Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct

The Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct, formerly the King's Commendation for Brave Conduct, acknowledged brave acts by both civilians and members of the armed services in both war and peace, for gallantry not in the presence of an enemy. Established by King George VI in 1939, the award was discontinued in 1994 on the institution of the Queen's Commendation for Bravery.

It represented the lowest level of bravery award in the British honours system, alongside a mention in despatches. There is no entitlement to post-nominal letters.[1]

King's Commendation for Brave Conduct
(1939-52)
Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct
(1952-94)
King's Commendation for Brave Conduct badge

1943-45: Badge for civilian recipients
Queen's Commendation for Bravery
Queens Commendation for Brave Conduct (Military)
From 1946: civil and military ribbon devices
Awarded by United Kingdom and Commonwealth
TypeCommendation
EligibilityBoth service personnel and civilians
Awarded forGallantry entailing risk to life and meriting national recognition
StatusDiscontinued 1994. Replaced by Queen's Commendation for Bravery
DescriptionCertificate / Pin back badge / Ribbon device
Statistics
Established1939
Last awarded1994
Precedence
Next (higher)Queen's Gallantry Medal
EquivalentKing's/Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air

Institution

The Commendation for Brave Conduct was established in 1939 at the beginning of World War II. No Royal Warrant or other public statement was issued that specified the title, precedence and eligibility of the award, suggesting it was a prompt wartime solution to a gap in the awards available to reward gallantry by non-combatants, particularly those involved in Civil Defence and the Merchant Navy. Awards were published in the London Gazette,[1] with most entries referring to a 'Commendation for brave conduct', or simply 'Commendation'. It was not formally described as the 'King's Commendation for Brave Conduct' until September 1945.[2] Commendations could be made posthumously, enabling official recognition of bravery in all circumstances, since other gallantry awards, except for the Victoria Cross and the George Cross, could not be awarded posthumously.[1]

After 1945, the King's Commendation for Brave Conduct continued to be the lowest level of bravery award in the British honours system, alongside a mention in despatches, it rewarding bravery by civilians and members of the armed forces in non-frontline circumstances, where the action did not merit the award of another award for gallantry.[1]

Evolution of the award

During World War I it was recognised that there was no suitable reward for acts of bravery by civilians, such as the seamen of the British Mercantile Marine (later known as the Merchant Navy), that did not merit a specific gallantry medal. This led to the formal introduction of 'Commendations', a system re-introduced in 1939 by King George VI, later officially titled the 'King's Commendation for Brave Conduct'. Renamed the 'Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct' in 1952, the award was discontinued in 1994, on the creation of the Queen's Commendation for Bravery.

  • During World War I the 'Commendation' was uniquely awarded to the officers and men of the Mercantile Marine,[3] and was the primary reward for gallantry by merchant seamen. While recipients appeared in the London Gazette and received a certificate, no award accompanied the commendation.[4]
  • The first list of awards for merchant seamen 'commended for good service' was published in the London Gazette on 22 December 1916, the recipients having been in action with U-boats or mines.[5]
  • The first posthumous award appeared in a list of 'Commendations' announced in the London Gazette on 15 May 1917,[6] to Captain Peter MacLachlan of the steamship "Bellorado" who had been killed in a gun battle with U-boat UC-22 on 27–28 February 1917.[7]
  • The last Commendation awarded for service in World War I was announced in the London Gazette on 10 July 1919 to Able Seaman James Anderson of the steamship Petunia which had been torpedoed and sunk.[8]
  • Between the two World Wars the practice of awarding 'Commendations' fell into disuse.
  • With the outbreak of World War II a system of commendations was again established. The first awards were announced in the London Gazette on 15 December 1939,[9] when names of officers and men of the Merchant Navy ships "Mopan", "Lochgoil" and "Goodwood" were published following 'an expression of commendation of their good services' in action with U-boats and mines.[1]
  • Multiple civilian awards appeared in the London Gazette on 30 September 1940 alongside awards of the recently instituted George Medal, the majority being firefighters.[10] Many more followed in the lists of 'Commendations' on 4 October 1940 where the first awards to female recipients appeared, to Miss Elizabeth Connie Lyle an Air Raid Warden of Newhaven Edinburgh and Miss Violet Morgan a Nurse from Weymouth.[11]
  • The first posthumous awards appeared in the London Gazette on 8 October 1940, when three British Merchant Navy seamen were killed when the ocean liner Lancastria was bombed during the Dunkirk evacuation operations in June 1940, to Richard Garonwy Roberts, John Hill and James Duncan.[12]
  • The last awards of King's Commendations for Brave Conduct appeared in the London Gazette on 12 February 1952,[13] six days after King George VI had died.
  • The first award of the Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct was announced in the London Gazette, on 14 March 1952.[14]
  • The award was effectively replaced by the Queen's Commendation for Bravery in August 1994.[15]

Description

KCBcertificate
Certificate of a King's Commendation awarded posthumously to a merchant seaman in 1942
KCBribbon
Laurel leaf on ribbon of Defence Medal
KC Oak
Oakleaf on ribbon of War Medal 1939–1945
  • Before 1943 there was no physical award other than a card certificate presented to the recipient.[16] An example of a World War II 'Commended for Brave Conduct' certificate (left) gives the details of the recipient and the date of the London Gazette announcement.[1]
  • From 1943 a gold and red coloured plastic pin-backed badge was issued to civilian recipients, bearing the design of an upright sword in a wreath, surmounted by a crown. The badge, intended for everyday wear in civilian dress, was 38 millimetres (1.5 in) long by 20 millimetres (0.79 in) wide and was designed by George Kruger Gray, CBE. Normally each recipient received two badges in a small red cardboard box.[17]
  • From 1946[18] the plastic badge was replaced by a silver metal laurel leaf for civilians,[19] with a bronze oak leaf issued to armed forces personnel (including merchant seamen commended in time of war).[20] The bronze oak leaf insignia was identical to that awarded to signify a Mention in Despatches.[17] The devices were worn on the ribbon of the appropriate campaign medal, usually the Defence Medal for civilians and War Medal for servicemen, or directly to tunic or jacket if no medal had been awarded. Devices for commendations for post 1945 campaigns could be worn with the appropriate campaign medal if received.[21]

Awards

  • In World War I about 420 'Commendations' were awarded, some posthumously, to men of the British Mercantile Marine.[22]
  • In World War II approximately 5,000 'Commendations' were made, including 2,568 to men of the British Merchant Navy,[23] and almost 2,000[22] to civilians, mostly involved in Civil Defence, such as policemen and firefighters. Awards were also made to service personnel for brave acts where a mention in despatches would not normally be granted.[1] Many awards were made posthumously.
  • Some recipients received multiple 'King's Commendations', for example Captain E.G.B. Martin, O.B.E.[24] of the Merchant Navy who received the award three times, on 23 October 1942,[25] 27 August 1943,[26] and finally posthumously on 22 June 1945,[27] in addition to an Order of the British Empire (Officer) Civil Division on 2 June 1944.[28]
  • The Commendation for Brave Conduct was awarded to 405 Australians, including 286 civilians. The award was discontinued for Australians in 1982 and was effectively replaced by the Commendation for Brave Conduct in the Australian honours system.[16]

Example awards

ArthurBlairKCB
A firefighters 1941 certificate and Defence Medal with Laurel leaf

Examples of awards were those to:

  • Engineer Commander Robert John Anderson, Royal Navy, awarded a 'Commendation' for his bravery during the Blitz on Coventry in April 1941.[29]
  • John Jarvis, Deputy Depot Ambulance Officer, ARP Casualty Service, Norfolk, awarded a 'Commendation' in July 1941 for his bravery in rescue operations after an aircraft crashed and caught fire.[30]
  • Cadet Ernest William Meaby, Air Training Corps, a schoolboy awarded a 'Commendation' in February 1943 for risking his life to rescue the occupants of a crashed aircraft.[31]
  • John William Fegan, Mining Surveyor, Adowsena Gold Mine, Gold Coast, Africa, awarded a 'Commendation' in March 1943 for his bravery when an accident occurred in the mine.[32]
  • Warden Edwin Ernest Wing, Lincoln Civil Defence, received a 'Commendation' in January 1944 for rescuing children from a burning house.[33]
  • John Morrison Ruthven, Chief Refrigeration Engineer, S.S. "Clan Macarthur", Merchant Navy awarded a 'Commendation' in February 1944 for remaining aboard his sinking ship trying to rescue trapped seamen.[34][35]
  • William Henry Shingleton, Leading Compressor Driver, Dover Harbour Board, awarded a 'Commendation' in June 1944 for rescuing men who had strayed into a minefield.[36]
  • Policewoman Mabel Ashley, Borough of Tynemouth Police, was awarded a King's Commendation for Brave Conduct in October 1948 for her services when effecting the arrest of a dangerous criminal.[37]
  • Donald Campbell, who broke eight world water and land speed records, was posthumously awarded a Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct on 28 January 1967 'for courage and determination in attacking the world water speed record.'[38]

King's and Queen's Commendations

This table summarises the various King's and Queen's Commendations awarded by the United Kingdom:

Period For Bravery For Bravery (Air) For valuable service For valuable service (Air)
1939 - 1952[20] King's Commendation for
Brave Conduct
King’s Commendation for
Valuable Service in the Air
1952 - 1994[39] Queen's Commendation for
Brave Conduct
Queen’s Commendation for
Valuable Service in the Air
From 1994[40] Queen's Commendation for
Bravery
Queen's Commendation for
Bravery in the Air
Queen's Commendation for
Valuable Service

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Abbott (1981), p.301-302
  2. ^ "No. 37270". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 September 1945. p. 4635.
  3. ^ Confirmed by London Gazette entries 1916 to 1919, only Merchant seamen receiving 'Commendations'.
  4. ^ Duckers (2001), p.56
  5. ^ "No. 29877". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 December 1916. p. 12559.
  6. ^ "No. 13091". The Edinburgh Gazette. 15 May 1917. p. 937.
  7. ^ CWGC details – Peter MacLachlan
  8. ^ "No. 31445". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 July 1919. p. 8738.
  9. ^ "No. 34754". The London Gazette. 15 December 1939. p. 8327.
  10. ^ "No. 34956". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 September 1940. p. 5768.
  11. ^ "No. 34960". The London Gazette. 4 October 1940. p. 5828.
  12. ^ "No. 34963". The London Gazette (Supplement). 8 October 1940. p. 5890.
  13. ^ "No. 39465". The London Gazette (Supplement). 12 February 1952. p. 851.
  14. ^ "No. 39491". The London Gazette. 14 March 1952. p. 1467.
  15. ^ "No. 53760". The London Gazette. 12 August 1994. p. 11527.
  16. ^ a b Australia: Its an honour: Imperial Awards
  17. ^ a b Imperial War Museum – Kings Commendation
  18. ^ Hansard 6 June 1946
  19. ^ Mussell (2015), p.108
  20. ^ a b "No. 39294". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1951. p. 4035.
  21. ^ Dorling (1956), p.98
  22. ^ a b Based on recipients listed in London Gazette
  23. ^ Slader (1988), p.305
  24. ^ CWGC details – EGB Martin
  25. ^ "No. 35760". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 October 1942. p. 4652.
  26. ^ "No. 36151". The London Gazette (Supplement). 27 August 1943. p. 3867.
  27. ^ "No. 37149". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 June 1945. p. 3333.
  28. ^ "No. 36547". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 June 1944. p. 2669.
  29. ^ "No. 35181". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 June 1941. p. 3205.
  30. ^ "No. 35233". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 July 1941. p. 4424.
  31. ^ "No. 35901". The London Gazette (Supplement). 9 February 1943. p. 761.
  32. ^ "No. 35955". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 March 1943. p. 1421.
  33. ^ "No. 36338". The London Gazette. 18 January 1944. p. 395.
  34. ^ Scarlett (1992), p.33
  35. ^ "No. 36391". The London Gazette (Supplement). 18 February 1944. p. 905.
  36. ^ "No. 36582". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 June 1944. p. 3038.
  37. ^ "No. 38429". The London Gazette. 12 October 1948. p. 5402.
  38. ^ "No. 44241". The London Gazette. 3 February 1967. p. 1299.
  39. ^ "No. 41285". The London Gazette (Supplement). 14 January 1958. p. 365.
  40. ^ "Medals: campaigns, descriptions and eligibility". Ministry of Defence Medal Office. Retrieved 11 June 2018.

Bibliography

Arne Laudal

Arne Laudal (25 September 1892 – 9 May 1944) was a Norwegian military officer, Milorg pioneer and resistance fighter during World War II. He was arrested by the Germans, sentenced to death and executed.

Ashley Stevenson

Air Commodore Ashley David Stevenson, (born 30 September 1958) is a retired senior Royal Air Force (RAF) officer and a former Commandant of Royal Air Force College Cranwell.

Buck McNair

Group Captain Robert Wendell "Buck" McNair, (15 May 1919 – 15 January 1971) was a Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) flying ace of the Second World War, with 16 or 16.5 victories and five probables.

Chester Borrows

Kerry James "Chester" Borrows (born 20 June 1957) was a National Party member of the New Zealand Parliament from 2005 to 2017. In July 2018 he was appointed head of the Safe and Effective Justice Advisory Group, which is tasked with helping reform New Zealand's criminal justice system.

Denise Bloch

Denise Madeleine Bloch (French pronunciation: [dəniz blɔʃ] (listen); 21 January 1916 – 5 February 1945) was a French secret agent working with the British Special Operations Executive (SOE) in the Second World War.

Domenico Cacciola

Domenico Cacciola (born 1945 in Sicily) is a decorated police officer who joined the Queensland Police in 1966. He became an undercover detective in the 1970s. In 1977 he received the Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct, and the National Medal (Australia) in 1991. After retiring in 2001, he wrote his memoir with the assistance of his brother Carmelo Cacciola and journalist Ben Robertson. In 2009 the University of Queensland Press published his autobiography The Second Father, which detailed how he resisted underworld crime and the corruption which was rampant within the Queensland Police until the Fitzgerald Inquiry. His second book, Who's Who in the Zoo, is an insiders story of crime and corruption in the police force, when he was a CIB and Special Branch detective.

Geoffrey Turner

Commander Geoffrey Gledhill Turner, (10 September 1903 – 9 February 1959) was an officer in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve during the Second World War and a recipient of the George Cross. He is one of only eight people who have won both the George Cross and George Medal.

Herluf Nygaard

Herluf Nygaard (1 October 1916 – 3 December 2001) was a Norwegian military officer. He was born in Lurøy. He graduated from the Norwegian Military Academy in 1946. He was promoted to Colonel in 1965, and Major General in 1968. He served as General Inspector for the Home Guard from 1967. He was decorated Commander of the Order of St. Olav in 1971.Nygaard was an active resistance fighter during the Second World War. His war decorarations include the Norwegian St. Olav's Medal With Two Oak Branches and the British King's Commendation for Brave Conduct.

Jakob Schive

Jakob Schive (29 April 1897 – 12 October 1969) was a Norwegian military officer, geodesist and Milorg pioneer.

John Bridge

Lieutenant-Commander John Bridge, (5 February 1915 – 14 December 2006) was a British bomb disposal expert of the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve during the Second World War and a recipient of the George Cross. He was the first person to be awarded a Bar to the George Medal.

John Mould

John Stuart Mould, GC, GM (21 March 1910 – 9 August 1957) was an Australian recipient of the George Cross.

Julienne Aisner

Julienne Marie Louise Aisner (née Simart; 30 December 1899 — 15 February 1947) was a World War II resistance agent, working with the Special Operations Executive (SOE).

Kevin Walton

Eric William Kevin Walton (15 May 1918 – 13 April 2009), known as Kevin Walton, was an officer in the Royal Navy during World War II and, in 1946, was a winner of the Albert Medal, which in 1971 was superseded by the George Cross.

Queen's Commendation for Bravery

The Queen's Commendation for Bravery and the Queen's Commendation for Bravery in the Air are United Kingdom awards, open to both military personnel and civilians. They were established in 1994, when the award of the Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct and the Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air were discontinued.

Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service

The Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service is a British military award for meritorious service in an operational theatre. It was established in 1994, when the award of the Queen's Commendation for Brave Conduct and the Queen's Commendation for Valuable Service in the Air were discontinued.

Stephen Tuckwell

Stephen John Tuckwell, GC (4 June 1897 – 2 October 1966) was a sailor in the Royal Navy who awarded the George Cross for his "great gallantry and undaunted devotion to duty" in bomb disposal work during the Blitz of late 1940. He was attached to HMS Vernon and rendered many unexploded devices safe, including several parachute mines which fell onto the bank of the River Roding in Essex.

Tim Lees-Spalding

Rear Admiral Ian Jaffery "Tim" Lees-Spalding, (16 June 1920 – 2001) was a senior marine engineer in the Royal Navy before becoming Administrator of the London International Film School and co-founder of the Macmillan and Silk Cut Nautical Almanac.

Tom Patey

Thomas Walton Patey (20 February 1932 – 25 May 1970) was a Scottish climber, mountaineer, doctor and writer. He was a leading Scottish climber of his day, particularly excelling on winter routes. He died in a climbing accident at the age of 38. He was probably best known for his humorous songs and prose about climbing, many of which were published posthumously in the collection One Man's Mountains.

William Taylor (Royal Navy officer, born 1908)

William Horace Taylor, (28 October 1908 – 16 January 1999) was an officer in the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve who was awarded the George Cross for the gallantry he displayed in bomb disposal work in September and October 1940 during the Second World War.

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