Racial discrimination

Racial discrimination refers to discrimination against individuals on the basis of their race. Policies of racial segregation may formalize it, but it is also often exerted without being legalised and also it means facing injustice.


According to World Values Survey data, as analyzed by The Washington Post, the least tolerant country worldwide is Jordan.[1] According to this study, racial tolerance is also low in ethnically diverse Asian countries, while Western and Central Europe and the United States are relatively racially tolerant.[1]

More than 30 years of field experiment studies have found significant levels of discrimination against non-whites in labor, housing, and product markets in 10 different countries.[2]


According to the World Values Survey, the second most racist country is India, where people from other countries are treated differently by some Indian people, based both on skin color and country of origin.[1] African people are especially affected by racism in India, denied living accommodations and even attacked and killed.[3][4][5]

The Netherlands

A study conducted in the Netherlands and published in 2013 found significant levels of discrimination against job applicants with Arabic-sounding names.[6]



The constitution of Liberia renders non-Blacks ineligible for citizenship.[7]

United States

With regard to employment, multiple audit studies have found strong evidence of racial discrimination in the United States' labor market, with magnitudes of employers' preferences of white applicants found in these studies ranging from 50% to 240%. Other such studies have found significant evidence of discrimination in car sales, home insurance applications, provision of medical care, and hailing taxis.[8] There is some debate regarding the method used to signal race in these studies.[9][10]


Racial discrimination in the workplace falls into two basic categories:[11]

  • Disparate Treatment: An employer's policies discriminate based upon any immutable racial characteristic, such as skin, eye or hair color, and certain facial features;
  • Disparate Impact: Although an employer may not intend to discriminate based on racial characteristics, its policies nonetheless have an adverse effect based upon race.

Discrimination may occur at any point in the employment process, including pre-employment inquiries, hiring practices, compensation, work assignments and conditions, privileges granted to employees, promotion, employee discipline and termination.[12]

Researchers Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan, at the University of Chicago and MIT found in a 2004 study, that there was widespread racial discrimination in the workplace. In their study, candidates perceived as having "white-sounding names" were 50% more likely than those whose names were merely perceived as "sounding black" to receive callbacks for interviews. The researchers view these results as strong evidence of unconscious biases rooted in the United States' long history of discrimination (e.g., Jim Crow laws, etc.)[13]

Devah Pager, a sociologist at Princeton University, sent matched pairs of applicants to apply for jobs in Milwaukee and New York City, finding that black applicants received callbacks or job offers at half the rate of equally qualified whites.[14][15] Another recent audit by UCLA sociologist S. Michael Gaddis examines the job prospects of black and white college graduates from elite private and high quality state higher education institutions. This research finds that blacks who graduate from an elite school such as Harvard have about the same prospect of getting an interview as whites who graduate from a state school such as UMass Amherst.[16]

A 2001 study of workplace evaluation in a large U.S. company showed that black supervisors rate white subordinates lower than average and vice versa.[17]


Multiple experimental audit studies conducted in the United States have found that blacks and Hispanics experience discrimination in about one in five and one in four housing searches, respectively.[8]

A 2014 study also found evidence of racial discrimination in an American rental apartment market.[18]

Effects on health

Studies have shown an association between reported racial discrimination and adverse physical and mental health outcomes.[19] This evidence has come from multiple countries, including the United States,[20][21][22][23] the United Kingdom,[24] and New Zealand.[25]

Racism in healthcare system

Racial bias exists in the medical field affecting the way patients are treated and the way they are diagnosed. There are instances where patients’ words are not taken seriously, an example would be the recent case with Serena Williams. After the birth of her daughter via C-section, the tennis player began to feel pain and shortness of breath. It took her several times to convince the nurse they actually took her self-said symptoms seriously. Had she not been persistent and demanded a CT scan, which showed a clot resulting in blood thinning, Williams might have not been alive.[26] This is just one of hundred’s of cases where systemic racism can affect women of color in pregnancy complications.[27]

One of the factors that lead to higher mortality rates amongst black mothers is the poorly conditioned hospitals and lack of standard healthcare facilities.[28] Along with having deliveries done in underdeveloped areas, situation becomes complicated when the pain dealt by patients are not taken seriously by healthcare providers. Pain heard from patients of color are underestimated by doctors compared to pain told by patients who are white[29] leading them to misdiagnose.

Many say that the education level of people affect whether or not they admit to healthcare facilities, leaning to the argument that people of color purposefully avoid hospitals compared to white counterparts[30] however, this is not the case. Even Serena Williams, a well-known athlete, was not taken seriously when she described her pain. It is true that the experiences of patients in hospital settings influence whether or not they return to healthcare facilities. Black people are less likely to admit to hospitals however those that are admitted have longer stays than white people [31]

The longer hospitalization of black patients does not improve care conditions, it makes it worse,[32] especially when treated poorly by faculty. Not a lot of minorities are admitted into hospitals and those that are receive poor conditioned treatment and care. This discrimination results in misdiagnosis and medical mistakes that lead to high death rates.

Although the Medicaid program was passed to ensure African Americans and other minorities received the healthcare treatment they deserved and to limit discrimination in hospital facilities, there still seems to be an underlying cause for the low number of black patients admitted to hospitals, like not receiving the proper dosage of medication.[33] Infant mortality rates and life expectancies of minorities are much lower than that of white people in the United States. Illnesses like cancer and heart diseases are more prevalent in minorities, which is one of the factors for the high mortality rate in the group.[34] however are not treated accordingly.

Although programs like medicaid exists to support minorities, there still seems to be a large number of people who are not insured. This financial drawback discourages people in the group to go to hospitals and doctors offices.[34]

Financial and cultural influences can impact the way patients are treated by their healthcare providers. When doctors have a bias on a patient, it can lead to the formation of stereotypes, impacting the way they view their patient's data and diagnosis, affecting the treatment plan they implement.[34]

Reverse discrimination

Reverse discrimination is a term for allegations that the member of a dominant or majority group has suffered discrimination for the benefit of a minority or historically disadvantaged group.

United States

In the United States, courts have upheld race-conscious policies when they are used to promote a diverse work or educational environment.[35][36] Some critics have described those policies as discriminating against white people. In response to arguments that such policies (e.g. affirmative action) constitute discrimination against whites, sociologists note that the purpose of these policies is to level the playing field to counteract discrimination.[37][38]


A 2016 poll found that 38% of US citizens thought that Whites faced a lot of discrimination. Among Democrats, 29% thought there was some discrimination against Whites in the United States, while 49% of Republicans thought the same.[39] Similarly, another poll conducted earlier in the year found that 41% of US citizens believed there was "widespread" discrimination against whites.[40] There is evidence that some people are motivated to believe they are the victims of reverse discrimination because the belief bolsters their self-esteem.[41]


In the United States, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits all racial discrimination based on race.[42] Although some courts have taken the position that a white person must meet a heightened standard of proof to prove a reverse-discrimination claim, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) applies the same standard to all claims of racial discrimination without regard to the victim's race.[42]

See also


  1. ^ a b c "A fascinating map of the world's most and least racially tolerant countries". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
  2. ^ Riach, P. A.; Rich, J. (November 2002). "Field Experiments of Discrimination in the Market Place". The Economic Journal. 112 (483): F480–F518. CiteSeerX doi:10.1111/1468-0297.00080. Controlled experiments, using matched pairs of bogus transactors, to test for discrimination in the marketplace have been conducted for over 30 years, and have extended across 10 countries. Significant, persistent and pervasive levels of discrimination have been found against non-whites and women in labour, housing and product markets.
  3. ^ CNN, Huizhong Wu. "African students hospitalized in roving mob attacks in India". CNN. Retrieved 2 April 2017.
  4. ^ "India Is Racist, And Happy About It". Outlook. India. 29 June 2009.
  5. ^ Elizabeth Soumya. "Africans decry 'discrimination' in India". Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  6. ^ Blommaert, L.; Coenders, M.; van Tubergen, F. (19 December 2013). "Discrimination of Arabic-Named Applicants in the Netherlands: An Internet-Based Field Experiment Examining Different Phases in Online Recruitment Procedures". Social Forces. 92 (3): 957–82. doi:10.1093/sf/sot124.
  7. ^ Ludwig, Bernadette (2016-01-15). "A Black Republic: Citizenship and naturalisation requirements in Liberia". Migration Letters. 13 (1): 84–99. doi:10.33182/ml.v13i1.265. ISSN 1741-8992.
  8. ^ a b Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana (August 2008). "The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets". Annual Review of Sociology. 34 (1): 181–209. doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131740. PMC 2915460. PMID 20689680.
  9. ^ Gaddis, S. Michael (2017). "How Black Are Lakisha and Jamal? Racial Perceptions from Names Used in Correspondence Audit Studies". Sociological Science. 4: 469–489. doi:10.15195/v4.a19.
  10. ^ Gaddis, S. Michael (2017). "Racial/Ethnic Perceptions from Hispanic Names: Selecting Names to Test for Discrimination". Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World. 3: 237802311773719. doi:10.1177/2378023117737193.
  11. ^ Larson, Aaron (10 January 2017). "Racial Discrimination Law". ExpertLaw. ExpertLaw.com. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  12. ^ "Facts About Race/Color Discrimination". U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. 8 September 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2017.
  13. ^ Bertrand, M.; Mullainathan, S. (2004). "Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination". American Economic Review. 94 (4): 991–1013. CiteSeerX doi:10.1257/0002828042002561.
  14. ^ "Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment," 2009, American Sociological Review, by Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski
  15. ^ "The Mark of a Criminal Record," 2003, American Journal of Sociology, by Devah Pager
  16. ^ Gaddis, S. M. (June 2015). "Discrimination in the Credential Society: An Audit Study of Race and College Selectivity in the Labor Market". Social Forces. 93 (4): 1451–1479. doi:10.1093/sf/sou111.
  17. ^ Elvira, Marta; Town, Robert (2001-10-01). "The Effects of Race and Worker Productivity on Performance Evaluations". Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society. 40 (4): 571–590. doi:10.1111/0019-8676.00226. ISSN 1468-232X.
  18. ^ Ewens, Michael; Tomlin, Bryan; Wang, Liang Choon (March 2014). "Statistical Discrimination or Prejudice? A Large Sample Field Experiment". Review of Economics and Statistics. 96 (1): 119–34. CiteSeerX doi:10.1162/REST_a_00365.
  19. ^ Pascoe, EA; Smart Richman, L (July 2009). "Perceived discrimination and health: a meta-analytic review". Psychological Bulletin. 135 (4): 531–54. doi:10.1037/a0016059. PMC 2747726. PMID 19586161.
  20. ^ Williams, David R.; Mohammed, Selina A. (22 November 2008). "Discrimination and racial disparities in health: evidence and needed research". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 32 (1): 20–47. doi:10.1007/s10865-008-9185-0. PMC 2821669. PMID 19030981.
  21. ^ Landrine, H.; Klonoff, E. A. (1 May 1996). "The Schedule of Racist Events: A Measure of Racial Discrimination and a Study of Its Negative Physical and Mental Health Consequences". Journal of Black Psychology. 22 (2): 144–168. doi:10.1177/00957984960222002.
  22. ^ Sellers, Robert M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Martin, Pamela P.; Lewis, R. L'Heureux (June 2006). "Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents". Journal of Research on Adolescence. 16 (2): 187–216. doi:10.1111/j.1532-7795.2006.00128.x.
  23. ^ Williams, David R.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Jackson, James S. (February 2003). "Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Findings From Community Studies". American Journal of Public Health. 93 (2): 200–208. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.2.200. PMC 2518588. PMID 18687616.
  24. ^ Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; B?cares, Laia (July 2016). "Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom". American Journal of Public Health. 106 (7): 1294–1300. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303121. PMC 4984732. PMID 27077347.
  25. ^ Harris, Ricci; Tobias, Martin; Jeffreys, Mona; Waldegrave, Kiri; Karlsen, Saffron; Nazroo, James (June 2006). "Effects of self-reported racial discrimination and deprivation on Māori health and inequalities in New Zealand: cross-sectional study". The Lancet. 367 (9527): 2005–2009. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68890-9. PMID 16782491.
  26. ^ "Beyoncé, Serena Williams open up about potentially fatal childbirths, a problem especially for black mothers". Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
  27. ^ "Pregnancy-Related Deaths | Pregnancy | Reproductive Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. 2018-05-09. Retrieved 2018-10-14.
  28. ^ Howell EA, Egorova N, Balbierz A, Zeitlin J, Hebert PL (January 2016). "Black-white differences in severe maternal morbidity and site of care". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 214 (1): 122.e1–7. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2015.08.019. PMC 4698019. PMID 26283457.
  29. ^ Hoffman KM, Trawalter S, Axt JR, Oliver MN (April 2016). "Racial bias in pain assessment and treatment recommendations, and false beliefs about biological differences between blacks and whites". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 113 (16): 4296–301. doi:10.1073/pnas.1516047113. PMC 4843483. PMID 27044069.
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  31. ^ Ferraro, K. F.; Thorpe, R. J.; McCabe, G. P.; Kelley-Moore, J. A.; Jiang, Z. (2006-11-01). "The Color of Hospitalization Over the Adult Life Course: Cumulative Disadvantage in Black and White?". The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 61 (6): S299–S306. doi:10.1093/geronb/61.6.S299. ISSN 1079-5014.
  32. ^ Kahn, Katherine L. (1994-04-20). "Health Care for Black and Poor Hospitalized Medicare Patients". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 271 (15): 1169. doi:10.1001/jama.1994.03510390039027. ISSN 0098-7484.
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  35. ^ Biskupic, Joan (April 22, 2009). "Court tackles racial bias in work promotions". USA Today. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  36. ^ "The Struggle for Access in Law School Admissions". Academic.udayton.edu. Retrieved 2010-05-23.
  37. ^ "Ten Myths About Affirmative Action". Understandingprejudice.org. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  38. ^ Pincus, F. L. (1 November 1996). "Discrimination Comes in Many Forms: Individual, Institutional, and Structural" (PDF). American Behavioral Scientist. 40 (2): 186–194. doi:10.1177/0002764296040002009.
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  40. ^ Jones, Jeffrey M. (17 August 2016). "Six in 10 Americans Say Racism Against Blacks Is Widespread". Gallup. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
  41. ^ Wilkins, Clara L.; Hirsch, Alexander A.; Kaiser, Cheryl R.; Inkles, Michael P. (23 February 2016). "The threat of racial progress and the self-protective nature of perceiving anti-White bias". Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. 20 (6): 801–812. doi:10.1177/1368430216631030.
  42. ^ a b "Section 15: Race & Color Discrimination". EEOC Compliance Manual. 19 April 2006. Retrieved 16 August 2017.

Further reading

All-white jury

An all-white jury is a sworn body composed only of white people convened to render an impartial verdict in a legal proceeding. Juries composed solely of one racial group are not prohibited in the United States. However, the phrases "all-white jury" and "all-black jury"' may raise the expectation that deliberations may be less than fair. While the racial composition of juries is not dictated by law, racial discrimination in the selection of jurors (regardless of the jury's ultimate composition) is specifically prohibited. Racial discrimination in jury selection has a long history in the United States.

Civil rights movement (1865–1896)

The civil rights movement (1865–1896) was aimed at eliminating racial discrimination against African Americans, improving educational and employment opportunities, and establishing electoral power, just after the abolition of Slavery in the United States. This period between 1865 and 1895 saw tremendous change in the fortunes of the black community following the elimination of slavery in the South.

Immediately following the Civil War, the federal government began a program known as Reconstruction aimed at rebuilding the states of the former Confederacy. The federal programs also provided aid to the former slaves and attempted to integrate them as citizens into society. During and after this period, blacks made substantial gains in their political power and many were able to move from abject poverty to land ownership. At the same time resentment by many whites toward these gains resulted in unprecedented violence led by the local chapters of the Ku Klux Klan, and later in the 1870s by such paramilitary groups as the Red Shirts and White League.

In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson, a landmark upholding "separate but equal" racial segregation as constitutional. It was a devastating setback for civil rights, as the legal, social, and political status of the black population reached a nadir. From 1890 to 1908, beginning with Mississippi, southern states passed new constitutions and laws disenfranchising most blacks and excluding them from the political system, a status that was maintained in many cases into the 1960s.

Much of the early reform movement during this era was spearheaded by the Radical Republicans, a faction of the Republican Party. By the end of the 19th century, with disenfranchisement in progress to exclude blacks from the political system altogether, the so-called lily-white movement also worked to substantially weaken the power of remaining blacks in the party. The most important civil rights leaders of this period were Frederick Douglass (1818–1895) and Booker T. Washington (1856–1915).

Commission for Racial Equality

The Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) was a non-departmental public body in the United Kingdom which aimed to address racial discrimination and promote racial equality. The commission was established in 1976, and disbanded in 2007 when its functions were taken over by the newly created Equality and Human Rights Commission.

The Race Relations Act, which has now been superseded by the Equality Act 2010, applied in England, Wales and Scotland. It did not apply in Northern Ireland, where the Race Relations (NI) Order 1997 applies. The CRE's work covered all the areas where people were protected against discrimination under the Race Relations Act.

The mission statement of the commission was: "We work for a just and integrated society, where diversity is valued. We use persuasion and our powers under the law to give everyone an equal chance to live free from fear of discrimination, prejudice and

The main goals of the CRE were:

To encourage greater integration and better relations between people from different ethnic groups.

To use its legal powers to help eradicate racial discrimination and harassment.

To work with government and public authorities to promote racial equality in all public services.

To support local and regional organisations, and employers in all sectors, in their efforts to ensure equality of opportunity and good race relations.

To raise public awareness of racial discrimination and injustice, and to win support for efforts to create a fairer and more equal society.The CRE organised the annual (RIMA). In 2005 the Media Personality of the Year award was won by footballer Thierry Henry.

When the CRE ceased to exist as a separate entity, its library was acquired by the Ahmed Iqbal Ullah Race Relations Resource Centre at the University of Manchester.

Debito Arudou

Debito Arudou (有道 出人, Arudō Debito, born David Christopher Schofill on 13 January 1965) is a writer, blogger, and human rights activist. He was born in the United States and became a naturalized Japanese citizen in 2000.

History of Oregon

The history of Oregon, a U.S. state, may be considered in five eras: geologic history, inhabitation by native peoples, early exploration by Europeans (primarily fur traders), settlement by pioneers, and modern development.

The term "Oregon" may refer to:

Oregon Country, a large region explored by Americans and the British (and generally known to Canadians as the Columbia District);

Oregon Territory, established by the United States two years after its sovereignty over the region was established by the Oregon Treaty; and

Oregon, a U.S. state since 1859The history of Oregon, and of the Pacific Northwest, has received little attention from historians, as compared to other regions of the American far west.

Hood film

Hood film is a film genre originating in the United States, which features aspects of urban African-American or Hispanic-American culture such as hip hop music, street gangs, racial discrimination, organized crime, gangster, gangsta rap, broken families, drug use and trafficking, illegal immigration into the United States and the problems of young people coming of age or struggling amid the relative poverty and violent gang activity within such neighborhoods.

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention. A third-generation human rights instrument, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination and the promotion of understanding among all races. The Convention also requires its parties to outlaw hate speech and criminalize membership in racist organizations.The Convention also includes an individual complaints mechanism, effectively making it enforceable against its parties. This has led to the development of a limited jurisprudence on the interpretation and implementation of the Convention.

The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on 21 December 1965, and entered into force on 4 January 1969. As of January 2018, it has 88 signatories and 179 parties.The Convention is monitored by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD).

International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21 March. On that day, in 1960, police opened fire and killed 69 people at a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, South Africa, against the apartheid pass laws. Proclaiming the day in 1966, the United Nations General Assembly called on the international community to redouble its efforts to eliminate all forms of racial discrimination.

International Year of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance

The year 2001 was declared the International Year of Mobilization against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance by the United Nations General Assembly.

The United Nations International Years, beginning with the World Refugee Year in 1959/1960, are designated in order to focus world attention on important issues. The decision to devote the year 2001 to mobilization against racism and xenophobia was taken by the General Assembly on December 9, 1998 and was linked to the decision to organize a conference, the World Conference Against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance, in the same year. In its resolution (A/RES/53/132) the General Assembly stated that the observance was "aimed at drawing the world’s attention to the objectives of the World Conference and giving new momentum to the political commitment to the elimination of all forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance".

The conference was held in Durban, South Africa. 7,000 representatives from civil society participated in an NGO Forum from August 28 to 31, 2001. The governmental meeting was held from August 31 to September 7, 2001. A declaration and programme of action was adopted on September 8. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson was the Secretary-General of the conference.

Racial Discrimination Act 1975

The Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth), (RDA) is a statute passed by the Australian Parliament during the Prime Ministership of Gough Whitlam. The RDA makes racial discrimination in certain contexts unlawful in Australia, and overrides States and Territory legislation to the extent of any inconsistency.

The RDA is administered by the Australian Human Rights Commission (AHRC). The President of the Commission is responsible for investigating complaints. If a complaint is validated, the Commission will attempt to conciliate the matter. If the Commission cannot negotiate an agreement which is acceptable to the complainant, the complainant's only redress is through the Federal Court or through the Federal Circuit Court. The Commission also attempts to raise awareness about the obligations that individuals and organisations have under the RDA.

Racial bias on Wikipedia

Wikipedia has been criticized for having a systemic racial bias in its coverage, due to an under-representation of people of color within its editor base. The past president of Wikimedia D.C., James Hare, noted that "a lot of black history is left out" of Wikipedia, due to articles predominately being written by white editors. Articles that do exist on African topics are, according to some, largely edited by editors from Europe and North America and thus reflect only their knowledge and consumption of media, which "tend to perpetuate a negative image" of Africa. Maira Liriano of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, has argued that the lack of information regarding black history on Wikipedia "makes it seem like it's not important."

Different theories have been provided to explain these racial discrepancies. Jay Cassano, writing for Fast Company magazine, argued that Wikipedia's small proportion of black editors is a result of the small black presence within the technology sector, and a relative lack of reliable access to the Internet. Katherine Maher, executive director of the Wikimedia Foundation, has argued that the specific focuses in Wikipedia's content are representative of those of society as a whole. She said that Wikipedia could only represent that which was referenced in secondary sources, which historically have been favourable towards and focused on white men. “Studies have shown that content on Wikipedia suffers from the bias of its editors – [who are] mainly technically inclined, English-speaking, white-collar men living in majority-Christian, developed countries in the Northern hemisphere”.

Racial democracy

Racial democracy (Portuguese: Democracia racial) is a term used by some to describe race relations in Brazil. The term denotes some scholars' belief that Brazil has escaped racism and racial discrimination. Those researchers contend that Brazilians do not view each other through the lens of race and do not harbor racial prejudice towards one another. Because of that, while social mobility of Brazilians may be constrained by many factors, gender and class included, racial discrimination is considered irrelevant (within the confines of the concept racial democracy).

Racial quota

Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. Racial quotas are often established as means of diminishing racial discrimination, addressing under-representation and evident racism against those racial groups or, the opposite, against the disadvantaged majority group (see numerus clausus or bhumiputra systems).

It has been argued that such quotas are a form of racial discrimination.

These quotas may be determined by governmental authority and backed by governmental sanctions. When the total number of jobs or enrollment slots is fixed, this proportion may get translated to a specific number.


Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not easily fall under a single definition.The ideology underlying racism often includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa, slavery and segregation in the United States, and slavery in Latin America. Racism was also an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires.

While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is often used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group (e.g. shared ancestry or shared behavior). Therefore, racism and racial discrimination are often used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination. The UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable, socially unjust and dangerous. It also declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice.Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems (e.g., apartheid) that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, xenophobia, otherness, segregation, hierarchical ranking, supremacism, and related social phenomena.

Racism by country

The article describes the state of race relations and racism in a number of countries.

Racism of various forms is found in most countries on Earth. In different countries, the forms that racism takes may be different for historic, cultural, religious, economic or demographic reasons.

Racism is widely condemned throughout the world, with 88 states signatories of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination as of 7 March 2013.

Racism in Africa

Racism in Asia

Racism in Europe

Racism in the United Kingdom

Racism in the Middle East

Racism in North America

Racism in the United States

Racism in South America

Racism in India

Racism in Thailand

Racism in Thailand is a prevalent but little discussed topic. The United Nations (UN) does not define "racism"; however, it does define "racial discrimination": According to the 1965 UN International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, "...the term "racial discrimination" shall mean any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on race, colour, descent, or national or ethnic origin that has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise, on an equal footing, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural or any other field of public life."

Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Between November 2002 and July 2003, an outbreak of SARS in southern China caused an eventual 8,098 cases, resulting in 774 deaths reported in 37 countries, with the majority of cases in China (9.6% fatality rate) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). No cases of SARS have been reported worldwide since 2004. In late 2017, Chinese scientists traced the virus through the intermediary of civets to cave-dwelling horseshoe bats in Yunnan province.

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on 10 November 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), "determine[d] that Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination". The vote took place approximately one year after UNGA 3237 granted the PLO "observer status", following PLO president Yasser Arafat's "olive branch" speech to the General Assembly in November 1974. The resolution was passed with the support of the Soviet bloc, in addition to the Arab- and Muslim-majority countries, many African countries, and a few others.

The determination that "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination", contained in the resolution, was revoked in 1991 with UN General Assembly Resolution 46/86.

Ángel Hernández (umpire)

Ángel Hernández (born August 26, 1961) is an umpire in Major League Baseball (MLB). He worked in the National League from 1991 to 1999, and has worked throughout MLB since 2000. In July 2017, Hernández filed a federal lawsuit against MLB, alleging racial discrimination led to him being overlooked for World Series games and crew chief promotions. He has since umpired in the 2017 All-Star Game, 2017 American League Division Series, and the 2018 American League Division Series in addition to regular-season work.

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