Rabi' al-awwal

Rabīʿ al-Awwal (Arabic: ربيع الأوّل, rabī‘u ’l-awwal) is the third month in the Islamic calendar. The name Rabī‘ al-awwal means "the first [month] or beginning of spring", referring to its position in the pre-Islamic Arabian calendar.

During this month, many Muslims celebrate Mawlid - the birthday of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. Although the exact date is unknown,[1][2] Sunni Muslims believe the date of birth of Muhammad to have been on the twelfth of this month, whereas Shi'a Muslims believe him to have been born on the dawn of the seventeenth day.

Muhammad himself never celebrated the mawlid; instead he encouraged Muslims to fast on Mondays of every week due to his birthday being “on a Monday”.

In the Ottoman Empire days, the name of this month in Ottoman Turkish was Rèbi' ulèvvèl,[3] with the abbreviation Ra.[4] In modern Turkish it is Rebiülevvel.

Meaning

The word "Rabi" means "spring" and Al-awwal means "the first" in Arabic language, so "Rabi' al-awwal" means "The first spring" in Arabic language. The names seems to have to do with the celebration events in the month as "spring" is the end to winter (symbol of sadness) and consequently the start of happiness. The Arabic calendar being lunar calendar, the month is naturally rotating over years and Rabī‘ al-awwal can be in spring or any other season every now and then, so the meaning can not be related to the actual season.[5]

Celebrations

MiladUnnNabi
Indian Muslims with green flags for Mawlid

Although historians and scholars disagree on the exact date of Muhammad's birth,[6] it is commonly celebrated on 12th or 17th of Rabi' al-awwal. The celebration of the Mawlid is done differently depending on the country. In some areas celebrations begin as early as the first of the month and can continue till the end of the month. Muslims generally put coloured lights on roads, streets, and their homes and put green flags as well to celebrate. In many countries a procession is also conducted on 12th or 17th of Rabi' al-awwal night and day. On these occasions sweets and drinks are also distributed widely from home to home and to the general public. In some areas Muslims also exchange gifts. It is the month of blessings.

Timing

The Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar, and months begin when the first crescent of a new moon is sighted. Since the Islamic lunar calendar year is 11 to 12 days shorter than the solar year, Rabī‘ al-Awwal migrates throughout the seasons. The estimated start and end dates for Rabī‘ al-Awwal are as follows (based on the Umm Al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia[7]):

Rabī' al-Awwal dates between 2017 and 2022
AH First day (CE/AD) Last day (CE/AD)
1439 19 November 2017 18 December 2017
1440 09 November 2018 07 December 2018
1441 29 October 2019 27 November 2019
1442 18 October 2020 15 November 2020
1443 07 October 2021 05 November 2021
1444 27 September 2022 25 October 2022

Islamic events

Masjid al-Quba
Masjid al-Quba, the first mosque, was built in this month.

Other events:

Hadith

In Islamic eschatology:

  • Abu Hurairah said that the Prophet said:

    There will be an Ayah (sign) in (the month of) Ramadan. Then, there will 'isabah (splitting into groups) in Shawwal. Then, there will be fighting in (the month of) Dhu al-Qi'dah. Then, the pilgrim will be robbed in (the month of) Dhu al-Hijjah. Then, the prohibitions will be violated in (the month of) al-Muharram. Then, there will be sound in (the month of) Safar, then the tribes will conflict with each other in the two months of Rabi' al-awwal & Rabi' al-thani. Then, the most amazing thing will happen between (the months of) Jumada and Rajab. Then, a well-fed she-camel will be better than a fortress (castle) sheltering a thousand (people).[9]

References

  1. ^ Annemarie Schimmel (1994). Deciphering the signs of God: a phenomenological approach to Islam (illustrated ed.). Edinburgh University Press. p. 69.
  2. ^ Eliade, Mircea, ed. (1987). The Encyclopedia of religion, Volume 9 (illustrated ed.). Macmillan. p. 292. ISBN 9780029098004.
  3. ^ Youssof, R. (1890). Dictionnaire portatif turc-français de la langue usuelle en caractères latins et turcs. Constantinople. p. 479.
  4. ^ Youssof, R. (1890). Dictionnaire portatif turc-français de la langue usuelle en caractères latins et turcs. Constantinople. p. 476.
  5. ^ َAl-Monjed dictionary and encyclopedia - the word Rabi' al-awwal
  6. ^ What is the Authentic Date of Birth and Death of Prophet Muhammad?
  7. ^ Umm Al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia
  8. ^ Iranian Revolutionary Guards, Institute of Islamic Studies. Days on viewpoint of Imam Khomeini. Tehran: Islamic research center. p. 176.
  9. ^ Al-Haakim, Naim ibn Hammad, Kitab Al-Fitan

External links

Abu al-Qasim ibn Hasan ibn Ajlan

Mu’ayyad al-Dīn Abu al-Qāsim ibn Ḥasan ibn ‘Ajlān al-Ḥasanī (Arabic: مؤيد الدين أبو القاسم بن حسن بن عجلان الحسني‎) was Emir of Mecca twice between 1443 and 1447.

He was appointed in place of his brother Ali in Shawwal 846 AH (February 1443). He reigned until Rabi al-Awwal 849 AH (June/July 1445) when he was deposed by his brother Barakat. In Dhu al-Hijjah (March 1446) Barakat left Mecca to avoid capture by the Egyptian emirs and Abu al-Qasim returned to the Emirate. On 17 Rabi al-Awwal 851 AH (c. 2 June 1447), Abu al-Qasim received word that the Sultan had returned the Emirate to Barakat. He promptly departed from Mecca and went to Wadi al-Abar. He then journeyed to Egypt, where he died in 853 AH (1449/1450).

Chup Tazia

Chup Tazia (Urdu: چپ تعزیہ‎) or silent tazia is the name given to religious processions held mostly on 8th of Rabi' al-awwal by Twelver Shia Muslims in India and Pakistan to commemorate the death of Imam Hasan al-Askari, the eleventh of the Twelver Shi'a Imams. The procession is usually regarded as the last procession of the mourning period that begins in the Islamic month of Muharram.

Hamid Raza Khan

Hamid Raza Khan Qadri was an Islamic scholar and mystic of the Barelvi movement. Qaaderi was born in 1875 (Rabi' al-awwal 1292 Hijri), in the city of Bareilly, India. His name at the time of his aqeeqah was Muhammad, as it was family tradition.

Hegira

The Hegira (medieval Latin transliteration, also Arabic: هِجْرَة‎, Hijra or Hijrah, meaning "departure") is the migration or journey of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Yathrib, later renamed by him to Medina, in the year 622. In June 622, after being warned of a plot to assassinate him, Muhammad secretly left his home in Mecca to emigrate to Yathrib, 320 km (200 mi) north of Mecca, along with his companion Abu Bakr. Yathrib was soon renamed Madīnat an-Nabī (Arabic: مَدينة النّبي‎, literally "City of the Prophet"), but an-Nabī was soon dropped, so its name is "Medina", meaning "the city".The Hijrah is also often identified with the start of the Islamic calendar, which was set to 19 April 622 in the Julian calendar.

Invasion of Banu Lahyan

The Invasion of Banu Lahyan took place in September, 627 AD in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal or Jumada Al-Ula, 6 AH of the Islamic calendar .

Invasion of Banu Nadir

The invasion of Banu Nadir took place in August 625 AD (Rabi' al-awwal, 4 AH) The account is related in Surah Al-Hashr (Chapter 59 - The Gathering) which describes the banishment of the Jewish tribe Banu Nadir who were expelled from Medina after being accused of plotting to assassinate the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

Khalidiyya

Naqshbandiyya Khalidiyya, Khalidiyya or Khalidi is the title of a branch of the Naqshbandiyya Sufi lineage, from the time of Khalid al-Baghdadi until the time of Shaykh Ismail ash-Shirwani.

Laylat al-Mabit

Laylat al-Mabīt (Arabic: لَـیْـلَـة ٱلْـمَـبِـیْـت‎) is the night in which the Islamic Nabī (Arabic: نَـبِي‎, Prophet) Muhammad started his emigration from Mecca to Medina. This night is believed to have taken place on the first of Rabi' al-awwal. Due to the decision of Quraysh to kill Muhammad, 'Ali ibn Abu Talib slept in his place and the prophet left Mecca.

List of festivals in Indonesia

Below is a list of festivals in Indonesia. The list is divided based on their respective calendar.

List of observances set by the Islamic calendar

Please note that all Islamic observances begin at the sundown prior to the date listed, and end at sundown of the date in question unless otherwise noted.

Mawlid

Mawlid or Mawlid al-Nabi al-Sharif (Arabic: مَولِد النَّبِي‎ mawlidu n-nabiyyi, "Birth of the Prophet", sometimes simply called in colloquial Arabic مولد mawlid, mevlid, mevlit, mulud among other vernacular pronunciations; sometimes ميلاد mīlād) is the observance of the birthday of Islamic prophet Muhammad which is commemorated in Rabi' al-awwal, the third month in the Islamic calendar. 12th Rabi' al-awwal is the accepted date among most of the Sunni scholars, while Shi'a scholars regard 17th Rabi' al-awwal as the accepted date.

The history of this celebration goes back to the early days of Islam when some of the Tabi‘un began to hold sessions in which poetry and songs composed to honour Muhammad were recited and sung to the crowds. The Ottomans declared it an official holiday in 1588,

known as Mevlid Kandil.

The term Mawlid is also used in some parts of the world, such as Egypt, as a generic term for the birthday celebrations of other historical religious figures such as Sufi saints.Most denominations of Islam approve of the commemoration of Muhammad's birthday; however, with the emerge of Wahhabism/Salafism, Muslims began to disapprove its commemoration, considering it an illicit religious innovation (bid'ah or bidat). Mawlid is recognized as a national holiday in all Muslim-majority countries of the world except Saudi Arabia and Qatar which are officially Wahhabi/Salafi.

Naqshbandi Tahiri Golden Chain

Naqshbandi Tahiri Golden Chain is the spiritual chain of successors of the Naqshbandi Sufi order which descendants on Khwaja Muhammad Tahir Bakhshi Naqshbandi commonly known as Sajjan Saeen. The recitation of this golden chain in poetic form is part of the daily practices of a follower in the Naqshbandi Tahiri Sufi order.

Patrol of Buwat

The Patrol of Buwat took place in October 623 or 2 A.H. of the Islamic calendar, in Rabi' al-Awwal. Muhammad went with a force of 200 men in order to raid parties of the Quraysh. Muhammad stayed at Buwat for some time and left without engaging in combat.

Saifia

The Silsila-e-Saifia Urdu سیفیہArabic السیفیہ is a Muslim Sufi order based in Pakistan, with a following in the UK, Europe, US, Canada,Afghanistan, India, Bangladesh and various countries of the Middle East. The order is linked to the lineage of Naqshbandiyyah Mujaddadiyyah, and the order's grandmaster is Akhundzada Saif-ur-Rahman Mubarak.

Sekaten

Sekaten (originated from Arabic word: Syahadatain) is a week-long Javanese traditional ceremony, festival, fair and pasar malam (night market) commemorating Maulid (the birthday of prophet Muhammad), celebrated annually started on 5th day through the 12th day of (Javanese Calendar) Mulud month (corresponding to Rabi' al-awwal in Islamic Calendar).

The festivities usually took place in northern alun-alun (square) in Yogyakarta, and simultaneously also celebrated in northern alun-alun of Surakarta. This ceremony originally were initiated by Sultan Hamengkubuwana I, the founder of Yogyakarta Sultanate to promote the Islamic faith.

Süleyman Hilmi Tunahan

Süleyman Hilmi Tunahan H.z, (1888 – September 16, 1959), was a 20th-century Islamic scholar born in the small Ottoman village of Ferhatlar, also known as Varatlar and today Delchevo in the Razgrad Province, Bulgaria. Süleyman later became a Sufi Master in the tradition of the Naqshbandi Order.Чейсас есть люди которые получают Нур (свет) от Бога через Сулаймана Хилми Тунахан

Süleymancılar

The Sūlaimānī Jamia (Jamia-e Sūlaymānīyyā / Süleyman Efendi Cemaati) or Süleymancılar (Sūlaymanites) is a Muslim Sunni-Hanafi jamia based in Turkey. It takes its name from Süleyman Hilmi Tunahan. In the early 1990s it was estimated that there were over two million members in Turkey. There are also independent branches in Germany and United States.Ahmet Denizolgun and Mehmet Denizolgun are Turkish politicians associated with the group.

Tawhid Boys School

Tawhid Boys School located in Stoke Newington, in the London Borough of Hackney.It is the first Islamic boys school in the Stoke Newington area. The school was founded in June 2000 (Rabi-al Awwal 1421). Moulana Yusuf Motala, head and founder of Darul-Uloom, Bury, Greater Manchester, inaugurated the school in September 2000.

The total number of students in Tawhid exceeds 100 between the ages of 10 and 16, with 13 teachers.The school was established with the aim of providing excellent Islamic and academic education. The school is managed by the Shura, the management committee. The number of students has increased over the years.Tawhid means "the oneness of God".

Usman bin Yahya

Usman bin Yahya, Utsman ibn Yahya or Othman bin Yahya (Arabic: عثمان بن يحيى‎, romanized: ‘Uthmān bin Yahyā; Arabic pronunciation: [ʕuθma:n bin jɑħjɑ:] full name: (Arabic: سيد عثمان بن عبد الله بن عقيل بن يحيى العلوي‎, romanized: Sayyid ‘Uthmān ibn ‘Abdallāh ibn ‘Aqīl ibn Yaḥyā al-‘Alawī) ; 1822 CE/17 Rabi' al-awwal 1238 AH - 1913 CE/21 Safar 1331 AH) was an Islamic scholar who served as Grand Mufti of Batavia in 19th century of Dutch East Indies.

Months of the Islamic calendar (AH)

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.