RR Lyrae variable

RR Lyrae variables are periodic variable stars, commonly found in globular clusters. They are used as standard candles to measure (extra)galactic distances, as a part of the cosmic distance ladder. This class of variable star is named after the prototype and brightest example, RR Lyrae.

RR Lyraes are pulsating horizontal branch aging stars of spectral class A or F, with a mass of around half the Sun's. They are thought to have previously shed mass during the Red-giant branch phase, and consequently, they were once stars with similar or slightly less mass than the Sun, around 0.8 solar masses.

The period of pulsation and absolute magnitude of RR Lyraes makes them good standard candles for relatively nearby targets, especially within the Milky Way and Local Group. Beyond the Milky Way they are difficult to detect due to their low luminosity. They are extensively used in globular cluster studies, and also used to study chemical properties of older stars.

The RR Lyrae variable stars fall in a particular area on a Hertzsprung–Russell diagram of color versus brightness.

Discovery and recognition

M5 colour magnitude diagram
H-R diagram for globular cluster M5, with the horizontal branch marked in yellow and known RR Lyrae stars in green

In surveys of globular clusters, these "cluster-type" variables were being rapidly identified in the mid-1890s, especially by E. C. Pickering.

Probably the first star of definitely RR Lyrae type found outside a cluster was U Leporis, discovered by J. Kapteyn in 1890.

The prototype star RR Lyrae was discovered prior to 1899 by Williamina Fleming, and reported by Pickering in 1900 as "indistinguishable from cluster-type variables".

From 1915 to the 1930s, the RR Lyraes became increasingly accepted as a class of star distinct from the classical Cepheids, due to their shorter periods, differing locations within the galaxy, and chemical differences. RR Lyrae variables are metal-poor, Population II stars.[1]

RR Lyraes have proven difficult to observe in external galaxies because of their intrinsic faintness. (In fact, Walter Baade's failure to find them in the Andromeda Galaxy led him to suspect that the galaxy was much farther away than predicted, to reconsider the calibration of Cepheid variables, and to propose the concept of stellar populations.[1]) Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the 1980s, Pritchet & van den Bergh found RR Lyraes in Andromeda's galactic halo[2] and, more recently, in its globular clusters.[3]


The RR Lyrae stars are conventionally divided into three main types,[1] following classification by S.I. Bailey based on the shape of the stars' brightness curves:

  • RRab variables are the most common, making up 91% of all observed RR Lyrae, and display the steep rises in brightness typical of RR Lyrae
  • RRc are less common, making up 9% of observed RR Lyrae, and have shorter periods and more sinusoidal variation
  • RRd are rare, making up between <1% and 30%[4] of RR Lyrae in a system, and are double-mode pulsators, unlike RRab and RRc


RR Lyrae stars were formerly called "cluster variables" because of their strong (but not exclusive) association with globular clusters; conversely, over 80% of all variables known in globular clusters are RR Lyraes.[5] RR Lyrae stars are found at all galactic latitudes, as opposed to classical Cepheids, which are strongly associated with the galactic plane.

Several times as many RR Lyraes are known as all Cepheids combined; in the 1980s, about 1900 were known in globular clusters. Some estimates have about 85000 in the Milky Way.[1]

Though binary star systems are common for typical stars, RR Lyrae are very rarely observed in pairs.[6]


RR Lyrae stars pulse in a manner similar to Cepheid variables, but the nature and histories of these stars is thought to be rather different. Like all variables on the Cepheid instability strip, pulsations are caused by the κ-mechanism, when the opacity of ionised helium varies with its temperature.

RR Lyraes are old, relatively low mass, Population II stars, in common with W Virginis and BL Herculis variables, the type II Cepheids. Classical Cepheid variables are higher mass population I stars. RR Lyrae variables are much more common than Cepheids, but also much less luminous. The average absolute magnitude of an RR Lyrae star is about +0.75, only 40 or 50 times brighter than our Sun.[7] Their period is shorter, typically less than one day, sometimes ranging down to seven hours. Some RRab stars, including RR Lyrae itself, exhibit the Blazhko effect in which there is a conspicuous phase and amplitude modulation.[8]

Period-luminosity relationships

Unlike Cepheid variables, RR Lyrae variables do not follow a strict period-luminosity relationship at visual wavelengths, although they do in the infrared K band.[9] They are normally analysed using a period-colour-relationship, for example using a Wesenheit function. In this way, they can be used as standard candles for distance measurements although there are difficulties with the effects of metallicity, faintness, and blending. The effect of blending can impact RR Lyrae variables sampled near the cores of globular clusters, which are so dense that in low-resolution observations multiple (unresolved) stars may appear as a single target. Thus the brightness measured for that seemingly single star (e.g., an RR Lyrae variable) is erroneously too bright, given those unresolved stars contributed to the brightness determined. Consequently, the computed distance is wrong, and certain researchers have argued that the blending effect can introduce a systematic uncertainty into the cosmic distance ladder, and may bias the estimated age of the Universe and the Hubble constant.[10][11][12]

Recent developments

The Hubble Space Telescope has identified several RR Lyrae candidates in globular clusters of the Andromeda Galaxy[3] and has measured the distance to the prototype star RR Lyrae.[13]

The Kepler space telescope provided extended coverage of a single field with accurate photometric data. RR Lyrae itself was in Kepler field of view.[14]

The Gaia mission is expected to greatly improve knowledge of RR Lyraes by providing homogeneous spectrographic information of a large population of such stars.[15]


  1. ^ a b c d Smith, Horace A., RR Lyrae Stars, Cambridge (2004)
  2. ^ Pritchet, Christopher J.; Van Den Bergh, Sidney (1987). "Observations of RR Lyrae stars in the halo of M31". Astrophysical Journal. 316: 517. Bibcode:1987ApJ...316..517P. doi:10.1086/165223.
  3. ^ a b Clementini, G.; Federici, L.; Corsi, C.; Cacciari, C.; Bellazzini, M.; Smith, H. A. (2001). "RR Lyrae Variables in the Globular Clusters of M31: A First Detection of Likely Candidates". The Astrophysical Journal. 559 (2): L109. arXiv:astro-ph/0108418. Bibcode:2001ApJ...559L.109C. doi:10.1086/323973.
  4. ^ Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Balona, L. A.; Garrido, R.; Suárez, J.C. (Oct 20, 2012). "Stellar Pulsations: Impact of New Instrumentation and New Insights". Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. ISBN 9783642296307. Retrieved 17 October 2014.
  5. ^ Clement, Christine M.; Muzzin, Adam; Dufton, Quentin; Ponnampalam, Thivya; Wang, John; Burford, Jay; Richardson, Alan; Rosebery, Tara; Rowe, Jason; Hogg, Helen Sawyer (2001). "Variable Stars in Galactic Globular Clusters". The Astronomical Journal. 122 (5): 2587. arXiv:astro-ph/0108024. Bibcode:2001AJ....122.2587C. doi:10.1086/323719.
  6. ^ Hajdu, G.; Catelan, M.; Jurcsik, J.; Dékány, I.; Drake, A.J.; Marquette, B. (2015). "New RR Lyrae variables in binary systems". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 449 (1): L113–L117. arXiv:1502.01318. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.449L.113H. doi:10.1093/mnrasl/slv024.
  7. ^ Layden, A. C.; Hanson, Robert B.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Klemola, Arnold R.; Hanley, Christopher J. (August 1996). "The Absolute Magnitude and Kinematics of RR Lyrae Stars via Statistical Parallax". Astron. J. 112: 2110–2131. arXiv:astro-ph/9608108. Bibcode:1996AJ....112.2110L. doi:10.1086/118167.
  8. ^ Szabó, R.; Kolláth, Z.; Molnár, L.; Kolenberg, K.; Kurtz, D. W.; Bryson, S. T.; Benkő, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Kjeldsen, H.; Borucki, W. J.; Koch, D.; Twicken, J. D.; Chadid, M.; Di Criscienzo, M.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Moskalik, P.; Nemec, J. M.; Nuspl, J. (2010). "Does Kepler unveil the mystery of the Blazhko effect? First detection of period doubling in Kepler Blazhko RR Lyrae stars". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 409 (3): 1244. arXiv:1007.3404. Bibcode:2010MNRAS.409.1244S. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2010.17386.x.
  9. ^ Catelan, M.; Pritzl, Barton J.; Smith, Horace A. (2004). "The RR Lyrae Period-Luminosity Relation. I. Theoretical Calibration". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 154 (2): 633. arXiv:astro-ph/0406067. Bibcode:2004ApJS..154..633C. doi:10.1086/422916.
  10. ^ Majaess, D.; Turner, D.; Gieren, W.; Lane, D. (2012). "The Impact of Contaminated RR Lyrae/Globular Cluster Photometry on the Distance Scale". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 752: L10. arXiv:1205.0255. Bibcode:2012ApJ...752L..10M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/752/1/L10.
  11. ^ Lee, Jae-Woo; López-Morales, Mercedes; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Kang, Young-Woon; Pohl, Brian L.; Walker, Alistair (2014). "Toward a Better Understanding of the Distance Scale from RR Lyrae Variable Stars: A Case Study for the Inner Halo Globular Cluster NGC 6723". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement. 210: 6. arXiv:1311.2054. Bibcode:2014ApJS..210....6L. doi:10.1088/0067-0049/210/1/6.
  12. ^ Neeley, J. R.; Marengo, M.; Bono, G.; Braga, V. F.; Dall'Ora, M.; Stetson, P. B.; Buonanno, R.; Ferraro, I.; Freedman, W. L.; Iannicola, G.; Madore, B. F.; Matsunaga, N.; Monson, A.; Persson, S. E.; Scowcroft, V.; Seibert, M. (2015). "On the Distance of the Globular Cluster M4 (NGC 6121) Using RR Lyrae Stars. II. Mid-infrared Period-luminosity Relations". The Astrophysical Journal. 808: 11. arXiv:1505.07858. Bibcode:2015ApJ...808...11N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/808/1/11.
  13. ^ Benedict, G. Fritz; et al. (January 2002). "Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescope: A Parallax of the Fundamental Distance Calibrator RR Lyrae". The Astronomical Journal. 123 (1): 473–484. arXiv:astro-ph/0110271. Bibcode:2002AJ....123..473B. doi:10.1086/338087.
  14. ^ Kinemuchi, Karen (2011). "RR Lyrae Research with the Kepler Mission". RR Lyrae Stars: 74. arXiv:1107.0297. Bibcode:2011rrls.conf...74K.
  15. ^ Bono, G. (2003). "The Cepheid and RR Lyrae instability strip with GAIA". GAIA Spectroscopy: Science and Technology. 298: 245. Bibcode:2003ASPC..298..245B.

External links

64 Eridani

64 Eridani is a single, yellow-white hued star in the constellation Eridanus with the variable star designation S Eridani. It is a faint star but visible to the naked eye with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.77. The annual parallax shift is measured at 11.24 mas, which provides a distance estimate of about 290 light years. It is moving closer to the Sun with a radial velocity of around −9 km/s.This is an F-type main-sequence star with a stellar classification of F0 V. It is catalogued a low amplitude Delta Scuti variable with a primary period of 0.273 days. Alternatively, it may be an RR Lyrae variable of type 'c'. 64 Eridani is spinning rapidly with a projected rotational velocity of 212 km/s. This is giving the star an oblate shape with an equatorial bulge that is 8% larger than the polar radius. The star is an estimated 644 million years old with 1.5 times the mass of the Sun. It is radiating 80 times the Sun's luminosity from its photosphere at an effective temperature of roughly 7,346 K.

BL Boötis

BL Boötis (abbreviated to BL Boo) is a pulsating variable star in the constellation Boötes. It varies from magnitude 14.45 to 15.10 over 0.82 days. It is located 4 arcminutes from the centre of (and assumed to be a member star of) the globular cluster NGC 5466. Its variability was first noted in 1961 by Russian astronomer Nikolaĭ Efimovich Kurochkin, who gave it the variable star designation BL Boötis. However, he thought it was an eclipsing binary. It was subsequently thought to be an RR Lyrae variable by T.I. Gryzunova in 1971.Robert Zinn confirmed it was a member of the globular cluster and found it was too blue to be an RR Lyrae variable. He gave it the name V19 within the cluster. He calculated its mass to be around 1.56 times and its luminosity to be around 278 times that of the Sun; its absolute magnitude is -1.27.BL Boötis has been designated the prototype of a rare class of variable star known as an anomalous Cepheid or BL Boötis variable. These stars are somewhat similar to Cepheid variables, but they do not have the same relationship between their period and luminosity. Their periods are similar to the ab subtypes of RR Lyrae variables; however, they are far brighter than these stars. Anomalous Cepheids are metal poor and have masses not much larger than the Sun's, on average, 1.5 solar masses. The origin of these stars is uncertain, but thought to possibly be from the merger of two stars. Detailed examination of the spectrum of BL Boötis with the Keck-1 telescope at the W. M. Keck Observatory showed that its effective (surface) temperature is around 6450 K at minimum light. It also showed that the chemical composition was consistent with ageing metal-poor (Population II) stars and hence cast doubt on the origin as a result of a stellar merger. The radial velocity is slower than would be expected if it were from a stellar merger.

Canis Major Overdensity

The Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy (CMa Dwarf) or Canis Major Overdensity (CMa Overdensity) is a disputed dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group, located in the same part of the sky as the constellation Canis Major.

The supposed small galaxy contains a relatively high percentage of red giants and is thought to contain an estimated one billion stars in all.

The Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy is classified as an irregular galaxy and is now thought to be the closest neighboring galaxy to the Earth's location in the Milky Way, being located about 25,000 light-years (7.7 kiloparsecs) away from the Solar System and 42,000 ly (13 kpc) from the Galactic Center. It has a roughly elliptical shape and is thought to contain as many stars as the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, the previous contender for closest galaxy to our location in the Milky Way.

Leo IV (dwarf galaxy)

Leo IV is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy situated in the Leo constellation, discovered in 2006 in the data obtained by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The galaxy is located at the distance of about 160 kpc from the Sun and moves away from the Sun with the velocity of about 130 km/s. It is classified as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy (dSph) meaning that it has an approximately round shape with the half-light radius of about 130 pc.Leo IV is one of the smallest and faintest satellites of the Milky Way; its integrated luminosity is about 15000 times that of the Sun (absolute visible magnitude of −5.5±0.3), which is much lower than the luminosity of a typical globular cluster. However, its mass is about 1.5 million solar masses, which means that Leo's mass to light ratio is around 150. A high mass to light ratio implies that Leo IV is dominated by the dark matter.The stellar population of Leo IV consists mainly of old stars formed more than 12 billion years ago. The metallicity of these old stars is also very low at [Fe/H] ≈ −2.58 ± 0.75, which means that they contain 400 times less heavy elements than the Sun. The observed stars were primarily red giants, although a number of Horizontal branch stars including three RR Lyrae variable stars were also discovered. The stars of Leo IV were probably among the first stars to form in the Universe. Nevertheless, the detailed study of the stellar population revealed the presence of a small number of much younger stars with the age of about 2 billion years or less. This discovery points to a complicated star formation history of this galaxy. Currently there is no star formation in Leo IV. The measurements have so far failed to detect any neutral hydrogen in it—the upper limit is just 600 solar masses.In 2008, another galaxy called Leo V was discovered in the vicinity of Leo IV. The former is located 20 kpc further from the Milky Way than the latter and 3 degrees (~ 10 kpc) away from it. These two galaxies may be physically associated with each other.

MACHO 176.18833.411

MACHO 176.18833.411 (OGLE BLG-RRLYR-10353) is an RR Lyrae variable star located in the galactic bulge of our Milky Way Galaxy. However, it is not a galactic bulge star, it is a galactic halo star, which is on the part of its elliptical orbit that brings it within the bulge before returning to the outer parts of the galaxy, the halo. The star is currently located about 850 pc (2,800 ly) from the Galactic Center. As of 2015, this star has the highest velocity of any known RR Lyrae variable located in the bulge, moving at 482 km/s (1,080,000 mph), only slightly below galactic escape velocity, and 5x the average velocity of bulge stars. Its nature was discovered as part of the BRAVA-RR survey.

Messier 107

Messier 107 or M107, also known as NGC 6171, is a very loose globular cluster in the constellation Ophiuchus, and is the last globular cluster in the Messier Catalogue. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in April 1782, then independently by William Herschel in 1793. Herschel described it as a "globular cluster of stars, large, very rich, very much compressed, round, well resolved, clearly consisting of stars". It was not until 1947 that Helen Sawyer Hogg added it and three other objects discovered by Méchain to the list of Messier objects. The cluster is located 2.5° south and slightly west of the star Zeta Ophiuchi.M107 is close to the galactic plane at a distance of about 20,900 light-years from Earth and 9.8 kly (3.0 kpc) from the Galactic Center. The orbit of this cluster carries it through the galaxy between 9.2–12.4 kly (2.82–3.79 kpc) from the Galactic Center, with the perigalactic distance laying within the galactic bar region. It is an Oosterhoff type I cluster with a metallicity of –0.95 and is considered part of the halo population. There are 22 known RR Lyrae variable stars in this cluster and a probable SX Phoenicis variable.

Messier 19

Messier 19 or M19 (also designated NGC 6273) is a globular cluster in the constellation Ophiuchus. It was discovered by Charles Messier on June 5, 1764 and added to his catalogue of comet-like objects that same year. It was resolved into individual stars by William Herschel in 1784. His son, John Herschel, described it as "a superb cluster resolvable into countless stars". The cluster is located 4.5° WSW of Theta Ophiuchi and is just visible as a fuzzy point of light using 50 mm (2.0 in) binoculars. Using a telescope with a 25.4 cm (10.0 in) aperture, the cluster shows an oval appearance with a 3′ × 4′ core and a 5′ × 7′ halo.M19 is one of the most oblate of the known globular clusters. This flattening may not accurately reflect the physical shape of the cluster because the emitted light is being strongly absorbed along the eastern edge. This is the result of extinction caused by intervening gas and dust. When viewed in the infrared, the cluster shows almost no flattening. It lies at a distance of about 28.7 kly (8.8 kpc) from the Solar System, and is quite near to the Galactic Center at only about 6.5 kly (2.0 kpc) away.This cluster contains an estimated 1,100,000 times the mass of the Sun and it is around 11.9 billion years old. The stellar population includes four Cepheids and RV Tauri variables, plus at least one RR Lyrae variable for which a period is known. Observations made during the ROSAT mission failed to reveal any low-intensity X-ray sources.

Messier 75

Messier 75 or M75, also known as NGC 6864, is a globular cluster of stars in the southern constellation Sagittarius. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1780 and included in Charles Messier's catalog of comet-like objects that same year.M75 is at a distance of about 67,500 light years away from Earth and is 14,700 light years away from, and on the opposite side of, the Galactic Center. Its apparent size on the sky translates to a true radius of some 67 light years. M75 is classified as class I, meaning it is one of the more densely concentrated globular clusters known. It shows a slow rotation around an axis that is inclined along a position angle of −15°±30°. The absolute magnitude of M75 is about −8.5 or some 180,000 times more luminous than the Sun.The cluster has a half-light radius of 9.1 ly (2.80 pc) with a core radius of about 1.6 ly (0.5 pc) and appears not to have undergone core collapse yet. The mass density at the core is 7.9×104 M☉·pc−3. There are 38 RR Lyrae variable stars and the cluster appears to be Oosterhoff-intermediate in terms of metallicity. 62 candidate blue stragglers have been identified in the cluster field, with 60% being in the core region.Messier 75 is part of the Gaia Sausage, the hypothesized remains of a dwarf galaxy that merged with the Milky Way. It is a halo object with an orbital period of 0.4 Gyr around the galaxy and a large eccentricity of 0.87. The apocenter is 57 kly (17.5 kpc) – close to the current separation.

Messier 92

Messier 92 (also known as M92, M 92, or NGC 6341) is a globular cluster of stars in the northern constellation of Hercules. It was discovered by Johann Elert Bode in 1777, then published in the Jahrbuch during 1779. The cluster was independently rediscovered by Charles Messier on March 18, 1781 and added as the 92nd entry in his catalogue. M92 is at a distance of about 26,700 light-years away from Earth.

M92 is one of the brighter globular clusters in the northern hemisphere, but it is often overlooked by amateur astronomers because of its proximity to the even more spectacular Messier 13. It is visible to the naked eye under very good conditions.Among the Milky Way population of globular clusters, Messier 92 is among the brighter clusters in terms of absolute magnitude. It is also one of the oldest clusters. Messier 92 is located around 16×10^3 ly (4.9 kpc) above the galactic plane and 33×10^3 ly (10 kpc) from the Galactic Center. The heliocentric distance of Messier 92 is 26.7×10^3 ly (8.2 kpc). The half-light radius, or radius containing half of the light emission from the cluster, is 1.09 arcminutes, while the tidal radius is 15.17 arcminutes. It appears only slightly flattened, with the minor axis being about 89% ± 3% as large as the major axis.Characteristic of other globulars, Messier 92 has a very low abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium; what astronomers term its metallicity. Relative to the Sun, the abundance of iron in the cluster is given by [Fe/H] = –2.29 dex, which equates to only 0.5% of the solar abundance. This puts the estimated age range for the cluster at 14.2 ± 1.2 billion years, or roughly the age of the Universe.The cluster is not currently in a state of core collapse and the core radius is about 2 arcseconds. It is an Oosterhoff type II (OoII) globular cluster, which means it belongs to the group of metal poor clusters with longer period RR Lyrae variable stars. The 1997 Catalogue of Variable Stars in Globular Clusters listed 28 candidate variable stars in the cluster, although only 20 have been confirmed. As of 2001, there are 17 known RR Lyrae variables in Messier 92. 10 X-ray sources have been detected within the 1.02 arcminute half-mass radius of the cluster, of which half are candidate cataclysmic variable stars.

Moving-cluster method

In astrometry, the moving-cluster method and the closely related convergent point method are means, primarily of historical interest, for determining the distance to star clusters. They were used on several nearby clusters in the first half of the 1900s to determine distance. The moving-cluster method is now largely superseded by other, usually more accurate distance measures.

NGC 1466

NGC 1466 is the New General Catalogue designation for a globular cluster in the deep southern constellation of Hydrus. It is located in the outskirts of the Large Magellanic Cloud, which is a satellite galaxy of the Milky Way. The object was discovered November 26, 1834 by English astronomer John Herschel. John Dreyer described it as "pF, pS, iR, glbM, *7 f", meaning "pretty faint, pretty small, irregular round, gradually a little brighter middle, with a 7th magnitude star nearby". When using a small telescope, this is a "faint, small, unresolved and difficult" target with an angular size of 1.9 arc minutes. It has an integrated visual magnitude of 11.4.This cluster has a reddening corrected distance modulus of 18.43±0.15, corresponding to a distance of 48.5 kpc. The cluster has a mass of about 140,000 times the mass of the Sun. It is an old cluster, having an estimated age of 13.1 billion years. In photographs, the cluster spans an apparent size of 3.50 arc minutes. The core radius has an angular size of 10.7±0.4 arc seconds, while the half-light radius is 24.3 arc seconds.There are a total of 49 known and one candidate RR Lyrae variable stars in the cluster, as of 2011. Eight are RRd, or double-mode RR Lyrae variables. The average periods are 0.591 days for RR Lyrae type ab and 0.335 days for RR Lyrae type c. These are consistent with a classification of Oosterhoff-intermediate for the cluster. Twelve other variables have been identified, including two long-period variables and a Cepheid variable.

NGC 4147

NGC 4147 is the New General Catalogue identifier for a globular cluster of stars in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices. It was discovered by English astronomer William Herschel on March 14, 1784, who described it as "very bright, pretty large, gradually brighter in the middle". With an apparent visual magnitude of 10.7, it is located around 60,000 light years away from the Sun at a relatively high galactic latitude of 77.2°.This is a relatively small globular cluster, ranking 112th in luminosity among the Milky Way globular cluster population. It is considered an Oosterhoff type I cluster (OoI), despite having a relatively low metallicity. Indeed, it has the lowest metallicity of any OoI cluster known. There are 19 RR Lyrae variable star candidates and as many as 23 blue stragglers. A high proportion of the latter are concentrated near the dense core of the cluster, which is consistent with the idea that blue stragglers form through stellar mergers.The cluster lies some 70.4 ± 7.5 kly (21.6 ± 2.3 kpc) from the Galactic Center, and is relatively isolated from other globular clusters in the galaxy. The position of this cluster makes it a candidate for association with the Sagittarius tidal stream, and thus it may have been captured by the Milky Way after separation from the Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy. A contour map of the cluster appears to show S-shaped tidal arms stretching to the north and south for several tidal radii. Such features are predicted for globular clusters that follow elliptical orbits and are near their apogalacticon.

NGC 5053

NGC 5053 is the New General Catalogue designation for a globular cluster in the northern constellation of Coma Berenices. It was discovered by German-British astronomer William Herschel on March 14, 1784 and cataloged as VI-7. In his abbreviated notation, he described it as, "an extremely faint cluster of extremely small stars with resolvable nebula 8 or 10′ diameter, verified by a power of 240, beyond doubt". Danish-Irish astronomer John Louis Emil Dreyer reported in 1888 that the cluster appeared, "very faint, pretty large, irregular round shape, growing very gradually brighter at the middle".This is a metal-poor cluster, meaning the stars have a low abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium—what astronomers term metallicity. As recently as 1995, it was considered the most metal-poor globular cluster in the Milky Way. The chemical abundances of the stars in NGC 5053 are more similar to those in the dwarf galaxy Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy than to the Milky Way halo. Along with the kinematics of the globular cluster, this suggests that NGC 5053 may have been stripped from the dwarf galaxy.There are ten known RR Lyrae variable stars in this cluster with masses ranging from 68% to 78% of the solar mass. Nine of these variables were reported by German astronomer Walter Baade in 1928, and the tenth by American astronomer Helen Sawyer in 1946. The cluster hosts 27 known blue stragglers, of which five are short period SX Phoenicis variable stars.NGC 5053 is a relatively low mass cluster with a low core concentration factor of 1.32. It sports a stream of tidal debris to the west with a projected length of 1.7 kpc. This stream may have been created through shock-induced processes. The cluster is located less than 1° from Messier 53 and the two have nearly the same distance modulus, which corresponds to a spatial separation of around 2 kpc. There is a tidal bridge joining M53 to NGC 5053, suggesting the pair may have interacted in the past. The cluster is following an orbit through the Milky Way that has a perigalacticon distance of 9 kpc and an orbital eccentricity of 0.84. At present, it is 18.4 kpc from the Galactic Core, with a radial velocity of 42.0±1.4 km/s.

NGC 6544

NGC 6544 is a small globular cluster visible in the constellation Sagittarius. It is magnitude 7.5, diameter 1 arc minute. It is less than 1 degree southeast of Messier 8, the lagoon nebula.

Palomar Transient Factory

The Palomar Transient Factory (PTF, obs. code: I41), was an astronomical survey using a wide-field survey camera designed to search for optical transient and variable sources such as variable stars, supernovae, asteroids and comets. The project completed commissioning in summer 2009, and continued until December 2012. It has since been succeeded by the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), which itself transitioned to the Zwicky Transient Facility in 2017/18. All three surveys are registered at the MPC under the same observatory code for their astrometric observations.

Pieter Oosterhoff

Pieter Theodorus Oosterhoff (30 March 1904, Leeuwarden - 14 March 1978, Leiden) was a Dutch astronomer.

He was the co-administrator, along with Jan Oort, of the Leiden Observatory in the Netherlands.

His published papers are primarily in regard to variable stars and photometry. He is most noted for his 1939 observation that there appear to be two populations of globular clusters based on the periodicities of their RR Lyrae variable stars. These two populations would come to be known as Oosterhoff groups after him.

Between 1951 and 1952 he served as assistant general secretary of the International Astronomical Union, and served as general secretary from 1952 until 1958. In 1954 he was one of twelve European astronomers who drafted a statement that would lead to the formation of the ESO.

The asteroid 1738 Oosterhoff is named after him.

RR Lyrae

RR Lyrae is a variable star in the Lyra constellation, located near the border with the neighboring constellation of Cygnus. As the brightest star in its class, it became the eponym for the RR Lyrae variable class of stars and it has been extensively studied by astronomers. RR Lyrae variables serve as important standard candles that are used to measure astronomical distances. The period of pulsation of an RR Lyrae variable depends on its mass, luminosity and temperature, while the difference between the measured luminosity and the actual luminosity allows its distance to be determined via the inverse-square law. Hence, understanding the period-luminosity relation for a set of local RR Lyrae-type variable stars allows the distance of more distant stars of this type to be determined.The variable nature of RR Lyrae was discovered by the Scottish astronomer Williamina Fleming at Harvard Observatory in 1901.The distance of RR Lyrae remained uncertain until 2002 when the Hubble Space Telescope's fine guidance sensor was used to determine the distance of RR Lyrae within a 5% margin of error, yielding a value of 262 parsecs (855 light-years). When combined with measurements from the Hipparcos satellite and other sources, the result is a distance estimate of 258 pc (841 ly).

This type of low-mass star has consumed the hydrogen at its core, evolved away from the main sequence, and passed through the red giant stage. Energy is now being produced by the thermonuclear fusion of helium at its core, and the star has entered an evolutionary stage called the horizontal branch (HB). The effective temperature of an HB star's outer envelope will gradually increase over time. When its resulting stellar classification enters a range known as the instability strip—typically at stellar class A—the outer envelope can begin to pulsate. RR Lyrae shows just such a regular pattern of pulsation, which is causing its apparent magnitude to vary between 7.06–8.12 over a short cycle lasting 0.56686776 days (13 hours, 36 minutes). Each radial pulsation causes the radius of the star to vary between 5.1 and 5.6 times the Sun's radius.This star belongs to a subset of RR Lyrae-type variables that show a characteristic behavior called the Blazhko effect, named after Russian astronomer Sergey Blazhko. This effect is observed as a periodic modulation of a variable star's pulsation strength or phase; sometimes both. It causes the light curve of RR Lyrae to change from cycle to cycle. As of 2009, the cause of this effect is not yet fully understood. The Blazhko period for RR Lyrae is 39.1 ± 0.3 days.As with other RR Lyrae-type variables, RR Lyrae itself has a low abundance of elements other than hydrogen and helium—what astronomers term its metallicity. It belongs to the Population II category of stars that formed during the early period of the Universe when there was a lower abundance of metals in star-forming regions. The trajectory of this star is carrying it along an orbit that is close to the plane of the Milky Way, taking it no more than 680 ly (210 pc) above or below this plane. The orbit has a high eccentricity, bringing RR Lyrae as close as 6.80 kly (2.08 kpc) to the Galactic Center at periapsis, and taking it as far as 59.9 kly (18.4 kpc) at apapsis.

RT Trianguli Australis

RT Trianguli Australis, or RT TrA, is a BL Herculis variable (type II Cepheid) in the constellation of Triangulum Australe.

Virgo Stellar Stream

The Virgo Stellar Stream, also known as Virgo Overdensity, is the proposed name for a stellar stream in the constellation of Virgo which was discovered in 2005. The stream is thought to be the remains of a dwarf spheroidal galaxy that is in the process of merging with the Milky Way. It is the largest galaxy visible from the Earth, in terms of the area of the night sky covered.

The stream was discovered from photometric data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, which was used to create a three-dimensional map of the Milky Way, using the colors and brightness of certain characteristic types of stars to estimate their distance (a method known as "photometric parallax"). The first suggestion of a new galaxy in Virgo was made in 2001 from data obtained as part of the QUEST survey, which used the one-metre Schmidt telescope at the Llano del Hato National Astronomical Observatory in Venezuela to search for RR Lyrae variable stars. Five were found in a clump with a right ascension near 12.4 hours, and the astronomers speculated that this clump was part of a small galaxy being "cannibalised" by the Milky Way.The stream covers over one hundred square degrees and possibly as much as one thousand square degrees (approximately five percent of the hemisphere visible at any one time, or five thousand times the area of the full moon). Despite its proximity to the solar system and the solid angle that it consequently covers, the stream contains only a few hundred thousand stars. The low surface brightness of the galaxy (possibly as low as 32.5 mag/arcmin²) may have militated against its detection in surveys before SDSS. The number of stars in the stream is not greatly in excess of a star cluster, and it has been described by a member of the team that discovered it as "a rather pathetic galaxy" in comparison to the Milky Way. Many of the stars have been known for centuries and thought of as normal Milky Way stars, although they have a lower metallicity than normal Population I stars in the Milky Way.

The stream lies within the Milky Way, approximately 10 kiloparsecs (30,000 light-years) from the Sun, and extending over a region of space at least 10 kpc across in three dimensions. It is close on the plane of the sky to the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, which was found in 1994 through a similar photometric analysis of a star survey. The Sagittarius Dwarf is another small galaxy which is also in the process of merging with the Milky Way; however, it is approximately 4 times further away than the stream, so the two are unlikely to be physically related, although it is possible that the Virgo Stellar Stream is a remnant left behind by the disruption of the Sagittarius Dwarf as it had orbited around the Milky Way. The Virgo Stellar Stream also resembles the Monoceros Ring, found in 2002, which has similarly been attributed to the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy merging with the Milky Way.


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