Qui Nhơn

Quy Nhơn (Vietnamese: [kwi ɲəːŋ] (listen)) is a coastal city in Bình Định Province in central Vietnam. It is composed of 16 wards and five communes with a total of 284 km². Quy Nhơn is the capital of Bình Định Province. As of 2009 its population was 280,535[1] Historically, the commercial activities of the city focused on agriculture and fishing. In recent years, however, there has been a significant shift towards service industries and tourism. There is also a substantial manufacturing sector.

Quy Nhơn

Thành phố Quy Nhơn
Quy Nhơn City
Quy Nhon
Quy Nhon
Quy Nhơn is located in Vietnam
Quy Nhơn
Quy Nhơn
Location of in Vietnam
Coordinates: 13°46′N 109°14′E / 13.767°N 109.233°E
Country Vietnam
ProvinceBình Định
Established city1986
Area
 • Total284 km2 (110 sq mi)
Population
 (2019)
 • Total457,400[1]
ClimateAw

History

The town of Quy Nhơn was officially founded in the late 18th century, although its origins stretch back much further to the 11th-century Champa culture, the Tây Sơn dynasty and the 18th century seaport of Thị Nại. During the 1620s the town was host to Portuguese Jesuits who called the place Pulo Cambi.

During the Ming treasure voyages of the 15th century, the Chinese fleet led by Admiral Zheng He would always make port at Qui Nhơn in Champa as their first destination after leaving China.[2]

The city is renowned as the birthplace of 18th century Vietnamese emperor Nguyễn Huệ[3] and, more recently, had a large American military presence during the Vietnam War. Today the city is recognized as a first class city with a geo-economic priority and an urbanized infrastructure. The government describes it as one of the three commercial and tourism centres of the central southern coastal region (with Đà Nẵng and Nha Trang).

Geography

QuyNhonBeach1
The beachfront at Quy Nhon

Quy Nhơn has a varied topography, being extremely diversified with mountains and forests, hills, fields, salt marshes, plains, lagoons, lakes, rivers, shorelines, peninsulas and islands. Its coastline is 42 km long with sandy beaches, abundant seafood resources and other natural products of economic value.

The city has sixteen wards: Trần Hưng Đạo, Lê Lợi, Lê Hồng Phong, Trần Phú, Lý Thường Kiệt, Nguyễn Văn Cừ, Đống Đa, Thị Nại, Hải Cảng, Ngô Mây, Ghềnh Ráng, Quang Trung, Nhơn Bình, Nhơn Phú, Bùi Thị Xuân, and Trần Quang Diệu. It has five villages of Nhơn Lý, Nhơn Hội, Nhơn Châu, Nhơn Hải and Phước Mỹ (which was spun off from Tuy Phước District and merged into Quy Nhon city in 2006) with a total area of 284.28 km² and a population of about 284,000 people.

Một góc Quốc học Quy Nhơn
Quốc học Quy Nhơn high school, a gifted school

Transportation

Quy Nhơn is served by Vietnam Airlines, Bamboo Airways, VietJet Air, and Jetstar Pacific through Phu Cat Airport, with flights to Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City.[4]

Quy Nhơn railway station could be reached by a branch off the main line of the North–South railway,[5] but this line was suspended in May 2016. Reunification express trains stop only in Diêu Trì railway station, which is around 10 km west of Quy Nhơn.

Economy

Quy Nhơn is one of the main industrial centres of the South Central Coast, behind only Da Nang and Nha Trang.[6] It is also the major industrial and service centre of Bình Định Province, including its largest industrial facilities at Phu Tai Industrial Park and Nhon Hoi Economic Zone. The city's economic activities include industries, export-imports, seaport services, aquatic product husbandry and tourism. The economic trend, at present, is increasingly service-based at the expense of agriculture, forestry and pisciculture.

Cereals are cultivated on 2548ha of Quy Nhơn's land with an output of 13,021 tons as of 2009, just 2% of the province's total.[7] Other crops included 10,891 tons of vegetables, 2795 tons of sugar-cane, as well as smaller amounts of coconuts, peanuts, and cashew nuts.[7]

Much of the city's industry is concentrated in and around Phu Tai Industrial Park in the west of the city along National Route 1A. Quy Nhon is a major centre of garden furniture manufacturing. It has traditionally been relying on access to wood from Bình Định's forests as well as the Central Highlands provinces of Gia Lai and Kon Tum and even as far as Cambodia's Ratanakiri and Laos' Attapeu Province. Most of the furniture factories are located in Phu Tai Industrial Park. Several chemical enterprises that supply the furniture and wood processing industry have been set up in the vicinity of the industrial park.[8]

Other industries in Quy Nhơn process agricultural and aquatic products, or produce construction materials and paper products.[6] Bidiphar is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Quy Nhon that is an exception to the city's general focus on basic and wood processing industries. Nhon Hoi Economic Zone is central to the city's and province's industrial development plans. However, as of late 2010 it was still in the early stages of development, with few factories completed.

Quy Nhơn has seen only limited foreign investment. As of 2008, 13 foreign companies employed 1119 people in the city.[7]

Currently the economic structure of Quy Nhơn is a shift towards increasing the proportion of service industries, reducing the rate of agriculture, forestry and fisheries in GDP. The shares of agriculture, forestry and fisheries – industrial and construction – services in GDP in 2006 reached: 36.7% – 28% – 35.3% (planned: 35% – 30% – 35% in 2005 : 38.4% – 26.7% – 34.9%).

  • Income per capita in 2010 was 1625 USD / person

Education

Quy Nhon has two universities: Quy Nhon University and Quang Trung University. As of 2009 they had a total teaching staff of 601 and 23,383 students, 13,704 of whom were female.[7] There were 19,900 primary school students and 28,500 secondary school students.[7]

Notable people

Gallery

Thành phố Quy Nhơn

Paranomic view of Qui Nhơn city

Tượng đài Trần Hưng Đạo ở Làng chài Hải Minh - TP Quy Nhơn

Trần Hưng Đạo monument in Hải Minh, Qui Nhơn.

Một góc Quốc học Quy Nhơn

High school in Qui Nhơn.

Quy Nhon Railway Station

Qui Nhơn train station.

Quy Nhon Wharf with Mountain

Qui Nhơn beach.

Boats at Quy Nhon Wharf

A port in Qui Nhơn.

RedevelopingQuyNhon1

Qui Nhơn.

QuyNhonBeach1

Qui Nhơn beach.

References

  1. ^ a b "Tổng điều tra dân số và nhà ở Việt Nam năm 2009: Kết quả toàn bộ". Ban chỉ đạo Tổng điều tra dân số và nhà ở trung ương. p. 23.
  2. ^ Dreyer, Edward L. (2007). Zheng He: China and the Oceans in the Early Ming Dynasty, 1405–1433. New York: Pearson Longman. p. 52. ISBN 9780321084439.
  3. ^ Discover Vietnam Archived April 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Domestic flights in Vietnam". Indochina Travel Service (in Vietnamese and English). Dong Duong Co. 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2012.
  5. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20100418132723/http://www.vr.com.vn/English/hientaihoatdong.html. Archived from the original on April 18, 2010. Retrieved November 21, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. ^ a b Atlat Dia li Viet Nam (Geographical Atlas of Vietnam). NXB Giao Duc, Hanoi: 2010
  7. ^ a b c d e Bình Định Statistics Office (2010): Bình Định Statistical Yearbook 2009. Statistical Publishing House, Hanoi
  8. ^ People's Committee Bình Định (2007): Yearbook of Information on Enterprises in Bình Định Province. Labour Publishing House, Hanoi: 162-165
  9. ^ "Vietnam Building Code Natural Physical & Climatic Data for Construction" (PDF). Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.

Notes

External links

Coordinates: 13°46′N 109°14′E / 13.767°N 109.233°E

1965 Qui Nhơn hotel bombing

The Viet Cuong Hotel in Qui Nhơn, was bombed by the Viet Cong on the evening of 10 February 1965, during the Vietnam War. Viet Cong (VC) operatives detonated explosive charges causing the entire building to collapse. The explosion killed 23 U.S. servicemen and 2 of the Viet Cong attackers.

An Khê District

An Khê is a town (thị xã) of Gia Lai Province in the Central Highlands region of Vietnam.

As of 2003 the district had a population of 63,118. The district covers an area of 199 km². The district capital lies at An Khê.Located on the main highway, QL-19 between Qui Nhơn on the coast and Pleiku in the Central Highlands, An Khê was of strategic significance during the Vietnam War.

Bombardment of Qui Nhơn

The bombardment of Qui Nhơn in 1861 was an attack by a United States Navy warship upon a Vietnamese held fort protecting Qui Nhơn in Cochinchina. United States forces under James F. Schenck went to Cochinchina to search for missing American citizens but were met with cannon fire upon arriving. In response to the attack the American warship bombarded the fort until it was reduced. The incident occurred during French and Spanish conquest of the nation.

Bình Định F.C.

Bình Định Football Club (Vietnamese: Câu lạc bộ bóng đá Bình Định) is a Vietnamese association football club, based in Qui Nhơn, that plays in the third tier of Vietnamese football, the Vietnamese National Football Second League. Their home stadium is Quy Nhơn Stadium which has a capacity of 25,000.

French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh

French assistance to Nguyễn Phúc Ánh, the future Emperor of Vietnam and the founder of the Nguyễn Dynasty whose name was later changed to Gia Long), covered a period from 1777 to 1820. From 1777, Mgr Pigneau de Behaine, of the Paris Foreign Missions Society, had taken to protecting the young Vietnamese prince who was fleeing from the offensive of the Tây Sơn. Pigneau de Behaine went to France to obtain military aid, and secured a France-Vietnam alliance that was signed through the 1787 Treaty of Versailles between the king of France, Louis XVI, and Prince Nguyễn Phúc Ánh. As the French regime was under considerable strain at the eve of the French Revolution, France was unable to follow through with the application of the treaty. However, Mgr Pigneau de Behaine persisted in his efforts and, with the support of French individuals and traders, mounted a force of French soldiers and officers that would contribute to the modernization of the armies of Nguyễn Ánh, making possible his victory and his reconquest of all of Vietnam by 1802. A few French officers would remain in Vietnam after the victory, becoming prominent mandarins. The last of them left in 1824 following the enthronement of Minh Mạng, Gia Long's successor. The terms of the 1787 Treaty of Alliance would still remain one of the justifications of French forces when they demanded the remittance of Đà Nẵng in 1847.

Jean-Marie Dayot

Jean Baptiste Marie Dayot (Vietnamese name: Nguyễn Văn Trí / 阮文智, 1759–1809) was a French Navy officer and an adventurer who went into the service of Nguyễn Ánh, the future emperor Gia Long of Vietnam.

Originally from a Britany family settled in Ile Bourbon, Jean-Marie Dayot was born in Port Louis, Ile Maurice. He became a Lieutenant de vaisseau auxiliaire in the French Royal Navy. He met with Pigneau de Béhaine either in the Ile Bourbon or Pondicherry, and is thought to have commanded one of the two commercial ships which accompanied the warship Méduse with Pigneau de Behaine to Vietnam.

Entering the service of Nguyễn Ánh, by 1790 he was in command of a naval division composed of two European warships belonging to Nguyễn Ánh. In 1792, he fought in the naval battle against the Tây Sơn in front of Qui Nhơn, sinking 5 warships, 90 galleys and about 100 smaller boats. In 1793, against at Qui Nhơn, he captured 60 Tây Sơn galleys.Jean-Marie Dayot also did considerable hydrographic work, making numerous maps of the Vietnamese coast, which were drawn by his talented brother.In 1795, Jean-Marie Dayot stranded his ship, was condemned for negligence and put to the cangue. Disgusted, he left Cochinchina.Jean-Marie Dayot then settled in Manila, from where he traded with Mexico. He died in 1809 when his ship sank in the Gulf of Tonkin in 1809. His brother would die in Macao in 1821.

National Route 19 (Vietnam)

National Route 19 (Vietnamese: Quốc lộ 19 [QL19] or Đường 19) runs across Vietnam roughly in line with the 14th parallel north. The route includes two segments: National Route 19 begins at Qui Nhơn and ends just short of the Vietnam-Cambodia border, while National Route 19B begins on the Qui Nhơn peninsula and joins Route 1 east of Phu Cat Airport.

Ngô Du

Ngô Du (1926-1977) was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).

A Catholic from Qui Nhơn and the son of a government official, he was educated at a French Catholic boys' school in Huế. He held few combat commands and had few connections with the South Vietnamese political elite. Du held low-key planning positions on the ARVN Joint General Staff until he was propelled into the role of acting commander of the IV Corps Tactical Zone upon the accidental death of Brigadier General Nguyen Viet Thanh in 1970. In August 1970, however, Du found himself promoted to command of the II Corps Tactical Zone in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam. From his headquarters at Pleiku, he and his senior U.S. advisor, John Paul Vann, commanded ARVN forces during the North Vietnamese Easter Offensive of 1972. His command abilities during the ensuing fighting, according to his American advisors, left quite a lot to be desired. On 10 May 1972 he was replaced as corps commander by Major General Nguyen Van Toan.

Du escaped from Saigon in 1975. He died in California on February 14, 1977, at age 52.

Nhơn Hội Economic Zone

Nhon Hoi Economic Zone (Vietnamese: Khu kinh tế Nhơn Hội) is new urban center in the east of Qui Nhơn, Vietnam. It includes or is planned to include residential areas, an industrial park, a deep water port, and a resort.

It was established in 2005 and has a total area of 120km2, of which 14km2 are reserved for an industrial park.Nhon Hoi Economic Zone is connected to Qui Nhơn's city center and National Route 1A by Thị Nại Bridge, which reduced the road distance to the city to 7 km.An oil $27bn refinery complex is planned to be built in the EZ and operational by 2017. The main investor is Thailand's PTT.

Philippe Vannier

Philippe Vannier (Vietnamese name: Nguyễn Văn Chấn / 阮文震, 1762–1842) was a French Navy officer and an adventurer who went into the service of Nguyễn Ánh, the future emperor Gia Long of Vietnam.

Phu Cat Airport

Phu Cat Airport (IATA: UIH, ICAO: VVPC) (Vietnamese: Sân bay Phù Cát) is the airport serving Qui Nhơn, Vietnam. It is in Phù Cát District between the towns of Ngo May and Đập Đá, around 30 kilometres (19 mi) northwest of Qui Nhơn within Bình Định Province along the South Central Coast of Vietnam.

As well as being a commercial airport, Phu Cat is also used by the Vietnamese Air Force (Khong Quan Nhan Dan Viet Nam).

Phu Cat Airport is the hub of newly Vietnamese Carrier Bamboo Airways .

Phu Cat Airport handled 1.5 million passengers in 2017

Phù Cát Air Base

Phù Cát Air Base (Vietnamese: Căn cứ không quân Phù Cát) (1966–1975) was a United States Air Force (USAF) and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (RVNAF) facility used during the Vietnam War (1959–1975). It is located north of the city of Qui Nhơn in southern Vietnam.

Pierre Pigneau de Behaine

Pierre Joseph Georges Pigneau (2 November 1741 in Origny-en-Thiérache – 9 October 1799, in Qui Nhơn), commonly known as Pigneau de Béhaine (French: [piɲo də be.ɛn]), also Pierre Pigneaux, Bá Đa Lộc ("Pedro" 百多祿), Bách Đa Lộc (伯多祿) and Bi Nhu ("Pigneau" 悲柔), was a French Catholic priest best known for his role in assisting Nguyễn Ánh (later Emperor Gia Long) to establish the Nguyễn dynasty in Vietnam after the Tây Sơn rebellion.

Qui Nhơn Airfield

Qui Nhơn Airfield (also known as Qui Nhơn Airport, Qui Nhơn Air Base or Qui Nhon Army Airfield) is a former United States Air Force, United States Army and Vietnam Air Force airfield located in Qui Nhon in Binh Dinh Province, Vietnam.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Qui Nhơn

The diocese of Qui Nhơn (also referred to as the diocese of Quy Nhơn; Latin: Dioecesis Quinhonensis; Vietnamese: Giáo phận Qui Nhơn) is a Roman Catholic diocese in central Vietnam. The Bishop is Pierre Nguyên Soan, since 1999; Father Matthieu Nguyen Van Khoi, pastor of Assumption Cathedral in Quy Nhơn and professor at the "Maria Stella" Seminary of Nha Trang, was appointed Coadjutor Bishop-elect of the diocese by Pope Benedict XVI on December 31, 2009. He will be ordained at a later date; as coadjutor bishop to Bishop Soan, he serves as an auxiliary bishop and vicar general of the diocese but also, by canon law, has the right to automatically succeed him upon his death, retirement, or incapacitation.

The creation of the diocese in present form was declared November 24, 1960.

The diocese covers an area of 16,200 km², and is a suffragan diocese of the Archdiocese of Huế.

By 2004, the diocese of Qui Nhơn had about 62,520 believers (1.7% of the population), 70 priests and 36 parishes.Assumption Cathedral in Quy Nhơn town has been assigned as the Cathedral of the diocese.

South Central Coast

South Central Coast (Vietnamese: Duyên hải Nam Trung Bộ) is one of the regions of Vietnam. It consists of the independent municipality of Đà Nẵng and seven other provinces. The two southern provinces Ninh Thuận and Bình Thuận are sometimes seen as part of the Southeast region.The Paracel Islands (Hoàng Sa District), and Spratly Islands (Trường Sa District), are also part of this region.

The region has traditionally been one of the main gateways to neighbouring Central Highlands. It has a complex geography with mountain ranges extending up to the coast, making transport and infrastructure development challenging but favouring tourism in some places, most notable around Phan Thiết, Nha Trang, and Da Nang. Tourism also benefits from Cham cultural heritage, including architecture, performances, and museums. It is generally much less industrialized and developed than the region around Ho Chi Minh City or the Red River Delta, but it has some regional industrial centers in Da Nang, around Nha Trang and Qui Nhơn.

South Central Coast (Nam Trung Bộ) - 8 provinces: Đà Nẵng, Quảng Nam, Quảng Ngãi, Bình Định, Phú Yên, Khánh Hòa, Ninh Thuận and Bình Thuận. In the Nguyễn dynasty, this area was known as Tả Trực Kỳ (the area located in the right of Thừa Thiên).

Thị Nại Bridge

Thi Nai Bridge (Vietnamese: Cầu Thị Nại) is a bridge in Vietnam, connecting the city of Qui Nhơn to the Phương Mai Peninsula. The bridge was inaugurated in 2006 and was the longest sea bridge in Vietnam with a length of 2477.3 metres, and width of 14.5 metres. The bridge took three years to construct and opened on December 22, 2006.

It cut the road distance from Qui Nhơn City to Nhon Hoi Economic Zone from 60 km (via Tuy Phước District) to only 7 km.

Tuy Hòa

Tuy Hòa (listen) is the capital city of Phú Yên Province in south-central Vietnam. The city has a total area of 107 km2 and a population of 202,030 (in 2012). The city is located approximately midway between Nha Trang and Qui Nhơn.

The city is formulated mainly from alluvial of the downstream of Đà Rằng River. There are two mountains in the center of the city: Chóp Chài Mountain and Nhạn Mountain.

Đà Rằng River and Nhan Mountain create a poetic landscape. There is a Champa Temple on the top of Nhạn Mountain. Standing at this place, visitors easily enjoy a full view of Tuy Hoa city.

USS Bulloch County (LST-509)

USS Bulloch County (LST-509) was an LST-491-class tank landing ship built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Bulloch County, Georgia, she was the only U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

LST-509 was laid down on 7 October 1943 at Jeffersonville, Indiana by the Jeffersonville Boat & Machine Company; launched on 23 November 1943; sponsored by Lieutenant (j.g.) Dorothy L. Nims, USCG(W); and commissioned on 20 January 1944 with Lieutenant J. B. Malcom, USNR, in command.

During World War II, LST-509 was assigned to the European Theater and participated in the Invasion of Normandy in June, 1944. Following the war, LST-509 returned to the United States and was redesignated USS Bulloch County (LST-509) on 1 July 1955.

She was recommissioned in 1966 and served in the Vietnam War until she was transferred to the Republic of Vietnam Navy in April 1970.

She was used primarily for provisioning forward coastal and river US Marine bases such as Tân Mỹ Base (now Thuan An) and Cửa Việt Base located in I Corps and bases further south such as Vung Tau, Cam Ranh Bay and Nha Trang.

Other duties included coastal picket and resupply duty during Operation Market Time in which she resupplied and provided off-patrol berthing for Patrol Craft Fast crews interdicting Viet Cong communication and supply routes.

The starboard screw and rudder were once damaged by a floating mine in the Cua Viet River. She continued operations on one screw until another could be fitted at Da Nang. She suffered serious enough storm damage during a typhoon during a voyage to Okinawa in 1969, to require emergency repairs while beached and more complete repairs in a graving dock at Sasebo, Japan.

On 8 April 1970, the ship was decommissioned and leased to the Republic of Vietnam under the Security Assistance Program for service as Qui Nhon (HQ-504). After 1975, she served in the Vietnam People's Navy with new registration as HQ-505.

In 1988 she was heavily damaged in the Johnson South Reef Skirmish by the Chinese frigate Yingtan. The Vietnam People's Navy, in an effort to save her, tried to bring her to Cam Ranh Bay for repair but she sank south of Great Discovery Reef in the Spratly Islands area. The ship and her crew were granted the title of Hero of the People's Armed Forces.

LST-509 earned one battle star for World War II service.

Climate data for Qui Nhơn
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.6
(94.3)
37.9
(100.2)
39.8
(103.6)
42.1
(107.8)
41.7
(107.1)
41.4
(106.5)
39.7
(103.5)
39.4
(102.9)
38.9
(102.0)
34.7
(94.5)
34.6
(94.3)
33.0
(91.4)
42.1
(107.8)
Average high °C (°F) 26.9
(80.4)
28.2
(82.8)
29.9
(85.8)
31.8
(89.2)
33.8
(92.8)
34.4
(93.9)
34.6
(94.3)
34.8
(94.6)
33.0
(91.4)
30.4
(86.7)
28.1
(82.6)
26.5
(79.7)
31.0
(87.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.2
(73.8)
24.0
(75.2)
25.5
(77.9)
27.5
(81.5)
29.1
(84.4)
29.8
(85.6)
29.9
(85.8)
29.9
(85.8)
28.5
(83.3)
26.8
(80.2)
25.4
(77.7)
23.8
(74.8)
27.0
(80.6)
Average low °C (°F) 21.1
(70.0)
21.6
(70.9)
23.0
(73.4)
24.9
(76.8)
26.2
(79.2)
26.8
(80.2)
26.8
(80.2)
26.9
(80.4)
25.6
(78.1)
24.5
(76.1)
23.4
(74.1)
21.8
(71.2)
24.4
(75.9)
Record low °C (°F) 15.2
(59.4)
15.7
(60.3)
15.8
(60.4)
19.4
(66.9)
19.1
(66.4)
21.7
(71.1)
20.6
(69.1)
20.7
(69.3)
20.5
(68.9)
17.9
(64.2)
15.0
(59.0)
15.5
(59.9)
15.2
(59.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 64
(2.5)
28
(1.1)
24
(0.9)
31
(1.2)
84
(3.3)
64
(2.5)
38
(1.5)
62
(2.4)
227
(8.9)
549
(21.6)
437
(17.2)
199
(7.8)
1,807
(71.1)
Average precipitation days 13.0 6.0 4.3 4.1 8.7 7.5 7.2 8.6 16.0 20.7 21.2 19.1 136.4
Average relative humidity (%) 80.9 81.9 82.7 82.6 79.7 74.2 71.4 70.4 77.9 83.4 83.6 82.6 79.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 162 194 251 262 270 243 254 234 193 169 123 115 2,470
Source: Vietnam Institute for Building Science and Technology[9]

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