R-1 (missile)

The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner, Soviet code name SA11, GRAU index 8A11) was a short-range ballistic missile manufactured in the Soviet Union based[2] on the German V-2 rocket. Even though it was a copy, it was manufactured using Soviet industrial plants and gave the Soviets valuable experience which later enabled the USSR to construct its own much more capable rockets.

Soviet SS- 1a Scunner
SS-1a Scunner

In 1945 the Soviets captured several key V-2 rocket production facilities, and also gained the services, at gun point, of some German scientists and engineers related to the project. In particular the Soviets gained control of the main V-2 manufacturing facility at Nordhausen, and had 30 V-2 missiles assembled there by September 1946.

In October 1946 the Soviets transferred the German missile engineers working for them to a special research facility near Moscow, where they were forced to remain until the mid-1950s. The Soviets established a missile design bureau of their own (OKB-1), under the direction of Sergei Korolev. This team was directed to create a Soviet capability to build missiles, starting with a Soviet copy of the German V-2 and moving to more advanced, Soviet-designed missiles in the near future.

In April 1947 Stalin authorised the production of the R-1 missile, the designation for the Soviet copy of V-2. The first tests of the missile began in September 1948. The system was accepted by the Soviet army in November 1950. The R-1 missile could carry a 785-kilogram (1,731 lb) warhead of conventional explosive to a maximum range of 270 kilometres (170 mi), with an accuracy of about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi).

In 1947, the R-1A was tested, a variant with a separable warhead. High-altitude scientific experiments were conducted with two of the R-1As, and later a series of specialized scientific rockets were built on the basis of the R-1: The R-1B, R-1V, R-1D and R-1E. These carried dogs, and experiments to analyze the upper atmosphere, measure cosmic rays and take far-UV spectra of the Sun.

The R-1's insulated electrical wiring attracted vermin. In one January 1953 incident, thousands of flood-displaced mice disabled many rockets by eating the insulation, requiring "hundreds of cats and repairmen".[3]:116

R-1
1-пуску-посвящается 1S
Replica R-1 at Znamensk City
TypeShort-range ballistic missile
Place of originUSSR
Production history
ManufacturerUnit 586 (Dnepropetrovsk) [1]
ProducedMay 10, 1951 [1]
Specifications
Weight13,430 kg (29,610 lb)[2]

Engine27,200 kgf (267,000 N; 60,000 lbf)[2]
PropellantEthanol[2]
Operational
range
270 km (170 mi)[2]

Operators

 Soviet Union

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Kudryashov, V. A. Baikonur cosmodrome: Chronicle of the main events (Baikonur Chronicle). Yandex.
  2. ^ a b c d e http://www.energia.ru/ru/history/systems/rockets/r1.html
  3. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974. NASA.
  • "russianspaceweb".
  • "astronautix.com".
  • Naimark, Norman (1995). The Russians in Germany. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-78405-5.
  • Kurt, Magnus (1999). Raketensklaven. Deutsche Forscher hinter rotem Stacheldraht. Elbe-Dnjepr-Verlag. ISBN 3-933395-67-4.

External links

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