABC's international international broadcasting service which was transmitted on shortwave until January 2017.
Radio National currently has 327 transmitter sites and covers over 98% of the permanently inhabited areas of Australia. Remote areas are served by satellite service.
All radio programs are available for live streaming over the Internet, and most (excluding drama, poetry and music) as audio-on-demand, or for download as MP3s for at least four weeks after broadcast. Some programs are available as MP3s going back to 2005, when Radio National commenced podcasting.
|ABC Radio National|
|Frequency||Various (FM and AM), DAB+, online|
|First air date||5 December 1923|
|Callsign meaning||RN - Radio National|
|Owner||Australian Broadcasting Corporation|
|Sister stations||ABC Classic FM, ABC Local Radio, ABC NewsRadio, Triple J|
From 1928, the National Broadcasting Service, as part of the federal Postmaster-General's Department, gradually took over responsibility for all the existing stations that were sponsored by public licence fees ("A" Class licences). The outsourced Australian Broadcasting Company supplied programs from 1929. In 1932 a commission was established, merging the original ABC company and the National Broadcasting Service. It is from this time that Radio National dates as a distinct network within the ABC, in which a system of program relays was developed during the subsequent decades to link stations spread across the nation.
Radio National's Sydney station 2FC first test broadcast on 5 December 1923 and officially went to air on 9 January 1924. 2FC stood for Farmer and Company, the original owner of the station before the ABC took it over.
The origins of the other stations in the network were:
The first transmitters for 2FC, 5CL and 4QG were made by AWA with power of 5 kW (note that until about 1931 in Australia, transmitter powers were defined in terms of DC input to final amplifier, typically about 3 times that of the power into the antenna; thus power today would be stated as about 1.7 kW). They used a MT7A valve for the final high power RF stage and a MT7B for the modulator. The power supply was 12,000 volts from three phase power rectified by MR7 valves. Note also that 4QG commenced with a 500 Watt transmitter which continued for about 6 months until the 5 kW unit was commissioned.
The radio transmitters for 3AR and 2FC were upgraded to 10 kW in a contract let in 1938 to STC. The transmitters were designed by Charles Strong in London, and were notable in using negative feedback to ensure a high quality flat frequency response.
From 1947 until the mid-1980s, "Radio 2" (as it came to be known) was broadcast to the major metropolitan centres, with a large broadcast footprint in adjacent areas due to the powerful AM transmitters in use. It contained most of the ABC's national programming.
The power level of 2FC and 3AR was upgraded to 50 kW in the early 1950s. The transmitters for these were housed in the same building as the radio 1 network. They were manufactured by STC. The final stage contained three parallel 3J/261E air cooled triodes running in class C amplifier at 90% efficiency. These were driven by a class B push-pull modulator with the same type of valves. That of 5CL had to wait until late 1961, when a new joint facility with 5AN was opened at Pimpala.
In the 1970s, the network's program format began to take on a more serious tone, a style which continues to this day. Art critic Peter Timm later remarked that the network is "virtually the only non-print media forum for art in this country."
In the early 1980s the broadcast footprint was extended with the construction of the first of over 300 regional FM transmitters (including community re-broadcast sites). In 1985, the ABC renamed "Radio 2" as "Radio National".
Since 1990, all Radio National stations have had the same callsign format, Radio National preceded by the appropriate number for the state or territory, sometimes followed by the locality (e.g., "2RN Sydney", "3RN Melbourne").
As a result of cuts in the 1996–97 budget, Radio National was hit with a reduction of a million dollars in its funding, with a significant impact on programming.
In January 2012 Radio National was rebranded as RN, partly in recognition of the stations growing digital audience. RN has also been used as shorthand for the station's name by many presenters going back several years. The stations tagline, which has changed regularly over the years, was also changed to "Your World Unfolding" to mesh with the station's new logo and visual identity.
In January 2017 the schedule has been reduced in scope due to loss of staff and programmes.
The times shown relate to Radio National's schedules in the eastern states of Australia. Pre-recorded shows are broadcast on time delay in the centre and west.
Full program guides for all regions are published on the RN website.
Cancelled -in part replaced by Blueprint for Living
Radio National's religion unit provides reporting and analysis on religious and ethical issues for Australia. Following its ABC charter obligations, this unit forms a key part of the ABC's religion output, and is unique in providing the independent analysis of a public broadcaster.
In 2008, controversial programming changes once more raised the issue of funding cuts to the public broadcaster. Presenter Stephen Crittenden leaked confidential Radio National programming changes in an unscheduled live broadcast before the start of his show, vehemently criticising his superiors.
Stephen Crittenden was suspended for his outburst, amid criticism from some colleagues for his unprofessionalism and praise from others for his outspokeness. His unscripted comments were cut from Radio National's podcast and transcript of the program, but the subsequent comment by religious commentator Paul Collins on crikey.com reiterated Crittenden's fears. Crittenden was eventually reinstated as a reporter in the flagship investigative program Background Briefing after an independent investigation resulted in a confidential settlement with the presenter. However his program, and the other eight cancelled or merged were not re-instated that year. The head of ABC Radio Sue Howard was dismissed in 2009, partly for the perception that the controversy was mishandled.
In 2012 a new Religion and Ethics report was re-launched hosted by Andrew West. The Media Report was also relaunched, hosted by broadcaster and former Life Matters host Richard Aedy. The Media Report was however cancelled again in 2015.
1233 ABC Newcastle (call sign: 2NC) is an Australian radio station. It is the Newcastle station of the ABC local radio network, and is licensed to, and serving Newcastle and surrounding areas. It operates on the AM band at 1233 kilohertz. Formerly known by its callsign 2NC, the NC in the callsign is short for Newcastle, while the 2 represents the state of New South Wales. The station was established in 1930.ABC Classic
ABC Classic is a classical music radio station available in Australia and internationally. Its website features classical music news, features and listening guides. It is operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC).ABC Local Radio
ABC Local Radio is a network of publicly owned radio stations in Australia, operated by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
ABC Local Radio stations broadcast across the continent using terrestrial transmitters and satellites. Its programming consists of news, current affairs, talkback, entertainment, sport, music and local affairs. They are usually reckoned as the flagship ABC radio stations in their areas.
Depending on the time of day and the day of the week, programming can either be purely local (typically on weekday mornings), broadcast from the state or territory capital city ABC station, or simulcast across all ABC Local Radio services across the country (typically overnight, public holidays, in the summer months and on weekends).ABC News (Australia)
ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. The division is responsible for all news-gathering and production of news output for ABC television, radio and online services. Although the ABC is owned and funded by the Australian Government, the editorial independence of the ABC is ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983.The ABC News TV channel is Australia's first free-to-air 24 hour news channel. Three flagship radio news programs – AM, The World Today, and PM – are broadcast over various ABC radio outlets. The division also produces ABC NewsRadio, Australia's only 24-hour continuous news radio channel, as well as producing hourly radio news bulletins and programmes on ABC Local Radio, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, and Triple J.ABC News and Current Affairs
ABC News and Current Affairs is the division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) that controls content classified as news, public affairs and business and finance.
However, the other divisions of the ABC also produce a range of programming within these genres. All such content is covered here.ABC Radio Canberra
ABC Radio Canberra (call sign: 2CN) is an ABC Local Radio station based in Canberra and broadcasting to the Australian Capital Territory as well as surrounding areas in New South Wales – this includes the cities and towns of Queanbeyan, Yass, and Bungendore.
The station began as 2CN in 1953 originally broadcasting on 1540 kHz and from 21 December 1974 at 1440 kHz. On 6 December 1983, it changed to its current AM frequency of 666 kHz. The station first broadcast from studios based at the transmitter site at Gungahlin. In 1957, the station was relocated to the centre of Canberra, before finally moving to purpose-built studios in Dickson in 1964.
ABC Radio announced digital radio services in Canberra, the simulcast of 666 ABC Canberra, ABC Radio National, ABC Classic FM, ABC News Radio and triple j launched in 2011.When local programs are not being broadcast the station is a relay of ABC Radio Sydney.ABC Radio Melbourne
ABC Radio Melbourne is an ABC Local Radio station in Melbourne, Australia. Originally known by its callsign 3LO, it began transmission on 13 October 1924 – Melbourne's second radio station after 3AR.
Most Local Radio stations in Victoria simulcast ABC Radio Melbourne's programming when not airing local shows for their areas.ABC Radio Sydney
ABC Radio Sydney (official call sign: 2BL) is an ABC radio station in Sydney, Australia. It is the flagship station in the ABC Local Radio network and broadcasts on 702 kHz on the AM dial. The station transmits with a power (CMF) of 3,110V, which is equivalent to 50 kW (the maximum permissible in Australia) from a site 30 kilometres west of the Sydney CBD.ABC Radio and Regional Content
ABC Radio and Regional Content is the division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for radio output and regional content.Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's national broadcaster founded in 1929. It is currently principally funded by direct grants from the Australian government, but is expressly independent of Government and politics. The ABC plays a leading role in journalistic independence and is fundamental in the history of broadcasting in Australia.
Modelled on the BBC in the United Kingdom, it was originally financed by consumer licence fees on broadcasting receivers. Licence fees were abolished in 1973 and replaced principally by direct government grants, as well as revenue from commercial activities related to its core broadcasting mission.
The ABC now provides television, radio, online and mobile services throughout metropolitan and regional Australia and overseas through ABC Australia and Radio Australia. The ABC headquarters is in Ultimo, an inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales.List of ABC radio stations
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) operates 46 local radio stations, in addition to four national networks and international service Radio Australia. In addition, DiG Radio launched on digital platforms in 2002, currently offering three separate stations.List of radio stations in Australia
This is a list of radio stations that broadcast in Australia.
The first digit of the callsign represents the state or territory: 1 – ACT, 2 – NSW and ACT, 3 – VIC, 4 – QLD, 5 – SA, 6 – WA, 7 – TAS, 8 – NT.Myanmar Radio and Television
Myanmar Radio and Television (Burmese: မြန်မာ့အသံနှင့်ရုပ်မြင်သံကြား, abbreviated MRTV), formerly the Burma Broadcasting Service (BBS), is the parent of state-run Myanmar Radio National Service, and a television channel. The television channels are broadcast from its broadcast centre in Kamayut, Yangon. The radio service is now broadcast primarily from Naypyidaw.News magazine
A news magazine is a typed, printed, and published piece of paper, magazine or a radio or television program, usually published weekly, consisting of articles about current events. News magazines generally discuss stories, in greater depth than do newspapers or newscasts, and aim to give the consumer an understanding of the important events beyond the basic facts.PM (Australian radio program)
PM is one of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's flagship current-affairs radio programs, and is one of Australia's longest-running productions.
It is the sister program to AM. It was first heard 7 July 1969 and is currently hosted by Linda Mottram and broadcast on ABC Radio National and ABC Local Radio.Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra
The Polish Radio Symphony Orchestra has a similar name but is separate.
Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra (NOSPR), is one of Poland's premier musical institutions. It was founded in 1935 in Warsaw. In 1945 the orchestra was re-established in Katowice and since 2006 it has become a 'National Cultural Institution'.Radio documentary
Radio documentary is a spoken word radio format devoted to non-fiction narrative. It is broadcast on radio as well as distributed through media such as tape, CD, and podcast. A radio documentary, or feature, covers a topic in depth from one or more perspectives, often featuring interviews, commentary, and sound pictures. A radio feature may include original music compositions and creative sound design or can resemble traditional journalistic radio reporting, but covering an issue in greater depth.Ramona Koval
Ramona Koval (born 1954, Melbourne) is an Australian broadcaster, writer and journalist.
Her parents were Yiddish-speaking survivors of The Holocaust who arrived in Melbourne from Poland in 1950.
Koval is known for her extended and in-depth interviews with significant writers. She has had a long and varied career on air in Australia on Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) Radio. She was presenter of the Radio National Drive program and the morning presenter on Melbourne's 3LO (now 774 ABC Melbourne) through the late 1980s and early 1990s and became a fixture in the literary world after joining Radio National's Books and Writing in 1994. Koval presented The Book Show, introduced by Radio National in 2006 to consolidate its various book programs. The Book Show was the world's only daily radio program devoted to the books, writing and publishing.
She left the ABC in October 2011 to pursue her own writing.
She was appointed Honorary Fellow at the Centre for Advancing Journalism, University of Melbourne in January 2015.TV Tonight
TV Tonight is an Australian-based website which features reviews, news and programming information related to television in Australia as well as OzTAM ratings information. As of July 2018, the site places 1,388 in the Australian Alexa ranking system and 78,077 worldwide.The site was started by television critic David Knox in 2007 after listeners of his radio programs asked him for information they had missed. Knox runs the site, publishing his interviews with Australian media actors, producers, directors and programmers. Knox regularly visits the sets of Australian television series and reviews television programs.Knox also served as television critic for Radio National's breakfast program from 2009 to 2015. Dan Barrett is now in this role. Knox has an advanced diploma in screenwriting and was the founding Artistic Director of Screenplay.TV Tonight is also referenced in Australian media, including The Sydney Morning Herald and news.com.au, while Knox gives commentary for other media outlets including News Corp Australia, MediaWeek and ABC.The website began a campaign to include more female Logie Award Hall of Fame inductees. A year after the campaign, the event's second female inductee was admitted in Noni Hazlehurst at the 2016 ceremony.