The RMS Queen Mary is a retired British ocean liner that sailed primarily on the North Atlantic Ocean from 1936 to 1967 for the Cunard Line – known as Cunard-White Star Line when the vessel entered service. She was the flagship of the Cunard and White Star Lines, built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Scotland, Queen Mary, along with RMS Queen Elizabeth, were built as part of Cunard's planned two-ship weekly express service between Southampton, Cherbourg and New York. The two ships were a British response to the express superliners built by German, Italian and French companies in the late 1920s and early 1930s. Queen Mary was the flagship of the Cunard Line from May 1936 until October 1946 when she was replaced in that role by Queen Elizabeth.
Queen Mary sailed on her maiden voyage on 27 May 1936 and won the Blue Riband that August; she lost the title to SS Normandie in 1937 and recaptured it in 1938, holding it until 1952 when she was beaten by the new SS United States. With the outbreak of the Second World War, she was converted into a troopship and ferried Allied soldiers during the war.
Following the war, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service and along with Queen Elizabeth commenced the two-ship transatlantic passenger service for which the two ships were initially built. The two ships dominated the transatlantic passenger transportation market until the dawn of the jet age in the late 1950s. By the mid-1960s, Queen Mary was ageing and, though still among the most popular transatlantic liners, was operating at a loss.
After several years of decreased profits for Cunard Line, Queen Mary was officially retired from service in 1967. She left Southampton for the last time on 31 October 1967 and sailed to the port of Long Beach, California, United States, where she remains permanently moored. Much of the machinery, including one of the two engine rooms, three of the four propellers, and all of the boilers, were removed. The ship serves as a tourist attraction featuring restaurants, a museum and a hotel. The ship is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Trust for Historic Preservation has accepted the Queen Mary as part of the Historic Hotels of America.
|RMS Queen Mary|
The ship’s final resting place in Long Beach, California
|Namesake:||Mary of Teck, consort of George V|
|Port of registry:||Liverpool|
|Route:||Southampton, New York, via Cherbourg (normal transatlantic voyage East and West bound)|
|Ordered:||3 April 1929|
|Laid down:||1 December 1930|
|Launched:||26 September 1934|
|Sponsored by:||Queen Mary|
|Christened:||26 September 1934|
|Maiden voyage:||27 May 1936|
|Out of service:||9 December 1967 (retired)|
|Beam:||118 ft (36.0 m)|
|Height:||181 ft (55.2 m)|
|Draught:||39 ft (11.9 m)|
|Installed power:||24 × Yarrow boilers|
|Capacity:||2,139 passengers: 776 first (cabin) class, 784 cabin class, 579 tourist class|
RMS Queen Mary
|NRHP reference #||92001714|
|Added to NRHP||15 April 1993|
With Germany launching Bremen and Europa into service, Britain did not want to be left behind in the shipbuilding race. White Star Line began construction on their 80,000-ton Oceanic in 1928, while Cunard planned a 75,000-ton unnamed ship of their own.
Construction on the ship, then known only as "Hull Number 534", began in December 1930 on the River Clyde by the John Brown & Company shipyard at Clydebank in Scotland. Work was halted in December 1931 due to the Great Depression and Cunard applied to the British Government for a loan to complete 534. The loan was granted, with enough money to complete the unfinished ship, and also to build a running mate, with the intention to provide the weekly service to New York with just two ships.
One condition of the loan was that Cunard would merge with the White Star Line, which was Cunard's chief British rival at the time and which had already been forced by the depression to cancel construction of its Oceanic. Both lines agreed and the merger was completed on 10 May 1934. Work on Queen Mary resumed immediately and she was launched on 26 September 1934. Completion ultimately took 3 1⁄2 years and cost 3.5 million pounds sterling. Much of the ship's interior was designed and constructed by the Bromsgrove Guild. Prior to the ship's launch, the River Clyde had to be specifically deepened to cope with her size, this being undertaken by the engineer D. Alan Stevenson.
The ship was named after Mary of Teck, consort of King George V. Until her launch, the name was kept a closely guarded secret. Legend has it that Cunard intended to name the ship Victoria, in keeping with company tradition of giving its ships names ending in "ia", but when company representatives asked the king's permission to name the ocean liner after Britain's "greatest queen", he said his wife, Mary of Teck, would be delighted. And so, the legend goes, the delegation had of course no other choice but to report that No. 534 would be called Queen Mary.
This story was denied by company officials, and traditionally the names of sovereigns have only been used for capital ships of the Royal Navy. Some support for the story was provided by Washington Post editor Felix Morley, who sailed as a guest of the Cunard Line on Queen Mary's 1936 maiden voyage. In his 1979 autobiography, For the Record, Morley wrote that he was placed at table with Sir Percy Bates, chairman of the Cunard Line. Bates told him the story of the naming of the ship "on condition you won't print it during my lifetime." The name Queen Mary could also have been decided upon as a compromise between Cunard and the White Star Line, as both lines had traditions of using names either ending in "ic" with White Star and "ia" with Cunard.
Queen Mary was fitted with 24 Yarrow boilers in four boiler rooms and four Parsons turbines in two engine rooms. The boilers delivered 400 pounds per square inch (28 bar) steam at 700 °F (371 °C) which provided a maximum of 212,000 shp (158,000 kW) to four propellers, each turning at 200 RPM. Queen Mary achieved 32.84 knots on her acceptance trials in early 1936.
In 1934 the new liner was launched by Queen Mary as RMS Queen Mary. On her way down the slipway, Queen Mary was slowed by eighteen drag chains, which checked the liner's progress into the River Clyde, a portion of which had been widened to accommodate the launch.
When she sailed on her maiden voyage from Southampton on 27 May 1936, she was commanded by Sir Edgar T. Britten, who had been the master designate for Cunard White Star whilst the ship was under construction at the John Brown shipyard. Queen Mary measured 80,774 gross register tons (GRT). Her rival Normandie, which originally grossed 79,280 tonnes, had been modified the preceding winter to increase her size to 83,243 GRT (an enclosed tourist lounge was built on the aft boat deck on the area where the game court was), and therefore reclaimed the title of the world's largest ocean liner from the Queen Mary, who only held it for a few weeks. Queen Mary sailed at high speeds for most of her maiden voyage to New York, until heavy fog forced a reduction of speed on the final day of the crossing, arriving in New York Harbor on 1 June 1936.
Queen Mary's design was criticised for being too traditional, especially when Normandie's hull was revolutionary with a clipper-shaped, streamlined bow. Except for her cruiser stern, she seemed to be an enlarged version of her Cunard predecessors from the pre–First World War era. Her interior design, while mostly Art Deco, seemed restrained and conservative when compared to the ultramodern French liner. Queen Mary proved to be the more popular vessel than her larger rival, in terms of passengers carried.
In August 1936, Queen Mary captured the Blue Riband from Normandie, with average speeds of 30.14 knots (55.82 km/h; 34.68 mph) westbound and 30.63 knots (56.73 km/h; 35.25 mph) eastbound. Normandie was refitted with a new set of propellers in 1937 and reclaimed the honour, but in 1938 Queen Mary took back the Blue Riband in both directions with average speeds of 30.99 knots (57.39 km/h; 35.66 mph) westbound and 31.69 knots (58.69 km/h; 36.47 mph) eastbound, records which stood until lost to United States in 1952.
Among facilities available on board Queen Mary, the liner featured two indoor swimming pools, beauty salons, libraries and children's nurseries for all three classes, a music studio and lecture hall, telephone connectivity to anywhere in the world, outdoor paddle tennis courts and dog kennels. The largest room onboard was the cabin class (first class) main dining room (grand salon), spanning three stories in height and anchored by wide columns. The cabin-class swimming pool facility spanned over two decks in height. This was the first ocean liner to be equipped with her own Jewish prayer room – part of a policy to show that British shipping lines avoided the racism evident at that time in Nazi Germany.
The cabin-class main dining room featured a large map of the transatlantic crossing, with twin tracks symbolising the winter/spring route (further south to avoid icebergs) and the summer/autumn route. During each crossing, a motorised model of Queen Mary would indicate the vessel's progress en route.
As an alternative to the main dining room, Queen Mary featured a separate cabin-class Verandah Grill on the Sun Deck at the upper aft of the ship. The Verandah Grill was an exclusive à la carte restaurant with a capacity of approximately eighty passengers, and was converted to the Starlight Club at night. Also on board was the Observation Bar, an Art Deco-styled lounge with wide ocean views.
Woods from different regions of the British Empire were used in her public rooms and staterooms. Accommodation ranged from fully equipped, luxurious cabin (first) class staterooms to modest and cramped third-class cabins. Artists commissioned by Cunard in 1933 for works of art in the interior include Edward Wadsworth and A. Duncan Carse.
In late August 1939, Queen Mary was on a return run from New York to Southampton. The international situation led to her being escorted by the battlecruiser HMS Hood. She arrived safely, and set out again for New York on 1 September. By the time she arrived, the Second World War had started and she was ordered to remain in port alongside Normandie until further notice.
In March 1940, Queen Mary and Normandie were joined in New York by Queen Mary's new sister ship Queen Elizabeth, fresh from her secret dash from Clydebank. The three largest liners in the world sat idle for some time until the Allied commanders decided that all three ships could be used as troopships. Normandie was destroyed by fire during her troopship conversion. Queen Mary left New York for Sydney, Australia, where she, along with several other liners, was converted into a troopship to carry Australian and New Zealand soldiers to the United Kingdom.
In the Second World War conversion, the ship's hull, superstructure, and funnels were painted navy grey. As a result of her new colour, and in combination with her great speed, she became known as the "Grey Ghost". To protect against magnetic mines, a degaussing coil was fitted around the outside of the hull. Inside, stateroom furniture and decoration were removed and replaced with triple-tiered wooden bunks, which were later replaced by standee bunks.
A total of 6 miles (10 km) of carpet, 220 cases of china, crystal and silver services, tapestries, and paintings were removed and stored in warehouses for the duration of the war. The woodwork in the staterooms, the cabin-class dining room, and other public areas was covered with leather. Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were the largest and fastest troopships involved in the war, often carrying as many as 15,000 men in a single voyage, and often travelling out of convoy and without escort. Their high speed and zigzag courses made it virtually impossible for U-boats to catch them.
On 2 October 1942, Queen Mary accidentally sank one of her escort ships, slicing through the light cruiser HMS Curacoa off the Irish coast with a loss of 239 lives. Queen Mary was carrying thousands of Americans of the 29th Infantry Division to join the Allied forces in Europe. Due to the risk of U-boat attacks, Queen Mary was under orders not to stop under any circumstances and steamed onward with a fractured stem. Some sources claim that hours later, the convoy's lead escort returned to rescue 99 survivors of Curacoa's crew of 338, including her captain John W. Boutwood. This claim is contradicted by the liner's then Staff Captain (and later Cunard Commodore) Harry Grattidge, who records that Queen Mary's Captain immediately ordered the accompanying destroyers to look for survivors within moments of the Curacoa's sinking.
From 25–30 July 1943, Queen Mary carried 15,740 soldiers and 943 crews (total 16,683), a standing record for the most passengers ever transported on one vessel. During this trip, while 700 miles (1,100 km) from Scotland during a gale, she was suddenly hit broadside by a rogue wave that might have reached a height of 28 metres (92 ft). An account of this crossing can be found in Carter's book. As quoted in the book, Carter's father, Dr. Norval Carter, part of the 110th Station Hospital on board at the time, wrote in a letter that at one point Queen Mary "damned near capsized... One moment the top deck was at its usual height and then, swoom! Down, over, and forward she would pitch." It was calculated later that the ship rolled 52 degrees, and would have capsized had she rolled another 3 degrees. The incident inspired Paul Gallico to write his best-known novel, The Poseidon Adventure (1969), carrying the incident further to a fictional extreme where the ship actually does capsize. This was adapted as a 1972 film by the same name, in which the SS Poseidon is turned upside-down, and the trapped passengers try to escape. Parts of the film were shot in the actual Queen Mary, conveniently docked in Long Beach.
During the war Queen Mary carried British Prime Minister Winston Churchill across the Atlantic for meetings with fellow Allied forces officials on several occasions. He was listed on the passenger manifest as "Colonel Warden".
After delivering a load of war brides to Canada, Queen Mary made her fastest ever crossing, returning to Southampton in only three days, 22 hours and 42 minutes at an average speed of just under 32 knots (59 km/h). From September 1946 to July 1947, Queen Mary was refitted for passenger service, adding air conditioning and upgrading her berth configuration to 711 first class (formerly called cabin class), 707 cabin class (formerly tourist class) and 577 tourist class (formerly third class) passengers. Following refit, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth dominated the transatlantic passenger trade as Cunard White Star's two-ship weekly express service through the latter half of the 1940s and well into the 1950s. They proved highly profitable for Cunard (as the company was renamed in 1947).
In 1958 the first transatlantic flight by a jet began a completely new era of competition for the Cunard Queens. On some voyages, winters especially, Queen Mary sailed into harbour with more crew than passengers, though both she and Queen Elizabeth still averaged over 1,000 passengers per crossing into the middle 1960s. By 1965, the entire Cunard fleet was operating at a loss.
Hoping to continue financing the Queen Elizabeth 2 which was under construction at Brown's shipyard, Cunard mortgaged the majority of the fleet. Due to a combination of age, lack of public interest, inefficiency in a new market and the damaging after effects of the national seamen's strike, Cunard announced that both Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth would be retired from service and sold off. Many offers were submitted, and the bid of $3.45m/£1.2m from Long Beach, California beat the Japanese scrap merchants. The Queen Mary was featured in the action-adventure film Assault on a Queen (1966) starring Frank Sinatra.
Queen Mary was retired from service in 1967. On 27 September, she completed her 1,000th and last crossing of the North Atlantic, having carried 2,112,000 passengers over 3,792,227 miles (6,102,998 km). Under the command of Captain John Treasure Jones, who had been her captain since 1965, she sailed from Southampton for the last time on 31 October with 1,093 passengers and 806 crew. After a voyage around Cape Horn, she arrived in Long Beach on 9 December. Queen Elizabeth was withdrawn in 1968 and Queen Elizabeth 2 took over the transatlantic route in 1969.
Queen Mary is permanently moored as a tourist attraction, hotel, museum and event facility in Long Beach. From 1983 to 1993, Howard Hughes' plane H-4 Hercules was located in a large dome nearby. The dome was later repurposed as a soundstage for film and television. The structure is now used by Carnival Cruise Lines as a ship terminal, as a venue for the Long Beach Derby Gals roller derby team and as an event venue.
Since drilling for oil had started in Long Beach Harbor, some of the revenue had been set aside in the "Tidelands Oil Fund." Some of this money was allocated in 1958 for the future purchase of a maritime museum for Long Beach.
When Queen Mary was bought by Long Beach, the new owners decided not to preserve her as an ocean liner. It had been decided to clear almost every area of the ship below "C" deck (called "R" deck after 1950, to lessen passenger confusion, as the restaurants were located on "R" deck) to make way for Jacques Cousteau's new Living Sea Museum. This increased museum space to 400,000 square feet (37,000 m2).
It required removal of all the boiler rooms, the forward engine room, both turbo generator rooms, the ship stabilisers and the water softening plant. The ship's empty fuel tanks were filled with local mud to keep the ship's centre of gravity and draft at the correct levels, as these critical factors had been affected by the removal of the various components and structure. Only the aft engine room and "shaft alley", at the stern of the ship, would be spared. Remaining space would be used for storage or office space.
One problem that arose during the conversion was a dispute between land-based and maritime unions over conversion jobs. The United States Coast Guard had final say. Queen Mary was deemed a building, since most of her propellers had been removed and her machinery gutted. The ship was also repainted with its red water level paint at a slightly higher level than previously. During the conversion the funnels were removed, as this area was needed to lift out the scrap materials from the engine and boiler rooms. Workers found that the funnels were significantly degraded and they were replaced with replicas.
With all of the lower decks nearly gutted from R deck and down, Diners Club, the initial lessee of the ship, converted the remainder of the vessel into a hotel. Diners Club Queen Mary dissolved and vacated the ship in 1970 after their parent company, Diners Club International, was sold, and a change in corporate direction was mandated during the conversion process. Specialty Restaurants, a Los Angeles-based company that focused on theme-based restaurants, took over as master lessee the following year.
This second plan was based on converting most of her first- and second-class cabins on A and B decks into hotel rooms, and converting the main lounges and dining rooms into banquet spaces. On Promenade Deck, the starboard promenade was enclosed to feature an upscale restaurant and café named Lord Nelson's and Lady Hamilton's; it was themed in the fashion of early-19th century sailing ships. The famed and elegant Observation Bar was redecorated as a western-themed bar.
The smaller first-class public rooms, such as the Drawing Room, Library, Lecture Room and the Music Studio, would be stripped of most of their fittings and converted to commercial use. This markedly expanded retail space on the ship. Two more shopping malls were built on the Sun Deck in separate spaces previously used for first-class cabins and engineers' quarters.
A post-war feature of the ship, the first-class cinema, was removed for kitchen space for the new Promenade Deck dining venues. The first-class lounge and smoking room were reconfigured and converted into banquet space. The second-class smoking room was subdivided into a wedding chapel and office space. On the Sun Deck, the elegant Verandah Grill would be gutted and converted into a fast-food eatery, while a new upscale dining venue was created directly above it on Sports Deck, in space once used for crew quarters.
The second-class lounges were expanded to the sides of the ship and used for banqueting. On R deck, the first-class dining room was reconfigured and subdivided into two banquet venues, the Royal Salon and the Windsor Room. The second-class dining room was subdivided into kitchen storage and a crew mess hall, while the third-class dining room was initially used as storage and crew space.
Also on R deck, the first-class Turkish bath complex, the 1930s equivalent to a spa, was removed. The second-class pool was removed and its space initially used for office space, while the first-class swimming pool was open for viewing by hotel guests and visitors. Because of modern safety codes and the compromised structural soundness of the area directly below, the swimming pool could not be used for swimming after the conversion, although it was filled with water until the late 1980s. Today the pool can only be seen on guided tours and is in a derelict condition, having never been maintained by the hotel operators. No second-class, third-class or crew cabins remain intact aboard the ship today.
On 8 May 1971 Queen Mary opened her doors to tourists. Initially, only portions of the ship were open to the public as Specialty Restaurants had yet to open its dining venues and PSA had not completed work converting the ship's original First Class staterooms into the hotel. As a result, the ship was open only on weekends. On 11 December 1971 Jacques Cousteau's Museum of the Sea opened, with a quarter of the planned exhibits completed. Within the decade, Cousteau's museum closed due to low ticket sales and the deaths of many of the fish that were housed in the museum. On 2 November 1972 the PSA Hotel Queen Mary opened its initial 150 guest rooms. Two years later, with all 400 rooms finished, PSA brought in Hyatt Hotels to manage the hotel, which operated from 1974 to 1980 as the Queen Mary Hyatt Hotel.
By 1980, it had become apparent that the existing system was not working. The ship was losing millions each year for the city because the hotel, restaurants and museum were run by three separate concessionaires, while the city owned the vessel and operated guided tours. It was decided that a single operator with more experience in attractions was needed.
Jack Wrather, a local millionaire, had fallen in love with the ship because he and his wife, Bonita Granville, had fond memories of sailing on it numerous times. Wrather signed a 66-year lease with the city of Long Beach to operate the entire property. He oversaw the display of the Spruce Goose, on long-term loan. The immense plane, which had been sitting in a hangar in Long Beach for decades unseen by the public, was installed in a huge geodesic dome adjacent to the liner in 1983, attracting increased attendance.
His Wrather Port Properties operated the entire attraction after his death in 1984 until 1988, when his holdings were bought by the Walt Disney Company. Wrather had built the Disneyland Hotel in 1955, when Walt Disney had insufficient funds to construct the hotel himself. Disney had been trying to buy the hotel for 30 years. When they finally succeeded, they also acquired the Queen Mary. This was never marketed as a Disney property.
Through the late 1980s and early 1990s the Queen Mary struggled financially. Disney pinned their hopes for turning the attraction around on Port Disney, a huge planned resort on the adjacent docks. It was to include an attraction known as DisneySea, a theme park celebrating the world's oceans. The plans eventually fell through; in 1992 Disney gave up the lease on the ship to focus on building what would become Disney California Adventure Park. The DisneySea concept was recycled a decade later in Japan as Tokyo DisneySea, with a recreated ocean liner resembling Queen Mary named the SS Columbia as the centrepiece of the American Waterfront area.
With Disney gone, the Hotel Queen Mary closed on 30 September 1992. The owners of the Spruce Goose, the Aero Club of Southern California, sold the plane to the Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum in Oregon. The plane departed on barges on 2 October 1992, leaving the huge dome empty. The Queen Mary tourist attraction remained open for another two months, but on 31 December 1992, the Queen Mary completely closed her doors to tourists and visitors.
On 5 February 1993, RMS Foundation, Inc signed a five-year lease with the city of Long Beach to act as the operators of the property. The foundation was run by President and C.E.O. Joseph F. Prevratil, who had managed the attraction for Wrather. On 26 February 1993 the tourist attraction reopened completely, while the hotel reopened partially on 5 March with 125 rooms and the banquet facilities, with the remainder of the rooms coming online on 30 April. In 1995, RMS Foundation's lease was extended to twenty years, while the scope of the lease was reduced to operation of the ship. A new company, Queen's Seaport Development, Inc. (QSDI), was established in 1995 to control the real estate adjacent to the vessel. In 1998, the city of Long Beach extended the QSDI lease to 66 years.
In 2005, QSDI sought Chapter 11 protection due to a rent credit dispute with the city. In 2006, the bankruptcy court requested bids from parties interested in taking over the lease from QSDI. The minimum required opening bid was $41M. The operation of the ship, by RMS Foundation, remained independent of the bankruptcy. In summer 2007, Queen Mary's lease was sold to a group named "Save the Queen," managed by Hostmark Hospitality Group.
They planned to develop the land adjacent to Queen Mary, and upgrade, renovate and restore the ship. During their management, staterooms were updated with iPod docking stations and flatscreen TVs and the ship's three funnels and waterline area were repainted their original Cunard Red color. The portside Promenade Deck's planking was restored and refinished. Many lifeboats were repaired and patched, and the ship's kitchens were renovated with new equipment.
In 2004, Queen Mary and Stargazer Productions added Tibbies Great American Cabaret to the space previously occupied by the ship's bank and wireless telegraph room. Stargazer Productions and Queen Mary transformed the space into a working dinner theatre complete with stage, lights, sound and scullery.
In late September 2009, management of Queen Mary was taken over by Delaware North Companies, who plan to continue restoration and renovation of the ship and its property. They were determined to revitalise and enhance the ship as an attraction. But in April 2011, The city of Long Beach was informed that Delaware North was no longer managing Queen Mary. Garrison Investment Group said this decision was purely business. Delaware North still manages Scorpion, a Soviet submarine that has been a separate attraction next to Queen Mary since 1998. Evolution Hospitality, LLC. assumed operational control of the Queen Mary on 23 September 2011, with Garrison Investments leasing Queen Mary.
In 2016 Urban Commons, a real estate company, assumed the lease of the Queen Mary. They revealed plans to extensively renovate the liner over the next year, and to redevelop the adjacent 45 acres of parking with a boutique hotel, restaurants, a marina, an amphitheater, jogging trails, bike paths and possibly a huge Ferris wheel, all at a cost of up to $250 million.
In July 2017, while making repairs to a bathroom, workers rediscovered the ship's forward gear room which had once controlled the ships 16-ton anchors. The room was apparently sealed up during the 1960s conversion and was forgotten for decades.
In 2017 a report on the ship's condition was issued. The report noted that not only the hull but also the supports for a raised exhibition area within the ship were corroding, and that the ship's deteriorating condition left areas such as the engine room vulnerable to flooding. Repairs were estimated at close to $300 million. In November 2016 the City of Long Beach had put $23 million toward addressing the Queen Mary's most vital repairs. John Keisler, economic and property development director for Long Beach, said, "We have a timeline in which the engineers believe they can complete those immediate projects. These are major challenges we can only address over time; it can't all be done at once." Political leaders in Scotland, birthplace of the Queen Mary, have called for UK Prime Minister Theresa May to pressure the American government to fund a full repair of the liner.
On 23 February 2006, RMS Queen Mary 2 saluted her predecessor as she made a port of call in Los Angeles Harbor, while on a cruise to Mexico. In March 2011, Queen Mary was saluted by MS Queen Victoria while fireworks were going on, and on 12 March 2013, MS Queen Elizabeth made a salute while there were fireworks.
The salute was carried out with Queen Mary replying with her one working air horn in response to Queen Mary 2 sounding her combination of two brand new horns and an original 1934 Queen Mary horn (on loan from the City of Long Beach). Queen Mary originally had three whistles tuned to 55 Hz, a frequency chosen because it was low enough that the extremely loud sound of it would not be painful to human ears.
Modern IMO regulations specify ships' horn frequencies to be in the range 70–200 Hz for vessels that are over 200 metres (660 ft) in length. Traditionally, the lower the frequency, the larger the ship. Queen Mary 2, being 345 metres (1,132 ft) long, was given the lowest possible frequency (70 Hz) for her regulation whistles, in addition to the refurbished 55 Hz whistle on permanent loan. Fifty-five Hz is the "A" note an octave above the lowest note of a standard piano keyboard. The air-driven Tyfon whistle can be heard at least 10 miles (16 km) away.
Queen Mary's original, professionally manned wireless radio room was removed when the ship was moored in Long Beach. In its place, an amateur radio room was created one deck above the original radio reception room, with some of the discarded original radio equipment used for display purposes. The amateur radio station, with the call sign W6RO ("Whiskey Six Romeo Oscar"), relies on volunteers from a local amateur radio club. They staff the radio room during most public hours. The radios can also be used by other licensed amateur radio operators.
In honour of his over forty years of dedication to W6RO and Queen Mary, in November 2007 the Queen Mary Wireless Room was renamed as the Nate Brightman Radio Room. This was announced on 28 October 2007, at Brightman's 90th birthday party by Joseph Prevratil, former President and CEO of the Queen Mary.
Following Queen Mary's permanent docking in California, claims were made that the ship was haunted. In 2008, Time magazine included The Queen Mary among its "Top 10 Haunted Places". One of the staterooms is alleged to be haunted by the spirit of a person supposedly murdered there. The Queen Mary Hotel promotes suite room B-340, a former third class cabin, as "notoriously haunted". The Queen Mary also operates a number of commercial tours that include haunted attraction experiences, such as its "Haunted Encounters Tour" and "Ghosts and Legends" tour, promoted as featuring "terrifying original stories and characters based the ship’s well-known paranormal tales". Skeptical Inquirer writer John Champion has criticized the haunted tours, calling them a "cynical exploitation of the space" and noting that much effort is put into promoting the ship as a “haunted attraction", while efforts to explain or preserve the factual history of the ship are "somehow pushed to the wayside".
| Holder of the Blue Riband (Westbound)
| Atlantic Eastbound Record|
| Holder of the Blue Riband (Westbound)
| Atlantic Eastbound Record|
Alfred Charles Gardner FRSE MICE MIME (1880–1952) was a Scottish engineer. He designed vast station roofs and bridges for the Great Western Railway. In later life, he created the launch sites for RMS Queen Mary and RMS Queen Elizabeth in the Clyde shipyards.Beyond Investigation Magazine
Beyond Investigation Magazine (BIM) is an American magazine that features Beyond Investigation, a group that investigates paranormal and conspiracy theory claims. Beyond Investigation was founded by Patrick Wheelock in 2004 to investigate claims of paranormal activity and to publish those investigations and associated research in a printed periodical. Due to the expenses associated with publishing a limit circulation periodical, BIM has changed distribution formats to web and DVD, and only the first issue was distributed in print. In 2005, BIM began webcasting audio programming, most notably a weekly talk show called The Pat & Brian Show.
Beyond Investigation claims to differ from most other paranormal investigative groups in that, although they have worked on occasion with psychics, they make no attempt to purge or explain paranormal activity, they simply attempt to objectively document and analyze data.In 2006, Beyond Investigation was featured on an episode of Scariest Places on Earth, documenting their paranormal investigation of the USS Hornet (CV-12), a World War II U.S. Navy aircraft carrier turned historical museum.
In 2009, Beyond Investigation was the "employer" chosen for Tiffany Pollard to try her hand as a "ghost hunter" on her VH1 reality television series New York Goes to Work.Brooklyn Cruise Terminal
The Brooklyn Cruise Terminal is one of three terminals for ocean-going cruise ships in the New York metropolitan area. The terminal is located at Red Hook Pier 12, which forms the south side of the Atlantic Basin at Pioneer and Imlay Streets in the Red Hook section of Brooklyn, New York City. Vehicular access is through the main gate near the intersection of Bowne and Imlay Streets.
The terminal is located on land owned by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ), leased by the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC), and operated by Metro Cruise Services. The terminal opened on April 15, 2006, following a $52 million investment by NYCEDC, with the arrival of the RMS Queen Mary 2. The terminal is 180,000 square feet (17,000 m2) and sits on Buttermilk Channel, a tidal strait separating Brooklyn from Governors Island.
The terminal was converted from a 1954 freight terminal and was earlier the site of the Atlantic Basin Iron Works. Ships from Carnival Corporation (which owns the Cunard and Princess Cruises) call the terminal their home port.
On 15 and 16 July 2017, a racing circuit in the port and supporting roads hosted the Formula E electric car racing series's ninth and tenth round in the 2016–17 Formula E season.Gaili Schoen
Gaili Schoen (born Susan Gaili Schoen, in Venice, California) is an American film composer, orchestrator, and pianist. She is best known for her scores for the films Festival in Cannes starring Maximilian Schell, Anouk Aimée, Ron Silver, and Greta Scacchi, and Déjà Vu, starring Stephen Dillane and Vanessa Redgrave, both directed by Henry Jaglom. Her television work includes the score for the 2007 PBS documentary Annie Leibovitz: A Life Through A Lens which she composed with score producer James Newton Howard. Schoen composed a 52-piece orchestral score for the 2008 feature film Noble Things starring Michael Parks, Ryan Hurst, and country singer Lee Ann Womack, and scored the 2011 documentary The Ghost of War, about the RMS Queen Mary.
In 2012-2015 Schoen published a piano method book series called Upper Hands Piano: A Method for Adults 50+ to Spark the Mind, Heart and Soul. The books teach the art of playing the piano, while enhancing brain functioning.John Treasure Jones
Captain John Treasure Jones (15 August 1905 – 12 May 1993) was a British sea officer who became a well-known media figure in the mid-1960s following his appointment as the last master of the Cunard liner, RMS Queen Mary. He has been described as one of the 20th century's most distinguished mariners, in war and in peacetime. His forebears were men of the sea, who had captained sailing ships, and he elected to follow in their tradition.Mary
Mary may refer to:
Mary (name), a female given nameMary II (disambiguation)
Mary II (1662–1694) was Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland from 1689 until her death.
Mary II may also refer to:
Mary II, Countess of Menteith
Mary, Queen of Scots (1542–1587), recognised as Mary II of England by English legitimists
Maria Theresa (1717–1780), Mary II of Hungary
Maria II of Portugal (1819–1853), Mary II of Portugal
Mary Polly Paaaina (c. 1833–1853), also known as Mary ʻĪʻī
RMS Queen Mary 2, the successor to the RMS Queen Mary ocean liner, which was in turn named after Mary of TeckMary White (textile designer)
Mary White later Mary Dening (born 1926) is an English textile designer known for several iconic textile prints of the 1950s. Her work could be found in homes across the world, as well as in cabins aboard the RMS Queen Mary and at Heathrow Airport. Her creations are now undergoing a resurgence of interest. She also was a potter and ceramist, and in the 1960s creating Thanet Pottery with her brother David White.O' Sailor
"O' Sailor" is a song written by American singer Fiona Apple and recorded for her third album Extraordinary Machine (2005). On August 15, 2005 (see 2005 in music), ahead of the album's release in early October, Epic Records made available for streaming both "Parting Gift" and "O' Sailor" on Apple's official website. The following day, the songs were released for digital download at the online iTunes Music Store.
The single's video, directed by Floria Sigismondi, was filmed aboard the RMS Queen Mary and premiered on VH1 on November 7. It was nominated for eight Music Video Production Company Awards — in the categories of "Direction of a Female Artist", "Director of the Year", "Art Direction", "Cinematography", "Choreography", "Styling", "Hair" and "Make-Up" — and won two: "Direction of a Female Artist" and "Hair".Ocean liner
An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans. Liners may also carry cargo or mail, and may sometimes be used for other purposes (e.g., for pleasure cruises or as hospital ships).Cargo vessels running to a schedule are sometimes called liners. The category does not include ferries or other vessels engaged in short-sea trading, nor dedicated cruise ships where the voyage itself, and not transportation, is the prime purpose of the trip. Nor does it include tramp steamers, even those equipped to handle limited numbers of passengers. Some shipping companies refer to themselves as "lines" and their container ships, which often operate over set routes according to established schedules, as "liners".
Ocean liners are usually strongly built with a high freeboard to withstand rough seas and adverse conditions encountered in the open ocean. Additionally, they are often designed with thicker hull plating than is found on cruise ships, and have large capacities for fuel, food and other consumables on long voyages.The first ocean liners were built in the mid-19th century. Technological innovations such as the steam engine and steel hull allowed larger and faster liners to be built, giving rise to a competition between world powers of the time, especially between the United Kingdom and Germany. Once the dominant form of travel between continents, ocean liners were rendered largely obsolete by the emergence of long-distance aircraft after World War II. Advances in automobile and railway technology also played a role. By 2015, the only ship still in service as an ocean liner is the RMS Queen Mary 2 after RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 was retired in 2008. Of the many ships constructed over the decades, only nine ocean liners made before 1967 survive.Poseidon (fictional ship)
The SS Poseidon is a fictional transatlantic ocean liner that first appeared in the 1969 novel The Poseidon Adventure by Paul Gallico and later in four films based on the novel. The ship is named after the god of the seas in Greek mythology.Q3
Q3 or Q-3 may refer to:
Zambian Airways, IATA airline code Q3
The third quarter of a fiscal year
The third quarter of a calendar year
The third quartile, in descriptive statistics
The third quarto edition of William Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus
Quake III Arena, a 1999 multi-platform video game
Audi Q3, a subcompact luxury crossover SUV produced from 2011
Q3 (New York City bus), a bus line in New York City
Haplogroup Q3 (Y-DNA), a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup
Q3, a field of p-adic numbers in mathematics
Q3 was a British Puppetry company that produced the models used in Fingerbobs
The code name for the new 'Queen' liner which was planned by Cunard in 1961 to replace the RMS Queen Mary but later abandoned following a shareholder revolt and succeeded by a new plan codenamed Q4, which later became the QE2.
Q3, a production duo consisting of Jabari Manwa and Isaiah "Kiko Merley" Merriweather from the group Brockhampton.
Q3 Academy, a school in Wilderness Lane.Queen Mary (ship)
The following ships are named Queen Mary:
HMS Queen Mary, a battlecruiser of the Royal Navy launched in 1912 and sunk at the Battle of Jutland in 1916
TS Queen Mary, a Clyde steamer launched in 1933, now retired and currently under restoration on the River Clyde in Scotland, United Kingdom
RMS Queen Mary, a Cunard Line ocean liner launched in 1934, now retired as a hotel in Long Beach, California, United States
RMS Queen Mary 2, a Cunard ocean liner that entered service in 2003RMS Queen Mary 2
RMS Queen Mary 2 (also referred to as the QM2) is a transatlantic ocean liner. She is the largest ocean liner ever built, having served as the flagship of the Cunard Line since succeeding the Queen Elizabeth 2 in 2004. As of 2019, Queen Mary 2 is the only passenger ship operating as an ocean liner.The new ship was named Queen Mary 2 by Queen Elizabeth II in 2004 after the first RMS Queen Mary of 1936. Queen Mary was in turn named after Mary of Teck, consort of King George V. With the retirement of Queen Elizabeth 2 in 2008, Queen Mary 2 is the only transatlantic ocean liner in line service between Southampton, England, and New York City, United States, operating for a part of each year. The ship is also used for cruising, including an annual world cruise.She was designed by a team of British naval architects led by Stephen Payne, and was constructed in France by Chantiers de l'Atlantique. At the time of her construction, Queen Mary 2 held the distinctions of being the longest, at 1,131.99 ft (345.03 m), and largest, with a gross tonnage of 148,528 GT, passenger ship ever built. She no longer held this distinction after the construction of Royal Caribbean International's 154,407 GT Freedom of the Seas (a cruise ship) in April 2006, but remains the largest ocean liner ever built.
Queen Mary 2 was intended for routine crossings of the Atlantic Ocean, and was therefore designed differently from many other passenger ships. The liner's final cost was approximately $300,000 US per berth. Expenses were increased by the high quality of materials, and having been designed as an ocean liner, she required 40% more steel than a standard cruise ship. Queen Mary 2 has a maximum speed of just over 30 knots (56 km/h; 35 mph) and a cruising speed of 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph), much faster than a contemporary cruise ship. Instead of the diesel-electric configuration found on many ships, Queen Mary 2 uses integrated electric propulsion to achieve her top speed. Diesel engines, augmented by gas turbines, are used to generate electricity for electric motors for propulsion and for on-board use.
Some of Queen Mary 2's facilities include fifteen restaurants and bars, five swimming pools, a casino, a ballroom, a theatre, and the first planetarium at sea.SS Albertic
SS Albertic was a British ocean liner that served during the 1920s and 1930s.
The ship was laid down in 1914 by AG Weser of Bremen, Germany, but construction was halted during the war. Work resumed in 1919, and she was finally launched on 23 March 1920 as the München for Germany's Norddeutscher Lloyd Line. However, before she could enter service for NDL, she was handed over to the British government as war reparations, and promptly sold to the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company who renamed her Ohio. After a prolonged fitting out, the Ohio finally made her maiden voyage on 3 April 1923, sailing from Hamburg to New York. In 1927 Ohio was transferred to the White Star Line and renamed Albertic. As a White Star Line ship she served on the trans-Atlantic service between Britain, Canada and the United States from April 1927 until August 1930, when she was laid up in the River Clyde. Albertic was broken up for scrap at Osaka, Japan, in 1934. This is because Cunard, facing a dramatic drop in passenger bookings during the Great Depression, decided to scrap older White Star Line ships like Albertic, to focus their resources on completing the new and larger RMS Queen Mary.Stephen Payne (naval architect)
Stephen Payne, OBE, MNM, RDI, FREng, FRINA, HonFIED is a British naval architect. He has worked on the designs of approximately 40 passenger ships for the Carnival Corporation, including the Cunard ocean liner RMS Queen Mary 2. He is currently an independent maritime consultant and is an educational advocate for engineering careers.TSS T/T Calshot
TSS T/T Calshot is a tug tender built in 1929 by John I Thornycroft & Co, and completed in 1930 for the Red Funnel Line. Upon the tugboat's completion, she was put into service tendering the various liners that stopped either in the Solent or Southampton Water which saved them the time and expense of docking just to take up or set down a few passengers. She was also used to augment the excursion fleet. Calshot remained in service with Red Funnel from 1930-1964.At the outbreak of World War II, Calshot was appropriated by the Admiralty for use at Scapa Flow. In 1942 she was transferred to the River Clyde where she acted as tender to the two Cunard Line Queens, RMS Queen Elizabeth and RMS Queen Mary, transferring approximately 1,500,000 servicemen. In 1944 she returned to Southampton for the build up to D-Day.
Calshot featured prominently in the 1952 British Transport Films production "Ocean Terminal", in which, amongst other things, she was filmed easing RMS Queen Elizabeth away from its berth.
In 1964, Red Funnel sold the Calshot to a subsidiary of the Holland America Line, for use as the tender for the liners Maasdam and Ryndam. For this she was based in Galway Bay, Ireland, and was renamed Galway Bay after her new area of service. She would later be operated by CIÉ as a ferry between Galway and the Aran Islands.
In 1986, Calshot was bought back by her port of registry (more specifically the Southampton City Council), with the intention of making her the centrepiece of a maritime museum in Ocean Village. In 1991, she was moved to an apparently permanent berth at the Town Quay. However, she was later moved to the Council Wharf. On 5 April 2011, Calshot was moved by tugboat from Berth 50 to Berth 42.
Calshot is one of only three surviving classical tender ships which served the great ocean liners (another famous example is the SS Nomadic, which tendered the ill-fated RMS Titanic on her maiden voyage at Cherbourg, France. The third being the Manchester Ship Canal's Daniel Adamson).
In her career, Calshot has tendered some of the most famous ocean liners ever built, such as the RMS Caronia, the Cunard Queens RMS Queen Elizabeth and RMS Queen Mary, the SS United States, and the White Star Line ship RMS Olympic.
The Calshot is currently berthed in Southampton, where her restoration is being overseen by the Tug Tender Calshot Trust. The intention was to display her as part of the Aeronautica Museum in Trafalgar Dock, Southampton originally due to open in 2015. In 2012 the Associated British Ports (ABP) withdrew the Trafalgar Dock location for the museum citing the need to relocate Red Funnel Ferry operations. In January 2017 the vessel was declared unseaworthy by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. Without a long-term berth, the board was unable to develop a sustainable business plan as required for a Heritage Lottery Grant. In October 2018 ABP informed the owners that the ship must vacate her berth by June of 2019. The owners requested a place to move the ship to dry land as the deteriorating condition of the ship will not allow it to remain in the water. ABP infomed the owners that space was "not an option".Voltas
Voltas Limited is an Indian company specialising in air conditioning and cooling technology.
The company is broadly structured into projects and products business. The projects business is divided into Domestic Projects Group (DPG) and International Operations Business Group (IOBG). Meanwhile, the products business is classified into Unitary Products Business Group (UPBG), Mining & Construction Equipment Division (MCED), and Textile Machinery Division. (TMD).
The company was incorporated on 6 September 1954 in Mumbai. It was a collaboration between Tata Sons and Volkart Brothers. The Chairman of the company is Mr. Noel N Tata and the Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer of the company is Mr. Pradeep Bakshi. Its shares are traded on the Bombay Stock Exchange under symbol 500575.
The Unitary Products business group manufacture products in categories including air conditioners, air coolers, commercial refrigerators, water coolers and water dispensers. Voltas is the largest air-conditioning brand in India. Voltas produced India's first window air conditioner with DC-inverter-based variable-speed motors. Voltas also has a large network of repair centres. The firm is also a major producer of evaporative coolers, which are widely used for comfort cooling in arid and semi-arid climates.
Voltas has also entered into a joint venture with Turkey-based Ardutch (a subsidiary of Arçelik, part of the Koç Group making the Beko brand of home appliances). It began producing refrigerators, washing machines and kitchen appliances under the name of Voltas Beko.Voltas won the first prize in the category ‘Manufacturers of BEE Star Labeled Appliances (Air Conditioner)’, as part of the National Energy Conservation Awards 2015. The company had previously won the same award in December 2013.
Voltas won the Silver APAC Effie Award in the Sustained Success category in 2015 for its “Humanizing technology in India” entry. Apart from Effie, Voltas also won the Gold at the Asia Awards of the World Advertising Research Centre (WARC). In 2014, Voltas was ranked 39th among India's most trusted brands according to the Brand Trust Report, a study conducted by Trust Research Advisory.
Voltas has provided air conditioning in the world's tallest building, the Burj Khalifa and also in the once largest ocean liner, RMS Queen Mary 2.
Years indicate year of entry into Cunard service.
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Surviving ships launched before 1969
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