Røros (help·info) (Southern Sami: Plassje) is a municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. It is part of the Gauldalen region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Røros. Some of the villages in Røros include Brekken, Glåmos, Feragen, Galåa, and Hitterdalen.
The mining town of Røros (the administrative centre of the municipality) is sometimes called Bergstaden which means "mountain town" due to its historical notoriety for copper mining. It is one of two towns in Norway that were historically designated "mining towns", along with the "silver-town" of Kongsberg. The modern-day inhabitants of Røros still work and live in the characteristic 17th and 18th century buildings which have led to its designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. Røros has about 80 wooden houses, most of them standing around courtyards. Many retain their dark pitch-log facades, giving the town a medieval appearance.
The 1,956-square-kilometre (755 sq mi) municipality is the 32nd largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Røros is the 185th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 5,663. The municipality's population density is 3.2 inhabitants per square kilometre (8.3/sq mi) and its population has increased by 0.8% over the last decade.
View of the mining town of Røros
Røros within Trøndelag
|Established||1 Jan 1838|
|• Mayor (2007)||Hans Vintervold (Ap)|
|• Total||1,956.46 km2 (755.39 sq mi)|
|• Land||1,756.21 km2 (678.08 sq mi)|
|• Water||200.25 km2 (77.32 sq mi) 10.2%|
|Area rank||#32 in Norway|
|• Rank||#185 in Norway|
|• Density||3.2/km2 (8/sq mi)|
|• Change (10 years)||0.8%|
|Time zone||UTC+01:00 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+02:00 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||NO-5025|
|Official language form||Neutral|
|Røros Mining Town and the Circumference|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
The old Røros in front of the church
|Criteria||Cultural: iii, iv, v|
|Inscription||1980 (4th Session)|
|Buffer zone||481,240 ha|
The parish of Røros was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838 (see formannskapsdistrikt). On 1 January 1875, an unpopulated area of the neighboring municipality of Ålen was transferred to Røros. On 1 January 1926, Røros was split into four municipalities: Røros landsogn (population: 701), Brekken (population: 1,098), Glåmos (population: 983), and the town of Røros (population: 2,284). During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the four municipalities of Glåmos (population: 700), Brekken (population: 964), Røros landsogn (population: 482), and the town of Røros (population: 3,063) were all reunited under the name Røros. On 21 April 1989, an unpopulated part of Røros was transferred to the neighboring Holtålen municipality. On 1 January 2018, the municipality switched from the old Sør-Trøndelag county to the new Trøndelag county.
The municipality (and town) is named after the old Røros farm ("Røraas" around 1530), since the town was built on its ground. The first element is the river name Røa and the last element is os meaning "mouth of a river" (the small river Røa runs into the great river Glåma here). The meaning of the river name Røa is unknown. There is no available interpretation of the Southern Sami name, Plassje.
|Parish (sokn)||Church Name||Location of the Church||Year Built|
Røros municipality has historically been used by the Southern Sami people for reindeer herding. Known for its copper mines, Røros is one of Norway's two nationally significant mining towns with activity starting in the 17th century (the other one being the "silver-town" Kongsberg, see Kongsberg Silver Mines).
Røros was burned to the ground in 1678 and 1679 by the Swedish Army during the Scanian War. In 1718, during the Great Northern War, the town was once again taken by the Swedish Army, led by General De la Barre, who made up the southern arm of the main Swedish Army under Carl Gustaf Armfeldt. De la Barre took the city and all their mined copper at gunpoint.
When King Carl XII was killed near Fredriksten on 30 November 1718, De la Barre retreated north to join the bulk of the army. However, this ended in tragedy, when over 3,000 rather unprepared soldiers perished in the harsh weather conditions in the mountains northwest of Røros.
Røros and its people were made famous to Norwegians at the turn of the 20th century by semi-fictional author Johan Falkberget, who told the story of the mining community from the perspective of the hard-tested miners at the bottom of the social ladder.
In 1644, the general manager of the mine at Kongsberg gave permission to exploit one lode of copper in the mountains near Rauhaammaaren. Storvola and Gamle Storwartz became some of the company's most important mines. Nordgruve, another important mining area, was situated to the north east of Røros.
In 1685, Røros discovered a considerable amount of associated silver mines. The mining activity lasted for about 40 years, and a total of 1,350 tons of sterling silver was mined. This provided considerable revenue for the Danish-Norwegian treasury to support Frederick IV. Built in the palace of Solbjerg
Starting in 1740 and onwards was a period of greatness for the Røros Copper Works with several mines yielding well. Due to the funding of the Oldenburg family royal family, the scale of the Leros silver mine and copper mining is expanding. As the mine is close to Trondheim and at a lower latitude, the ore output is much higher than ScandinaviaFalun. Other copper mines in Navia, such as the Swedish mines at higher latitudes. The rich income of the mining area also prompted the royal family to repeatedly ask for more mining scale.Dynamite was utilized from 1870 and later drilling machines. The electrical generating station built high-tension power lines to supply the mines starting in 1897. The Bessemer process was introduced at the end of the 1800s. The Rørosbanen railway line was completed in 1877. High prices for both copper and zinc gave good results, but then the prices dropped and there were several years with large losses. After 333 years, mining activity in Røros ceased in 1977.
During winter, a traditional market called "Rørosmartnan" is organized and that draws an average of 60,000–70,000 tourists to the town of Røros each year. The market begins on the last Tuesday in February and lasts five days. There is also an outdoor musical theatre performance played in Røros to commemorate the tragedy when the Swedish soldiers froze to death. This show has been played since 1994.
The town of Røros was the filming location for Henrik Ibsen's play "A Doll's House", directed by Joseph Losey.
All municipalities in Norway, including Røros, are responsible for primary education (through 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, unemployment and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads. The municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Sør-Trøndelag District Court and the Frostating Court of Appeal.
|Party Name||Name in Norwegian||Number of|
|Socialist Left Party||Sosialistisk Venstreparti||4|
|Local Lists||Lokale lister||2|
|Total number of members:||27|
Røros is located on a gently sloping plateau about 630 metres (2,070 ft) above sea level that is forested with mostly birch and some pine, but the tree line is never far away. The largest lake within the municipality is Aursund and the river Glåma has its origin here. The most northerly part of Femund, the third largest lake in Norway, is located in Røros, just west of Femundsmarka National Park. These lakes and others in Røros, such as Bolagen and Flensjøen, are well suited for kayaking and fishing. Other lakes include Feragen, Håsjøen, Rambergsjøen, Korssjøen, Nedre Roasten, Rogen, and Rien.
Røros has a subarctic climate. Mostly sheltered from oceanic influences, and located at ca 650 m amsl, Røros has recorded the coldest temperatures in the southern half of Norway with −50.3 °C (−58.5 °F) in early January 1914. In the European cold snap of January 2010 temperatures reached −42 °C (−44 °F). The heat record 30.7 °C (87.3 °F) was recorded July 2008. Skiing conditions in winter are usually excellent, with the period from February to April as the optimum, as the sun is higher and the days longer than earlier in winter. The largest snow depth recorded in Røros is 200 centimetres (79 in) in March 1956. In more recent years, 87 centimetres (34 in) snow on the ground was recorded in March 2009. Snow on the ground is virtually guaranteed in Røros from December to early April. Early May 1997 saw 76 cm snow on the ground (source: eklima/met.no).
Haugan, an unincorporated settlement situated 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from Røros Airport, is the location of a weather station operated by the Norwegian Meteorologist institute. (Norwegian: Meteorologisk institutt).
All the record lows are old, the most recent (December) from 1978, while 7 of the monthly records highs are from year 2000 and later.
The municipality is served by the Rørosbanen railway line at Røros Station. Røros Airport has a scheduled service to Oslo. The Norwegian County Road 30 connects Røros to the south to Tynset and northwest down the Gaula valley towards Trondheim. There is also the Norwegian County Road 705 going north to Selbu and Stjørdal, and the Norwegian County Road 31 going east to Sweden.
Aursunden or Aursund is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The village of Brekken lies along the eastern shore and the village of Glåmos lies along the western shore.
There are several inflows to the 46-square-kilometre (18 sq mi) lake including the lakes Rien, Riasten, and Bolagen. The outflow is regulated by a hydropower dam through which water passes into the river Glomma. The lake is about 22 kilometres (14 mi) long and about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) wide. The deepest part of the lake reaches a depth of 52 metres (171 ft).
Aursunden is often cited as the source of the river Glomma, the longest and largest river in Norway. The actual headwaters are near Aursunden near the start of the Glommadal valley. The locals claim that the headwater of the Glomma river is Mustjønna, a tiny lake about 30 kilometres (19 mi) north of Aursunden.Bolagen
Bolagen (Southern Sami: Båålege) is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The 2.5-square-kilometre (0.97 sq mi) lake is located about 4.5 kilometres (2.8 mi) southeast of the village of Brekken and about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) west of the border with Sweden. The large lake Aursunden lies about 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) to the west of Bolagen.Brekken (municipality)
Brekken is a former municipality in the old Sør-Trøndelag county, Norway. The 843-square-kilometre (325 sq mi) municipality existed along the border with Sweden from 1926 until its dissolution in 1964. The municipality is now located in the northeastern part of what is now the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county. The municipality encompassed the areas located to the north, east and southeast of the lake Aursunden. The administrative centre was the village of Brekken where Brekken Church is located.Femund
Femunden is Norway's third largest lake and the second largest natural lake in Norway. It is located in Hedmark and Trøndelag counties in Norway, just 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) west of the border with Sweden. The lake lies primarily in the municipality of Engerdal (in Hedmark) and also smaller parts are located in the municipalities of Os (Hedmark) and Røros (Trøndelag). Femundsmarka National Park borders the northeastern part of the lake.
The 203.52-square-kilometre (78.58 sq mi) lake holds about 6 cubic kilometres (1.4 cu mi) of water and reaches a maximum depth of 130 metres (430 ft). The surface of the lake sits about 662 metres (2,172 ft) above sea level.Feragen
Feragen is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The 15.78-square-kilometre (6.09 sq mi) lake is located about 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of the town of Røros. The lake flows out into the lake Håsjøen and the Håelva river. There is a canal connecting Feragen to Femunden.The village of Feragen is a very small village situated at the northern end of the lake, about 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) south of Brekken.Flensjøen
Flensjøen is a lake on the border of Hedmark and Trøndelag counties in Norway. The 3.41-square-kilometre (1.32 sq mi) lake lies in the municipalities of Røros (in Trøndelag county) and Os (in Hedmark county). The lake lies about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southeast of the town of Røros, about half-way between the lakes Korssjøen and Femunden, and about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of Håsjøen.Glåmos (municipality)
Glåmos is a former municipality in the old Sør-Trøndelag county in Norway. The short-lived municipality existed from 1926 until its dissolution in 1964. It was located in the northern part of what is now the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county. It included all the area around the headwaters of the river Glåma and the areas surrounding the northern and western sides of the lake Aursunden. The administrative centre was the village of Glåmos where Glåmos Church is located.The municipality had some old copper mines located in the mountains near the village that used to supply the Røros Copper Works in the nearby town of Røros.Håsjøen
Håsjøen is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The lake is located between the lakes Feragen and Rambergssjøen along the river Håelva. The 2.61-square-kilometre (1.01 sq mi) lake lies about 20 kilometres (12 mi) southeast of the town of Røros.Johan Falkberget
Johan Falkberget, born Johan Petter Lillebakken, (30 September 1879 – 5 April 1967) was a Norwegian author. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature.Korssjøen
Korssjøen is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The lake is located about 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) southeast of the town of Røros. The lake Rambergsjøen lies about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) to the north and the lake Flensjøen lies about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) to the east.Nedre Roasten
Nedre Roasten is a lake in Femundsmarka National Park on the border of Hedmark and Trøndelag counties in Norway. The 2.29-square-kilometre (0.88 sq mi) lake sits on the border of the municipalities of Engerdal in Hedmark county and Røros in Trøndelag county. Nedre Roasten is about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of the town of Røros and just under 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the border with Sweden. The lake lies about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of the lake Femunden and about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) west of the lake Rogen which sits along the Swedish border.Rambergsjøen
Rambergssjøen or Rambergsjøen is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The lake is located along the river Håelva, just downstream from the lake Håsjøen. The 3.1-square-kilometre (1.2 sq mi) lake is located about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) southeast of the town of Røros.Rien (Norway)
Rien is a lake in the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The 14.87-square-kilometre (5.74 sq mi) lake is located near the headwaters of the river Glomma, only about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the border with Sweden. The water flows out through the river Glomma and heads a short distance south, into the large lake Aursunden. The village of Brekken lies about 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) south of the lake and the town of Røros lies about 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the southwest.Rogen (lake)
Rogen (Swedish and Norwegian) or Rovje (Southern Sami) is a lake on the border of Sweden and Norway. The lake is mostly located in Härjedalen Municipality in Jämtland county in Sweden with a small portion crossing the Norwegian border in the municipalities of Røros (in Trøndelag county) and Engerdal (in Hedmark county). The 35.12-square-kilometre (13.56 sq mi) lake is the source of Sweden's longest river, Klarälven.On the Swedish side of the border, Rogen Nature Reserve is centred around the lake. In Norway, Rogen lies inside Femundsmarka National Park in Røros and Engerdal. The lakes Nedre Roasten and Femunden lie just to the west of Rogen.Røros (town)
Røros (Southern Sami: Plassje) is the administrative centre of Røros municipality in Trøndelag county, Norway. The town is located along the river Glomma and along the Rørosbanen railway line, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of the village of Glåmos and about the same distance north of the village of Os in neighboring Hedmark county. The 3.19-square-kilometre (790-acre) town has a population (2018) of 3,865 and a population density of 1,212 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,140/sq mi).The mining town of Røros is sometimes called Bergstaden which means "the rock town" due to its historical copper mining. It is one of two towns in Norway that were historically designated as a bergstad or "mining town", along with the "silver-town" of Kongsberg. The bergstad formerly had special rights as a mining town, slightly different from those of other Norwegian towns.The modern-day inhabitants of Røros still work and live in the characteristic 17th and 18th century buildings which have led to its designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1980. Røros has about 80 wooden houses, most of them standing around courtyards. Many retain their dark pitch-log facades, giving the town a medieval appearance. There are also two churches in the town. The large and historic Røros Church and the relatively new, but unique-looking Røros Chapel.Røros Airport
Røros Airport (IATA: RRS, ICAO: ENRO; Norwegian: Røros lufthavn) is a regional airport located 2 kilometers (1.2 mi) from the town of Røros in Trøndelag county, Norway. The asphalt runway has the physical dimensions 1,740 by 40 meters (5,710 by 130 ft) and is aligned 14/32. Scheduled services are provided to Oslo by Widerøe. The main general aviation user is Rørosfly, a pilot school, and the aviation club Røros Flyklubb.
Plans for an airport started in 1954 and the same year a provisional 900 meters (3,000 ft) runway was built. Scheduled services with Braathens SAFE commenced in 1957, when a 1,180-meter (3,870 ft) runway was completed. Upgrades from de Havilland Heron to Fokker F27 Friendship aircraft caused Braathens to abandon the airport until 1963, when the current asphalt runway was opened. Braathens remained at Røros until 2001, when Widerøe took over. Based on public service obligations, the routes have variously been operated by Widerøe, Danish Air Transport, Coast Air and Danu Oro Transportas.Røros Line
The Røros Line (Norwegian: Rørosbanen) is a 383-kilometer (238 mi) railway line which runs through the districts of Hedmarken, Østerdalen and Gauldalen in Hedmark and Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. The line branches off from the Dovre Line at Hamar Station and runs a more easterly route to Støren Station, where the two lines meet again. The Røros Line also intersects with the Solør Line at Elverum Station. The single track, standard gauge line lacks electrification and only has centralized traffic control south of Røros Station. The Norwegian State Railways (NSB) operate regional passenger trains. In addition the line is used by freight trains hauling lumber and wood chippings.
The first parts of the line was the Hamar–Grundset Line and the Trondhjem–Støren Line, which opened on 23 June 1862 and 5 August 1964, respectively. To save costs, the lines were built with narrow gauge, thus making it the first locomotive-hauled 1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in) line in the world. The Grundset–Aamot Line extension to Rena Station was opened on 19 October 1871. The connecting line onwards to Støren opened on 13 October 1877. The 1880 completion of the Dovre Line to Hamar allowed a continuous train service linking Oslo and Trondheim, albeit with a break-of-gauge in Hamar.
The line remained the main north–south link in Norway until the 1921 completion of the Dovre Line. Since then, the Røros Line has been relegated to regional passenger and freight trains, losing most of the through traffic. Gauge conversion started with dual gauge on parts of the line in 1917. South of Koppang Station standard gauge was taken into use from 1931, north of there from 1941. There are plans to electrify and install European Train Control System during the early 2020s, which would allow the Røros Line to act as a reserve for the Dovre Line.Røros landsogn
Røros landsogn (English: Røros rural parish) is a former municipality in the old Sør-Trøndelag county in Norway. The 729-square-kilometre (281 sq mi) municipality encompassed the southern part of the what is now the municipality of Røros in Trøndelag county. The municipality nearly surrounded the small enclave that was the mining town of Røros and it stretched all the way southeast to the lake Femunden and the Swedish border. The administrative centre of the municipality was located in the town of Røros where Røros Church is located.Trondhjem–Støren Line
The Trondhjem–Støren Line (Norwegian: Trondhjem–Størenbanen) was Trøndelag's first railway. It opened in 1864, ten years after the Trunk Line between Oslo and Eidsvoll opened. The 49 kilometer long (later 51.1 km) railway line was narrow gauged (1,067 mm (3 ft 6 in)) and went between Trondheim and the Støren village in Midtre Gauldal municipality in the county of Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. The railway had its station, Trondhjem Kalvskinnet Station, in Prinsens gate, crossed the Nidelva river on a newly constructed railroad bridge to Elgeseter, the Elgeseter Bridge.
In 1877 the line was joined with the Røros Line, which went through the Østerdalen between Røros and Hamar. In 1884 the railway tracks were relocated to the west side of the Nidelva and joined with the Meråker Line and the new railway station at Brattøra, which had opened in 1882. This went through a tunnel at Nidareid to Brattøra. In 1918 new tracks were laid to Heimdal over Selsbakk.
|Climate data for Røros (625 m; 1981 - 2010; extremes 1900 - 2018)|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.4
|Average high °C (°F)||−4.9
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−9.6
|Average low °C (°F)||−14.4
|Record low °C (°F)||−50.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||39.3
|Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)||10||8||8||7||7||11||12||13||10||9||9||10||114|
|Source #1: Meteo climat stats|
|Source #2: met.no/eklima|
1 Shared with nine other countries
Settlements founded by Christian IV of Denmark