Raden Saleh

Raden Saleh Sjarif Boestaman (Arabic: رادين صالح شريف بوستامنRādīn Ṣāliḥ Šarīf Būstāman, Javanese: ꦫꦢꦺꦤ꧀ꦱꦭꦺꦃꦯ꦳ꦫꦶꦥ꦳꧀ꦨꦸꦱ꧀ꦠꦩꦤ꧀; EYD, EBI: Raden Saleh Syarif Bustaman; 1807 – 23 April 1880)[1][2] was a pioneering Indonesian Romantic painter of Arab-Javanese ethnicity. He was considered to be the first "modern" artist from Indonesia (then Dutch East Indies), and his paintings corresponded with nineteenth-century romanticism which was popular in Europe at the time. He also expressed his cultural roots and inventiveness in his work.

Raden Saleh Syarif Bustaman
ꦫꦢꦺꦤ꧀ꦱꦭꦺꦃꦯ꦳ꦫꦶꦥ꦳꧀ꦨꦸꦱ꧀ꦠꦩꦤ꧀
رادين صالح شريف بوستامن
Portrait of Raden Saleh c. 1872
Raden Saleh in c. 1872
Born
Saleh Sjarif Boestaman

1807
Died23 April 1880
Known forPainting, drawing
Notable work
The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro, Deer Hunt, View of Erupting Mount Merapi
MovementRomanticism

Early life

Raden Saleh Syarif Bustaman was born in 1807 in Semarang on the island of Java in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). He was born into a noble Hadhrami family where his father was Sayyid Husen bin Alwi bin Awal bin Yahya, an Indonesian of Arab descent. He was the grandson of Sayyid Abdullah Bustaman maternally.[3] Raden Saleh was connected to Habib Ali Kwitang through his sister, Roqayah, who was married to Ali Kwitang's father Abdurrahman but had no children.

Travel to Europe

Raden Saleh
Raden Saleh, c. 1840, credited to Friedrich Carl Albert Schreuel

Young Raden Saleh was first taught in Bogor by the Belgian artist A.J. Payen. Payen acknowledged the youth's talent, and persuaded the colonial government of the Netherlands to send Raden Saleh to the Netherlands to study art. He arrived in Europe in 1829 and began to study under Cornelius Kruseman and Andreas Schelfhout.

It was from Kruseman that Raden Saleh studied his skills in portraiture, and later was accepted at various European courts where he was assigned to do portraits. While in Europe, in 1836 Saleh became the first indigenous Indonesian to be initiated into Freemasonry. From 1839, he spent five years at the court of Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, who became an important patron.[4]

From Schelfhout, Raden Saleh furthered his skills as a landscape painter. Raden Saleh visited several European cities, as well as Algiers. In The Hague, a lion tamer allowed Raden Saleh to study his lion, and from that his most famous painting of animal fights was created, which subsequently brought fame to the artist. Many of his paintings were exhibited at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Several of his paintings were destroyed when the Colonial Dutch pavilion in Paris was burnt in 1931.

Return to Dutch East Indies

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Het huis van de kunstschilder Raden Saleh door hemzelf gebouwd. TMnr 60005156
Photograph of Raden Saleh's house in Cikini in c. 1875–1885
COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Portret van de kunstschilder Raden Saleh. TMnr 60005151
Raden Saleh in 1872

Raden Saleh returned to Dutch East Indies in 1852,[5]:26 after living in Europe for 20 years. He worked as conservator for the colonial collection of government art and continued painting portraits of the Javanese aristocracy, and many more landscape paintings. Returning to Java, he expressed his uneasiness of living in the colonies, stating that "here, people only talks about coffee and sugar, then sugar and coffee" in one of his letters.[5]:31

Upon returning, Saleh built a house in Cikini (now Cikini Hospital), based on the Callenberg Castle where he had stayed during his European travels c. 1844. Surrounded by vast grounds, most of them were converted into public gardens in 1862, and were closed in the turn of the century. In 1960, the Taman Ismail Marzuki was built in the former gardens. The house itself is still used today as a hospital.[5]:26

He married a young aristocratic woman of Yogyakarta Sultanate, Raden Ayu Danudirdja, in 1867 and subsequently moved to Bogor, where he rented a house near the Bogor Botanical Gardens with a view of Mount Salak. He later took his wife to travel in Europe, visiting countries such as the Netherlands, France, Germany, and Italy. His wife however contracted an illness while in Paris, the exact illness is still not known, and was so severe that they both immediately returned to Bogor.[5]:30 She died on 31 July 1880,[5]:30 following her husband's death three months earlier.

Death

On Friday morning, 23 April 1880, Saleh suddenly fell sick. He claimed that he was poisoned by one of his servants, but later examination showed that his blood flow was disrupted due to a clot near his heart. Saleh was buried two days later in Kampung Empang, Bogor. As reported in Javanese Bode newspaper, 28 April 1880, his funeral was "attended by various land lords and Dutch officials, and even by curious students from nearby school."[5]:30

Painting

During his stay in Paris, Saleh met Horace Vernet whose painting frequently took themes of African wildlife. Compared to Vernet, Saleh's painting seems to be more influenced by the romantic painter Eugène Delacroix. This could be seen in one of Saleh's work, Hunting Lion, 1840, which has similar composition to Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People. However, Werner Kraus, a researcher in the Southeast-Asian Art Center of Passau, Germany, said that Saleh "never mentioned Delacroix. Perhaps he saw Delacroix's, and possibly Vernet's, works during an exhibition."[5]:23

The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro

Raden Saleh is particularly remembered for his historical painting, The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro,[5]:26 which depicted the betrayal of the rebel leader Prince Diponegoro by the colonial government, thus ending the Java War in 1830. The Prince was tricked into entering Dutch custody near Magelang, believing he was there for negotiations of a possible cease-fire. He was captured through treachery and later deported.

The event had been previously painted by a Dutch painter Nicolaas Pieneman, commissioned by Lieutenant General Hendrik Merkus de Kock. It is thought that Saleh saw this painting during his stay in Europe. Saleh made significant changes in his version of the painting; Pieneman painted the scene from the right, Saleh from the left. Pieneman depicts Diponegoro with resigned expression, while in Saleh's he appears to be outraged. Pieneman gave his painting the title Submission of Prince Diponegoro, while Saleh gave The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro. It is known that Saleh deliberately painted Diponegoro's Dutch captors with large heads to make them appear monstrous, as opposed to the more proportionally depicted Javanese.[5]:26

Raden Saleh’s work has been regarded as a sign of incipient nationalism in what was then the Dutch East Indies.[6] This can also be seen it the depiction of Diponegoro's men. Pieneman had never been to the Indies, and so depicted Diponegoro's men in a more Arabic fashion. Saleh's version has a more accurate depiction of native Javanese clothing, with some figures wearing batik and blangkon.

Saleh finished this painting in 1857 and presented it to Willem III of Netherlands in The Hague. It was returned to Indonesia in 1978 as a realization of a cultural agreement between the two countries in 1969, regarding the return of cultural items which were taken, lent, or exchanged to the Dutch in the previous eras. Even though the painting did not fall under any of those categories, because Saleh presented it to the King of the Netherlands and it was never in the possession of Indonesia, it was nevertheless returned as a gift from the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, and is currently displayed at the Merdeka Palace Museum in Jakarta.[5]:26

Works

Raden Saleh Bustaman Winterlandschaft

Winter Scenery (1830)

JeanChrétienBaud

Portrait of Jean Chrétien Baud (1835)

Raden Sarief Bastaman Saleh - Johannes Graaf van den Bosch

Portrait of Johannes van den Bosch (1836)

Posthumous Portrait of Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies - Rd Saleh

Portrait of Herman Willem Daendels (1838)

Raden Sarief Bustaman Saleh - Lion attacking a horse

Lion attacking a horse (1840)

Raden Saleh - Self Portrait

Self-portrait (1841)

Raden Saleh Last Resort 1842

Last Resort (1842)

Raden Saleh - hunt

Deer Hunt (1846)

Raden Saleh - Javanese Landscape, with Tigers Listening to the Sound of a Travelling Group

Javanese Landscape, with Tigers Listening to the Sound of a Travelling Group (1849)

Raden Saleh - Six Horsemen Chasing Deer, 1860

Six Horsemen Chasing Deer (1860)

COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een overstroming op Java TMnr 3728-464

A Flood in Java (1865-1875)

Raden Saleh - Javanese Mail Station, 1876

Javanese Mail Station (1876)

Raden Saleh - Study of walking tiger

Watercolor study of a walking tiger

Raden Saleh, circle of - A landscape in the Dutch East Indies

A landscape in the Dutch East Indie

See also

References

  1. ^ Raden Saleh: The Romantic Aristocrat
  2. ^ Prince Raden Saleh: Aristocrat, Artist, Scientist and Patriot
  3. ^ Algadri, Hamid (1994). Dutch Policy against Islam and Indonesians of Arab Descent in Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: LP3ES. p. 187. ISBN 979-8391-31-4. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
  4. ^ Art Daily- Rare Work by Javanese Artist Raden Saleh to be Offered at Christie's Retrieved February 17, 2015
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Pioneer Between Worlds", National Geographic Indonesia, 2012.
  6. ^ Novia D. Rulistia (2 August 2013). "Raden Saleh's masterpieces to undergo restoration". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 29 November 2013.

Further reading

  • Karnadi, Koes (editor) 2006) Modern Indonesian art : from Raden Saleh to the present day introduction by Suwarno Wisetrotomo; with contributions by Agung Hujatnikajennong ... [et al.] Denpasar : Koes Artbooks. ISBN 979-8704-02-9
  • Heuken, Adolf (1982). Historical Sites of Jakarta. Jakarta, Indonesia: Cipta Loka Caraka.
  • Yayasan Untuk Indonesia (2005). Ensiklopedi Jakarta: culture & heritage, Volume 3. Jakarta, Indonesia: merintah Provinsi Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta, Dinas Kebudayaan dan Permuseuman, Indonesia. ISBN 978-979-8682-52-0.

External links

Al-Makmur Mosque

Masjid Jami' Al-Makmur Cikini is located on Jalan Raden Saleh Raya in Cikini, Central Jakarta, and is one of the oldest mosques in the locality. It was formerly known as Tjikini Mosque (Indonesian: 'Masjid Tjikini').

Antoine Payen the Younger

Auguste Antoine Joseph Payen (12 November 1792 - 18 January 1853), also known as Antoine Payen the Younger, was a Belgian painter and naturalist. He was born in Brussels and died in Tournai. His father, Antoine Payen the Elder, was an architect.

Payen was commissioned by Dutch King William I to create a series of paintings of the landscape of the Dutch East Indies. One of these works, The Great Postal Route near Rejapolah, painted in 1828, hangs in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.While in the Dutch East Indies in 1819, Payen met an eight-year-old Raden Saleh and, recognizing his talent for drawing, became Saleh's first mentor. Saleh would follow Payen to Europe three years after Payen's departure from Java in 1826.

Bartók (crater)

Bartók is a crater on Mercury. It has a diameter of 112 kilometers. Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1979. Bartók is named for the Hungarian composer Béla Bartók, who lived from 1881 to 1945.

Blangkon

A blangkon or belangkon (Indonesian) is a traditional Javanese headdress worn by men and made of batik fabric. There are four types of blangkons, distinguished by their shapes and origins: Ngayogyakarta, Surakarta, Kedu, and Banyumasan.

Cikini Hospital

Cikini Hospital, also known as PGI Cikini Hospital, Rumah Sakit Cikini, is a hospital in Cikini, Menteng in Jakarta, Indonesia. It was formerly a mansion that was designed by Indonesian painter Raden Saleh, who used it as residence. Use of it as a hospital and nursing academy began in 1898. The building was built in 1852 and is known for its park-like setting in busy Jakarta, and was home to antelope until they were removed in the early 1970s. Saleh once had a collection of wild animals on the property. It has design features similar to the Callenberg Castle.The hospital is located at Jalan Raden Saleh No. 40 in Cikini, Central Jakarta on 5.6 ha. It has approximately 300 beds.

The home was visited by Franz Ferdinand in 1893 during his world tour. He saw preparations for the Batavia Exhibition of 1893 on the grounds of the house.

Diponegoro

Prince Diponegoro (born Bendara Raden Mas Mustahar; later Bendara Raden Mas Antawirya) (11 November 1785 – 8 January 1855), also known as Dipanegara, was a Javanese prince who opposed the Dutch colonial rule. The eldest son of the Yogyakartan Sultan Hamengkubuwono III, he played an important role in the Java War between 1825 and 1830. After his defeat and capture, he was exiled to Makassar, where he died.

His five-year struggle against the Dutch control of Java has become celebrated by Indonesians throughout the years, acting as a source of inspiration for the fighters in the Indonesian National Revolution and nationalism in modern-day Indonesia among others. He is a national hero in Indonesia.

Dvorák (crater)

Dvorák is a crater on Mercury. It has a diameter of 75 kilometers. Its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1976. Dvorak is named for the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák, who lived from 1841 to 1904.

Freemasonry in Indonesia

Freemasonry was introduced by the Dutch to what is today Indonesia during the VOC era in the 18th century, and spread throughout the Dutch East Indies during a wave of westernisation in the 19th century. Freemasons originally only included Europeans and Indo-Europeans, but later also indigenous people with a Western education.

Active freemasonry existed throughout the Dutch East Indies (now: Indonesia) from 1762 to 1962. The first lodge in Asia "La Choisie" was founded in Batavia by Jacobus Cornelis Mattheus Radermacher (1741–1783). In July 1772 Abraham van der Weijden established the Lodge La Fidele Sinceritie in Batavia.

In 1922 a Dutch Provincial Grand Lodge, under the Grand Orient of the Netherlands, at Weltevreden (Batavia) controlled twenty Lodges in the colony. Fourteen in Java, three in Sumatra and others in places such as Makassar.The lodges in the colony played a role in the social emancipation of the Indo-Europeans, as well as of the so-called Foreign Orientals, such as the ethnic-Chinese and Arabs. Freemasonry also had a significant impact on the Indonesian National Awakening preluding the national revolution. In 1836 the painter Raden Saleh was the first indigenous person to become a freemason and joined the lodge Eendracht maakt Macht in The Hague. The first indigenous member of a lodge in the Dutch East Indies was Abdul Rachman, a descendant of the sultan of Pontianak, in 1844. A famous freemason and Grand Master (Masonic) was the Indo politician Dick de Hoog, who was the main leader of the Indo emancipation movement and president of the Indo European Alliance. Other prominent Freemasons were the Peranakan tycoon Loa Po Seng and his half-Indo grandson, the politician and parliamentarian Loa Sek Hie.

Friedrich Carl Albert Schreuel

Friedrich Carl Albert Schreuel, also known as Frederik Karel Albert Schreuel and Jan Christian Aelbert Schreuel (14 June 1773 – 1853), was a Dutch-born painter.

Haystack Catena

Haystack Catena (Haystack Vallis until March 2013) is a catena at 4.7° N, 46.2° W on Mercury. It superficially resembles a graben but is a chain of overlapping secondary craters. It was named after Haystack Observatory.

Kertoboso Bustam

Kyai Ngabei Kertoboso Bustam or Kyai Bustaman (?1681–1769) was a VOC secretary in Semarang, Dutch East Indies. He originally came from Hadramaut, Yemen. Kyai Ngabehi Kertoboso Bustam is the ancestor of the Bustaman clan who later produced regents and priyayis in the northern coast of Java, including the famous Romantic painter Raden Saleh. Kampung Bustaman in Semarang City was named after him, although only a few of his descendants remain in Semarang.

Manifesto Kebudayaan

The Cultural Manifesto (Indonesian: Manifes Kebudayaan, abbreviated Manikebu) was a declaration by a group of Indonesian writers and intellectuals in late 1963. The Cultural Manifesto was initiated by HB Jassin, Trisno Sumandjo, Wiratmo Soekito, Zaini, Bokor Hutasuhut, Gunawan Mohamad, A. Bastari Asnin, Bur Rasuanto, Soe Hok Djin, DS Moeljanto, Ras Siregar, Hartojo Andangdjaja, Sjahwil, Djufri Tanissan, Binsar Sitompul, Gerson Poyk, Taufiq Ismail, M. Saribi, Poernawan Tjondronegoro, Ekana Siswojo, Nashar and Boen S. Oemarjati. The group that constituted the Cultural Manifesto was in ideological contrast to Lekra (Lembaga Kebudayaan Rakyat). Members of the Lekra movement nicknamed the Cultural Manifesto "Manikebu," a humorous abbreviation that in English means "Buffalo Sperm."

National Gallery of Indonesia

The National Gallery of Indonesia is an art gallery and museum in Jakarta, Indonesia. The National Gallery of Indonesia has existed as a cultural institution in the field of visual arts since May 8, 1999. The institution plays an important role in expanding public's awareness of artworks through preservation, development and exploitation of the visual arts in Indonesia.

Ngesti Pandawa

Ngesti Pandawa is a professional wayang wong or wayang orang art company located in Semarang. The Ngesti Pandawa wayang orang is housed in the Ki Narto Sabdho Hall in Taman Budaya Raden Saleh or the Taman Raden Saleh Cultural Complex at Jalan Sriwijaya 29, Semarang City, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Ngesti Pandawa is one of three surviving wayang orang troupes in Indonesia, besides Wayang Orang Sriwedari in Taman Sriwedari Solo and Wayang Orang Bharata in Jakarta. It is hoped that wayang orang will again be able to entertain generations of audiences while sending a timeless moral message.

Odin Planitia

Odin Planitia is a large basin on Mercury located in the Tolstoj quadrangle at 23.3° N, 171.6° W. It was named after the Norse god Odin in 1976 by the IAU. A large volcanic dome 7 km in diameter and 1.4 km high is situated near the center of Odin.

Raden Saleh (crater)

Raden Saleh is a crater on Mercury. It is named after a famous Indonesian painter named Raden Saleh.

Taman Ismail Marzuki

Taman Ismail Marzuki, popularly known as TIM, or in English as Ismail Marzuki Park, is an arts, cultural, and science center located at Cikini in Jakarta, Indonesia. Within the complex there are also educational institutions such as the Jakarta Arts Institute (IKJ), the HB Jassin Literary Documentation Center and Jakarta Planetarium. The complex is built on an 8 hectares land area. TIM is named after Ismail Marzuki, one of Indonesia's most influential composers. Taman Ismail Marzuki complex comprises a number of facilities including six performing arts theaters, cinemas, an exhibition hall, a gallery and an archive building. The complex was previously known as Jakarta Arts Center.

Cultural performances often take place in this cultural center, including dance, drama and music performances, poetry reading, sculpture, painting and art exhibitions, and film festival screenings. There is also a large food-court within the complex.

The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro

The Arrest of Pangeran Diponegoro (also The Arrest of Prince Diponegoro; Indonesian: Penangkapan Pangeran Diponegoro; Dutch: Gevangenname van Prins Diponegoro) is the name of an 1857 painting by Raden Saleh, depicting the capture of Prince Diponegoro by Lieutenant General Hendrik Merkus de Kock on 28 March 1830.

Vivaldi (crater)

Vivaldi is a crater at 14.5°N, 86°W on Mercury. It is 210 km in diameter and was named after Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi. It has a prominent and nearly continuous inner ring whose diameter measures about half that of the outer ring. Unlike some of the lunar multiringed structures, no vestiges of additional rings are apparent around this crater. It is classified as c3 age.

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