Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture. Desegregation is largely a legal matter, integration largely a social one.
Morris J. MacGregor, Jr. in his paper "Integration of the Armed Forces 1940–1969" writes concerning the words integration and desegregation:
... In recent years many historians have come to distinguish between these like-sounding words.. The movement toward desegregation, breaking down the nation's Jim Crow system, became increasingly popular in the decade after World War II. Integration, on the other hand, Professor Oscar Handlin maintains, implies several things not yet necessarily accepted in all areas of American society. In one sense it refers to the "levelling of all barriers to association other than those based on ability, taste, and personal preference"; in other words, providing equal opportunity. But in another sense integration calls for the random distribution of a minority throughout society. Here, according to Handlin, the emphasis is on racial balance in areas of occupation, education, residency, and the like.
From the beginning the military establishment rightly understood that the breakup of the all-black unit would in a closed society necessarily mean more than mere desegregation. It constantly used the terms integration and equal treatment and opportunity to describe its racial goals. Rarely, if ever, does one find the word desegregation in military files that include much correspondence.
Similarly, Keith M. Woods writing on the need for precision in journalistic language writes, "Integration happens when a monolith is changed, like when a black family moves into an all-white neighborhood. Integration happens even without a mandate from the law. Desegregation," on the other hand, "was the legal remedy to segregation." Making almost the same point, Henry Organ, identifying himself as " a participant in the Civil Rights Movement on the (San Francisco) Peninsula in the '60s ... and ... an African American," wrote in 1997, " The term 'desegregation' is normally reserved to the legal/legislative domain, and it was the legalization of discrimination in public institutions based on race that many fought against in the 1960s. The term 'integration,' on the other hand, pertains to a social domain; it does and should refer to individuals of different background who opt to interact."
In their book By the Color of Our Skin (1999) Leonard Steinhorn and Barbara Diggs-Brown – who also make a similar distinction between desegregation and integration – write "... television has ... give[n] white Americans the sensation of having meaningful, repeated contact with blacks without actually having it. We call this phenomenon virtual integration, and it is the primary reason why the integration illusion – the belief that we are moving toward a colorblind nation – has such a powerful influence on race relations in America today." Reviewing this book in the libertarian magazine Reason, Michael W. Lynch sums up some of their conclusions as, "Blacks and whites live, learn, work, pray, play, and entertain separately." He cites Stephan and Abigail Themstrom's America in Black and White as making the case to the contrary, gives anecdotal evidence on both sides of the question, and writes:
The problem, as I see it, is that access to the public spheres, specifically the commercial sphere, often depends on being comfortable with the norms of white society. If a significant number of black children aren't comfortable with them, it isn't by choice: It's because they were isolated from those norms. It's one thing for members of the black elite and upper middle class to choose to retire to predominantly black neighborhoods after a lucrative day's work in white America. It's quite another for people to be unable to enter that commercial sphere because they spent their formative years in a community that didn't, or couldn't, prepare them for it. Writes [Harvard University sociologist Orlando] Patterson, "The greatest problem now facing African-Americans is their isolation from the tacit norms of the dominant culture, and this is true of all classes."
Although widespread, this distinction between integration and desegregation is not universally accepted. For example, it is possible to find references to "court-ordered integration" from sources such as the Detroit News, PBS, or even Encarta. These same sources also use the phrase "court-ordered desegregation", apparently with exactly the same meaning; the Detroit News uses both expressions interchangeably in the same article.
When the two terms are confused, it is almost always to use integration in the narrower, more legalistic sense of desegregation; one rarely, if ever, sees desegregation used in the broader cultural sense.
The 1969 Texas Longhorns football team represented the University of Texas at Austin in the 1969 college football season. The Longhorns won all eleven games to win their second consensus national championship; the first was six seasons earlier in 1963.
The 1969 team is the last all-white team to be named consensus national champions with the onset of racial integration. Julius Whittier, the first African-American player in Texas football history, was enrolled at UT as a freshman but was not eligible to play; NCAA rules of the time barred freshmen from playing varsity football and basketball.42 (film)
42 is a 2013 American biographical sports film written and directed by Brian Helgeland about the racial integration of American professional baseball by player Jackie Robinson, who wore jersey number 42 through his Major League career. The film stars Chadwick Boseman as Robinson, and Harrison Ford as Branch Rickey, with Alan Tudyk, Nicole Beharie, Christopher Meloni, André Holland, Lucas Black, Hamish Linklater, and Ryan Merriman appearing in supporting roles.
The film received generally positive reviews and grossed over $97 million on a $40 million budget. 42 was released in North America on April 12, 2013.Baseball color line
The Color Line, also known as the Color Barrier, in American baseball excluded players of Black African descent from Major League Baseball and its affiliated Minor Leagues until 1947 (with a few notable exceptions in the 19th century before the line was firmly established). Racial segregation in professional baseball was sometimes called a gentlemen's agreement, meaning a tacit understanding, as there was no written policy at the highest level of organized baseball, the major leagues. But a high minor league's vote in 1887 against allowing new contracts with black players within its league sent a powerful signal that eventually led to the disappearance of blacks from the sport's other minor leagues later that century, including the low minors.
After the line was in virtually full effect in the early 20th century, many black baseball clubs were established, especially during the 1920s to 1940s when there were several Negro Leagues. During this period some light-skinned Hispanic players, like Lefty Gomez, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians, like Prince Oana, were able to play in the Major Leagues.The color line was broken for good when Jackie Robinson signed with the Brooklyn Dodgers organization for the 1946 season. In 1947, both Robinson in the National League and Larry Doby with the American League's Cleveland Indians appeared in games for their teams. By the late 1950s, the percentage of black players on Major League teams matched or exceeded that of the general population.Black capitalism
Black capitalism is a political movement among African Americans, seeking to build wealth through the ownership and development of businesses. Black capitalism has traditionally focused on African-American businesses, although some critics and activists have also pushed for increased representation of Blacks in corporate America.Desegregation
Desegregation is the process of ending the separation of two groups usually referring to races. This is most commonly used in reference to the United States. Desegregation was long a focus of the Civil Rights Movement, both before and after the United States Supreme Court's decision in Brown v. Board of Education, particularly desegregation of the school systems and the military (see Military history of African Americans). Racial integration of society was a closely related goal.Eugene Smith (aviator)
Eugene Smith (1918 – November 21, 2012) was an American military aviator and attorney. He was a lieutenant with the Tuskegee Airmen in World War II, escorting bombers in Europe, and then served as a military flight instructor. Returning to Ohio, he earned a law degree. He practiced law for over 50 years, including argument of a first amendment case before the Supreme Court of the United States and leading the efforts toward racial integration of juries.Fernwood Park race riot
The Fernwood Park race riot took place in mid August 1947 in the Fernwood, Chicago neighborhood. Riots took place between 98th and 111th streets. It was one of the worst race riots in Chicago history.
In mid August, 1947, several black veterans and their families moved into the CHA Fernwood Park housing project at 104th and Halsted. Area residents viewed this as one of several attempts by the CHA to initiate racial integration into white communities. A violent mob action resulted which lasted for three days and mobilized over 1,000 law enforcement officers to control. During the riot, gangs of whites pulled blacks out of streetcars and automobiles and beat them. At least 35 black people were wounded.The police did little to stop the rioting, as was the case a year before at the Airport Homes race riots.Fred Clapp
Fred H. Clapp was an American football and basketball coach.Huntsville Independent School District
Huntsville Independent School District is a public school district based in the Hawkins Administration Building in Huntsville, Texas (USA).In addition to Huntsville, the district serves the city of Riverside as well as rural areas in central Walker County. The current Interim Superintendent position is Fred Rush (former HISD Superintendent).John Joseph Egan
Monsignor John Joseph Egan (9 October 1916 – 19 May 2001) was an American Roman Catholic priest and social activist. After initially studying business at DePaul University, he transferred to Archbishop Quigley Preparatory Seminary, completing his studies under the visionary rector Msgr. Reynold Henry Hillenbrand at the University of St. Mary of the Lake. He promoted racial integration and was one of the clergymen who marched with Rev. Martin Luther King, Jr. in the 1965 protest march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama. For many years he was a member of the board of trustees of the Industrial Areas Foundation. The Egan Urban Center at DePaul University is named in his honor. Egan's papers are housed in the manuscript collection at the University of Notre Dame Archives (see "Msgr. John Egan" or "John J. Egan Papers" at http://archives.nd.edu/collections/subjects.htm). The scope and background notes include an extensive list of his accomplishments.
Father Egan was better known to his friends—both lay as well as clerical—as Jack Egan. Ordained for the Archdiocese of Chicago, he worked several years in its inner city. Saul Alinsky, godfather of broad-based community organizing, influenced the young priest. In turn, Father Jack later prevailed upon Alinsky to pen his book Rules for Radicals. [Told in a personal interview to Fr. Juan Romero of Los Angeles.] Father Jack accepted a position at the University of Notre Dame where he founded and directed CCUM, the Catholic Commity on Urban Ministry, dedicated to promote Catholic social teaching. One of Father Egan's unsung accomplishments of the early seventies was to deliver about twenty-five non-episcopal leaders of the Catholic Church in the country to a PADRES-sponsored meeting held at the Mexican American Cultural Center (now called Mexican American Catholic College) in San Antonio, Texas. The focus of the meeting was to garner greater recognition and respect for the "Hispanic Agenda" within the institutions of the Catholic Church in the United States.
John Joseph Egan figures prominently in the 2009 book Family Properties: Race, Real Estate, and the Exploitation of Black Urban America by Beryl Satter. WFMT critic Andrew Patner interviewed Ms. Satter in April 2009. This interview can be downloaded from http://feeds.feedburner.com/critical_thinking and specifically discusses her discovery of Monsignor John J. Egan and his work with the Contract Buyers' League starting at 44:40 in the downloadable MP3 file.
United Power for Action and Justice was created in part by Monsignor John J. Egan.Mount Airy, Philadelphia
Mount Airy is a neighborhood of Northwest Philadelphia in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania.Race and ethnicity in the NBA
The composition of race and ethnicity in the National Basketball Association (NBA) has changed throughout the league's history. The first non-white player to enter the league was Wataru Misaka in 1947. According to racial equality activist Richard Lapchick, the NBA in 2015 was composed of 74.4 percent black players, 23.3 percent white players, 1.8 percent Latino players of any race, and 0.2 percent Asian players. The league has the highest percentage of black players of any major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. Viewership also appears to be predominantly black, with 47 percent of viewers being black, with whites coming in at a distant second with 34 percent, with hispanic (of any race) and asian viewership standing at 11 and eight percent, respectively. Making the NBA the only north american major sport without a majority or plurality white audience.Ralph Graham
Ralph Mevlin Graham (August 16, 1910 – October 14, 2005) was an American football, basketball, and tennis player and coach. He served as the head football coach at the Municipal University of Wichita—now Wichita State University—in 1942 and from 1946 to 1947 and at Kansas State University from 1948 to 1950, compiling a career college football record of 21–39–1.Robert Shaw (conductor)
Robert Lawson Shaw (30 April 1916 – 25 January 1999) was an American conductor most famous for his work with his namesake Chorale, with the Cleveland Orchestra and Chorus, and the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra and Chorus. He was known for drawing public attention to choral music through his wide ranging influences and mentoring of younger conductors, the high standard of his recordings, his support for racial integration in his choruses, and his support for modern music, winning many awards throughout his career.Rockmart, Georgia
Rockmart is a city in Polk County, Georgia, United States. The population was 4,199 according to a 2010 census. Rockmart developed as a railroad depot town when the Southern Railway built a station in the area. The community was incorporated in 1872, and was named from abundant deposits of slate in the area. The Rockmart Downtown Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Southeast Texas
Southeast Texas is a sub-region of East Texas located in the southeast corner of the U.S. state of Texas. The sub-region is geographically centered on the Houston–Sugar Land–The Woodlands, and Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan areas.
Culturally, Southeast Texas is more closely akin to the Gulf Coast, Louisiana, or even Mississippi, than it is to West Texas. Much of modern Southeast Texas culture has its roots in traditions that go back for generations. Southeast Texas is consistent with much of the rest of rural Texas in that it is a part of the Bible Belt, an area in which many inhabitants have strongly Fundamentalist Christian beliefs. Many of the largest cities in East Texas outside Houston still follow a rural Southern way of life, especially in dialect, mannerisms, religion, and cuisine.
Though 35 percent of Texas' population is now Hispanic, African-Americans are still the most populous minority in Southeast Texas. During the Civil Rights Movement several communities clashed over racial integration issues.Thomas Darden
Thomas Francis Darden, Jr. (September 8, 1900 – June 17, 1961) was a U.S. Navy officer who achieved the rank of captain, the commander of a Navy light cruiser during World War II, and was the 37th Governor of American Samoa from July 7, 1949 through February 23, 1951. Darden also served on the staffs of two U.S. Navy admirals during the War in the Pacific: rear admirals Henry Hughes Hough and Thomas L. Sprague.
Darden served on and commanded warships, and then in the 1940s was appointed head of the "Special Programs Unit". This unit trained African Americans for accelerated promotion in the Navy; Darden himself advocated for racial integration in the Navy.
Darden also served as the last military governor of American Samoa, and since February 1951, his successors have all been civilians.University of the Free State
The University of the Free State is a multi campus public university in Bloemfontein, the capital of the Free State and the judicial capital of South Africa. It was first established as an institution of higher learning in 1904 as a tertiary portion of Grey College. It was declared an independent Afrikaans-language university in 1950 and the name was changed to the University of the Orange Free State. The university has two satellite campuses. Initially a whites-only precinct, the university was fully de-segregated in 1996. The first black university vice-chancellor was appointed in 2010. Oprah Winfrey was awarded an honorary doctorate in 2011.Wednesdays in Mississippi
Wednesdays in Mississippi was an activist group during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States during the 1960s. Northern women of different races and faiths traveled to Mississippi to develop relationships with their southern peers and to create bridges of understanding across regional, racial, and class lines. By opening communications across societal boundaries, Wednesday’s Women sought to end violence and to cushion the transition towards racial integration.