Quintana Roo (Spanish pronunciation: [kinˈtana ˈro]), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Quintana Roo (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Chetumal.
Quintana Roo is located on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula and is bordered by the states of Campeche to the west and Yucatán to the northwest, and by the Orange Walk and Corozal districts of Belize, along with an offshore borderline with Belize District to the south. As Mexico's easternmost state, Quintana Roo has a coastline to the east with the Caribbean Sea and to the north with the Gulf of Mexico. The state previously covered 44,705 square kilometers (17,261 sq mi) and shared a small border with Guatemala in the southwest of the state. However in 2013, Mexico's Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation resolved the boundary dispute between Quintana Roo, Campeche, and Yucatán stemming from the creation of the Calakmul municipality by Campeche in 1997, siding with Campeche and thereby benefiting Yucatán.
Quintana Roo is the home of the city of Cancún, the islands of Cozumel and Isla Mujeres, and the towns of Bacalar, Playa del Carmen and Akumal, as well as the ancient Maya ruins of Chacchoben, Cobá, Kohunlich, Muyil, Tulum, Xel-Há, and Xcaret. The Sian Ka'an biosphere reserve is also located in the state.
The statewide population is expanding at a rapid rate due to the construction of hotels and the demand for workers. Many migrants come from Yucatán, Campeche, Tabasco, and Veracruz. The state is frequently hit by severe hurricanes due to its exposed location, the most recent and severe being Hurricane Dean in 2007, which made landfall with sustained winds of 280 km/h (170 mph), with gusts up to 320 km/h (200 mph).
|Estado Libre y Soberano de Quintana Roo|
|Anthem: Himno a Quintana Roo|
State of Quintana Roo within Mexico
|Admission||October 8, 1974|
|• Governor||Carlos Joaquín González|
|• Parliament||Congress of Quintana Roo|
|• Total||34,205 km2 (13,207 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||230 m (750 ft)|
|• Density||44/km2 (110/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||24th|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (EST)|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-ROO|
|HDI||0.781 high Ranked 16th|
|GDP||US$ 10,286,552.031 th[a]|
|^ a. The state's GDP was $131,667,866 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to $10,286,552.031 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).|
The area that makes up modern Quintana Roo was long part of Yucatán, sharing its history. With the Caste War of Yucatán, which started in the 1840s, all non-natives were driven from the region. The independent Maya nation of Chan Santa Cruz was based on what is now the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto. For decades it maintained considerable independence, having separate trade and treaty relationships with British Honduras, now Belize.
Quintana Roo was made a territory of Mexico by decree of President Porfirio Díaz on November 24, 1902. It was named after an early patriot of the Mexican Republic, Andrés Quintana Roo. The Mexican army succeeded in defeating most of the Maya population of the region during the 1910s. In 1915 the area was again declared to be legally part of the state of Yucatán.
Quintana Roo was granted statehood within the United Mexican States on October 8, 1974. It is the Mexican Republic's youngest state.
According to the Köppen climate classification, much of the state has a tropical wet and dry climate (Aw) while the island of Cozumel has a tropical monsoon climate (Am). The mean annual temperature is 26 °C (78.8 °F). The hottest months are April and August where the average high is 33 °C (91.4 °F) while January is coldest month with an average low of 17 °C (62.6 °F). Extreme temperatures can range from low of 10 °C (50.0 °F) in the coldest months to 36 °C (96.8 °F) in the hottest months. Quintana Roo averages 1,300 mm (51 in) of precipitation per year, which falls throughout the year, though June to October are the wetter months. Hurricanes can occasionally hit the coastal areas during the hurricane season, particularly from September to November.
Quintana Roo's tourist boom began in the 1970s. Tourism resulted in the development of coastal hotels and resorts, in addition to ecotourism inland and in coastal regions, which have increased the development of the region as well as the gross domestic product. Quintana Roo ranks sixth among Mexican states according to the United Nations Human Development index (HDI).
The Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most forested areas of the world in terms of biotic mass per hectare. However, anthropological, biological and governmental experts have determined that Quintana Roo is 'facing a faunal crisis'. Many medium to large game animals are disappearing due to hunting and habitat loss. While its population is relatively small, Quintana Roo is experiencing both a population influx and an increase in tourism. This only increases the pressure on the plants and animals native to the area.
There are four generalized ecosystems in Quintana Roo—tropical forests, or jungle; savanna, mangrove forests, and coral reefs. One of the byproducts of traditional and large-scale agriculture is the creation of additional habitats, such as second growth forests and fields/pastures. Tourism has caused Quintana Roo to become famous around the world in the last thirty or so years for its beaches, coastline and cenote sinkholes. Biological experts consider the coastline of Quintana Roo one of the best manatee habitats worldwide. Queen conchs are also noted for their inhabitation of coastal territory. The wide variety of biotic organisms such as these has decreased drastically in the last fifteen years.
Also affected by the loss of habitat due to both agriculture and development, birds are one of the region's most varied animal assets. Hundreds of species reside in Quintana Roo permanently, with hundreds of others either wintering there or using it as a stopover on the long journey into South America. As a result, many birders come to the area annually in search of the rare and unexpected.
Many blame the environmental damage in Quintana Roo on either the regional government or outside investors. However, resorts and hotels in Quintana Roo have created jobs and increased economic activity, which in turn has resulted in growth.
Projections for the tourism economy of Quintana Roo were exceedingly optimistic. It houses multiple tourist attractions from the Maya ruins to the lush forests and beautiful beaches. However, the long-term effects were not foreseen. The effect on the local environment was not properly considered. Economic stresses of development and population were virtually ignored. The effect on the native population was not properly considered. The 'economic marginalization' of the Maya has had drastic effects on their sense of place and identity.
After playing the 1955–2001 seasons in Mexico City and the 2002–2005 seasons in Puebla the Quintana Roo Tigers have been playing baseball with a home field at the Estadio de Béisbol Beto Ávila in Cancún since the 2006 season. The Tigers made it to the Mexican League series in 2009, but lost to the Saraperos de Saltillo 4 games to 2.
|Flora and fauna of Quintana Roo|
|Trichechus manatus||Mazama pandora||Eretmochelys imbricata||Crax rubra||Crocodylus acutus|
|Ateles geoffroyi||Sarcoramphus papa||Tamandua mexicana||Nasua narica||Boa constrictor|
|Ceiba pentandra||Enterolobium cyclocarpum||Rhizophora mangle||Haematoxylum campechianum||Bixa orellana|
On February 1, 2015, Quintana Roo officially adopted a new time zone, Southeastern, which is five hours behind Coordinated Universal Time (UTC−05:00). Quintana Roo does not observe daylight saving time, so Southeastern Time is constant throughout the year (that is, it does not shift forward in the spring and back in the fall). Southeastern Time (ST) is the same as Eastern Standard Time (EST) and Central Daylight Time (CDT). This means that in the winter, Quintana Roo has the same time as regions observing EST, such as the eastern U.S., eastern Canada, Cuba, and Jamaica; and in the summer, Quintana Roo has the same time as regions observing CDT, such as central Mexico.
Quintana Roo changed to Southeastern Time for economic reasons, including:
Before Quintana Roo adopted the Southeastern time zone (officially referred to as zona sureste in Mexico), it had been part of the Central time zone (zona centro).
Benito Juárez is one of the eleven municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Most of its population reside in the municipal seat, Cancún. It is named after the 19th century president and statesman Benito Juárez.Cancún
Cancún ( or ; Spanish pronunciation: [kaŋˈkun] pronunciation ) is a city in southeast Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It is a significant tourist destination in Mexico and the seat of the municipality of Benito Juárez. The city is on the Caribbean Sea and is one of Mexico's easternmost points.
Cancún is just north of Mexico's Caribbean coast resort band known as the Riviera Maya. In older English-language documents, the city’s name is sometimes spelled "Cancoon," an attempt to convey the sound of the name.Chacchoben
Chacchoben (chak-CHO-ben; Maya for "the place of red corn") is a Mayan ruin approximately 110 mi (177 km) south of Tulum and 7 mi (11 km) from the village from which it derives its name.Chetumal
Chetumal (Spanish pronunciation: [tʃetuˈmal] (listen) Modern Maya: Chactemàal pronounced [tɕʰaktʰe̞mɐː˨˩l], "Place of the Red Wood") (coordinates: 18°30′13″N 88°18′19″W) is a city on the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It is the capital of the state of Quintana Roo and the municipal seat of the Municipality of Othón P. Blanco. In 2010 it had a population of 151,243 people.The city is situated on the western side of Chetumal Bay, near the mouth of the Río Hondo. Chetumal is an important port for the region and operates as Mexico's main trading gateway with the neighboring country of Belize. Goods are transported via a road connecting Chetumal with Belize City to the south, and also via coastal merchant ships. There is a commercial airport, Chetumal International Airport, with airline service. Because of its location on the Caribbean coastline, it is vulnerable to tropical cyclones; Hurricane Janet and Hurricane Dean, both Category 5 storms, made landfall near Chetumal in 1955 and 2007 respectively.Cozumel
Cozumel (Spanish pronunciation: [kosu'mel], Yucatec Maya: Kùutsmil) is an island and municipality in the Caribbean Sea off the eastern coast of Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula, opposite Playa del Carmen, and close to the Yucatán Channel. The municipality is part of the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico.
The economy of Cozumel is based on tourism, with visitors able to benefit from the island's balnearios, scuba diving, and snorkeling. The main town on the island is San Miguel de Cozumel.Estadio Andrés Quintana Roo
The Estadio Olímpico Andrés Quintana Roo is a 17,289-seat stadium in Cancún, Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is the home field of Ascenso MX's Atlante F.C.. The stadium was inaugurated on August 11, 2007, in a game against Universidad Nacional. Atlante F.C. won in this stadium their 3rd league title in Apertura 2007 against Universidad Nacional. The Houston Dynamo became the first Major League Soccer team to play in the stadium on March 3, 2009, when the club were defeated by Atlante in the second leg of the CONCACAF Champions League quarterfinals.List of television stations in Quintana Roo
The following is a list of all IFT-licensed over-the-air television stations broadcasting in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. There are 17 television stations in Quintana Roo which are independent or affiliated to at least one Televisa, TV Azteca, SQCS, or Canal Once network.Operation Quintana Roo
Operation Quintana Roo (Spanish:Operacion Quintana Roo) is an anti-drug trafficking military operation jointly conducted by the Mexican army and navy in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The operation began in early February 2009 after the death of former Brigadier General Mauro Enrique Tello Quiñónez and two other men.Playa del Carmen
Playa del Carmen (Spanish pronunciation: ['plaʝa ðel 'kaɾmen]) is a city located along the Caribbean Sea in the municipality of Solidaridad, in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is a popular tourist area in eastern Mexico. Playa del Carmen features a wide array of tourist activities due to its geographical location in the Riviera Maya. It has also been the destination of PGA Tour golf tournaments and the set location for various television shows. The town has become one of the fastest to grow in population size in Mexico.Quintana Roo (company)
Quintana Roo was the first company to create a triathlon-specific wetsuit over 25 years ago, and then a tri-specific bicycle two years later. The company was founded in 1987 by Dan Empfield of Ironman fame and is currently owned by the American Bicycle Group.Quintana Roo Municipality
Quintana Roo Municipality (Named after a patriot, Andrés Quintana Roo, from Mérida, Yucatán, who supported Mexican independence.) is one of the 106 municipalities in the Mexican state of Yucatán containing (139.24 km2) of land and located roughly 104 km east of the city of Mérida.Riviera Maya
The Riviera Maya (Spanish pronunciation: [ri'βjeɾa 'maʝa]) is a tourism and resort district south of Cancun, Mexico. It straddles the coastal Federal Highway 307, along the Caribbean coastline of the state of Quintana Roo, located in the eastern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. Historically, this district started at the city of Playa del Carmen and ended at the village of Tulum, although the towns of Puerto Morelos, situated to the north of Playa del Carmen, as well as the town of Felipe Carrillo Puerto, situated 40 kilometres (25 mi) to the south of Tulum, are both currently being promoted as part of the Riviera Maya tourist corridor.
The Riviera Maya was originally called the "Cancun–Tulum corridor", but in 1999, it was renamed as the Riviera Maya with the aid of Lic. Miguel Ramón Martín Azueta. At the time, he was the municipal president of Solidaridad, Quintana Roo. The municipality of Solidaridad includes the whole of the official Riviera Maya from Playa del Carmen in the north, to Tulum in the south, and extends approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) inland, to the border with the state of Yucatán.Sian Ka'an
Sian Ka'an is a biosphere reserve in the municipality of Tulum in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It was established in 1986 and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.With the participation of scientists, technicians, students, fishermen, farmers, rural promotors and administrators, together with regional and international partners, have successfully carried out more than 200 conservation projects basing all conservation actions on scientific and technical information for planning and implementing environmental policies and the proposal of viable solutions for sustainable use of natural resources and focusing their efforts established within eight protected natural areas that include the reefs of Banco Chinchorro, and Xcalak at South of Quintana Roo, Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, Cancun, the island of Cozumel that is located in front of Xcaret and Contoy Island up North, covering 780,000 acres (3,200 km2). These areas lie in parts of all seven Caribbean Sea coastal municipalities of the state, with the largest part being in eastern Felipe Carrillo Puerto Municipality, where the vast majority of Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve lies.
Part of the reserve is on land and part is in the Caribbean Sea, including a section of coral reef. The reserve has an area of 5,280 km2.The reserve also includes some 23 known archaeological sites of the Maya civilization including Muyil. Remains of the Decauville railway Vigía Chico-Santa Cruz, which was operated from 1905 to 1932, can be found at several places.
Within the Amigos de Sian Ka'an project objectives are the identification, protection and management of additional areas with high biodiversity value as well as those critical for maintenance of the life cycles of endangered, threatened and migratory species in the Riviera Maya and providing environmental education through books, journals and pamphlets and giving technical assistance and training to Mayan communities working with ecotourism.Sistema Ox Bel Ha
Sistema Ox Bel Ha (from Mayan meaning "Three Paths of Water"; short Ox Bel Ha) is a cave system in Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is the longest explored underwater cave in the world and ranks fourth including dry caves. As of May 2017 the surveyed length is 270.2 kilometers (167.9 mi) of underwater passages. There are more than 140 cenotes in the system.Tigres de Quintana Roo
The Quintana Roo Tigers (Spanish: Tigres de Quintana Roo) also known as the Mexico Tigers (Spanish: Tigres del México) are a Triple-A Minor League Baseball team located in Cancun, Quintana Roo, Mexico. The team is part of the Southern Division (Zona Sur) of the Mexican Baseball League. The Tigres were founded in Mexico City in 1955 and played there through the 2006 season. The team was founded by industrial businessman Alejo Peralta and owned by his son, Carlos Peralta, for a long time. The team was purchased by Major League Baseball All-Star pitcher Fernando Valenzuela in 2017.
They have a competitive and long-standing rivalry known as the Guerra Civil (Civil War) against their former crosstown rivals the Diablos Rojos del Mexico. The Tigres won the Mexican League championship in their inaugural season, an achievement that has never been matched, and was dubbed: "El equipo que nació campeón" (English: The team that was born as champion). The Tigres are a perennial powerhouse and have won 18 division and 12 league championships since their inception.Tulum
Tulum (Spanish pronunciation: [tuˈlum], Yucatec: Tulu'um) is the site of a pre-Columbian Mayan walled city which served as a major port for Coba, in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. The ruins are situated on 12-meter (39 ft) tall cliffs along the east coast of the Yucatán Peninsula on the Caribbean Sea in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. Tulum was one of the last cities built and inhabited by the Maya; it was at its height between the 13th and 15th centuries and managed to survive about 70 years after the Spanish began occupying Mexico. Old World diseases brought by the Spanish settlers appear to have resulted in very high fatalities, disrupting the society and eventually causing the city to be abandoned. One of the best-preserved coastal Maya sites, Tulum is today a popular site for tourists.Tulum, Quintana Roo
Tulum (sometimes Tulum Pueblo) is the largest community in the municipality of Tulum, Quintana Roo, Mexico. It is located on the Caribbean coast of the state, near the site of the archaeological ruins of Tulum. The community had a 2010 census population of 18,233 inhabitants. It is also the setting for Raymond Avery Bartlett's 2015 novel, Sunsets of Tulum.Xcaret
Xcaret (Mayan pronunciation: [ʃka'ɾet]) is a Maya civilization archaeological site located on the Caribbean coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico. The site was occupied by the pre-Colombian Maya and functioned as a port for navigation and an important Maya trading center. Some of the site's original structures are contained within a modern-day tourism development, the privately owned Xcaret Park.Xelha
Xelha (Spanish pronunciation: [ʃel'ha], Spanish: Xelhá; sometimes pronounced "chel-ha"; Yucatec Maya: Xel-Há) is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization from pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, located on the eastern coastline of the Yucatán Peninsula, in the present-day state of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The etymology of the site's name comes from Yukatek Maya, combining the roots xel ("spring") and ha' ("water").
The lagoon and inlet at Xelha has been turned into a commercial water theme park known as Xel-Ha Park.
Places adjacent to Quintana Roo
|Places of interest|