The Queen's Baton Relay is a relay around the world held prior to the beginning of the Commonwealth Games. The Baton carries a message from the Head of the Commonwealth, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Relay traditionally begins at Buckingham Palace in London as a part of the city's Commonwealth Day festivities. The Queen entrusts the baton to the first relay runner. At the Opening Ceremony of the Games, the final relay runner hands the baton back to the Queen or her representative, who reads the message aloud to officially open the Games.The Queen's Baton Relay is similar to the Olympic Torch Relay.
The Relay was introduced at the 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Cardiff, Wales. Up until, and including, the 1994 Games, the Relay only went through England and the host nation. The Relay for the 1998 Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was the first to travel to other nations of the Commonwealth. The 2002 Commonwealth Games Relay covered over 100,000 kilometres and went through 23 nations.
|For the 1990 Commonwealth Games, the baton was a two-piece affair. Each piece went on its own individual relay run in the North and South Islands of New Zealand, only being joined back together in the final week before the Games began.|
|For the 1994 Commonwealth Games, the Baton was fashioned from sterling silver and was engraved with traditional symbols of the creative artists' families and cultures, including a wolf, a raven and an eagle with a frog in its mouth.|
|For the 1998 Commonwealth Games, Malaysia placed their own flavour on the Games, with the Queen's Baton being carried into the stadium on an elephant. It was the first ever baton to travel beyond England and the host nation. The baton was presented to Prince Edward by Malaysia's first ever Commonwealth medal winner Koh Eng Tong, a gold medallist in weightlifting in 1950. The Baton design was inspired by a traditional Malay artifact, the 'Gobek', which is a unique cylindrical areca nut-pounder widely used and displayed in Malay homes. The baton was produced by a local company, Mariwasa Kraftangan Sdn Bhd, using pure silver with gold trimming. It left the Buckingham palace on 9 March 1998.|
|The 2002 Queen's Baton Relay (also known as Queen's Jubilee Baton Relay) was launched on Commonwealth Day, 11 March 2002, on the historic forecourt at Buckingham Palace. The baton traveled almost 59,000 miles via 23 commonwealth nations and territories over 87 days before opening the games on the 25 July 2002. Cadbury was the presenting partner of the relay and sponsor of the games.
The Baton was designed by a company called IDEO and was constructed of machined aluminium with the handle plated for conductivity. It weighed 1.69 kg, reaches over 710 mm, and is 42.5 mm to 85 mm in diameter. The Queen’s message itself was held in an aluminium capsule inserted into the top of the Baton. On either side of the Baton were two sterling silver coins, designed by Mappin and Webb, which celebrated the City of Manchester as host of the XVII Commonwealth Games.
|The 2006 Queen's Baton Relay was the world's longest, most inclusive relay, travelling more than 180,000 kilometres and visiting all 71 nations that then sent teams to the Commonwealth Games[a] in one year and a day. The Queen's Baton Relay started, as it traditionally does, at Buckingham Palace and ended in Melbourne, Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. It carried a message from the Queen to the Opening Ceremony of the Commonwealth Games. Fremantle Dockers Captain Matthew Pavlich carried the baton through Fremantle, he received the baton from community nominee and local businessman Peter Taliangis.
The baton contained 71 lights on the front, representing the 71 member nations of the Commonwealth Games Federation. A video camera built into the front of the baton recorded continuously as the baton travelled, and a GPS tracker was fitted, so that the baton's location could be viewed live on the Commonwealth Games Website. The front face of the baton contained the detachable Queen's Message Button. The Button is a digital storage device, onto which the Queen's Message to the Athletes of the XVIII Commonwealth Games was encoded.
|The 2010 Queen's Baton Relay began as the Baton left Buckingham Palace on 29 October 2009, travelling throughout the 70 nations of the Commonwealth, reaching India on 25 June 2010 by crossing through Wagah from Pakistan. When the baton relay began at Buckingham Palace, the then-President of India, Pratibha Patil, was present. The Final Baton Runner Sushil Kumar handed over the baton to Prince Charles, who with President Pratibha Patil inaugurated the games.
The baton was designed by Michael Foley, a graduate of the National Institute of Design. Made from aluminium twisted into a helix, it was coated with soils from the various regions of India, and held the Queen's message (printed on an 18 carat gold leaf, representing gold's qualities and symbolism of power in India) within a jeweled box. The baton also incorporated a video camera and microphone, LED lighting (which set its color scheme to match the flag of the nation it was travelling through), and GPS tracking.
|The 2014 Queen's Baton Relay began its 190,000 km journey on 9 October 2013. The baton traveled via 70 nations and territories over 288 days before opening the games on the 23 July 2014. At the ceremony, 32 inspiring volunteers from across Scotland carried the baton around Celtic Park Stadium after being nominated for giving their time to developing the nation's youth through sport. The baton was then passed to Sir Chris Hoy, who delivered it to President of the Commonwealth Games Federation HRH Prince Imran and the Queen who then declared the games open. The BBC provided coverage of the relay. Adventurer Mark Beaumont presented a series of documentaries filmed on the relay for BBC One Scotland, there were also weekly updates for BBC News and a BBC News website and blog written by Mark.
The product design consultancy awarded the contract to the design of the 2014 Queen's Baton is a local Glasgow company called 4c Design. 4c Design wanted the 2014 baton to be true to the original intentions of the first relay and so wanted to focus the design around the Queen's handwritten message. Also rather than using cutting edge electronics, they choose to focus on cutting edge manufacturing. This all culminated in the Queen's message being internally illuminated to hint at the secret within, then surrounded by a titanium lattice framework that was grown using the latest additive manufacturing technology. At the top is a puzzle mechanism that dispenses granite gemstones to each of the Commonwealth nations and territories the baton visits, inviting them to join Glasgow at the Games. The puzzle mechanism also has a second function of keeping the message safely locked away until the opening ceremony, where the second stage of the puzzle will be unveiled. The handle of the Queen's Baton is made of Elm wood which came from the Isle of Cumbrae in Scotland. The Elm tree was felled by a local man called David Stevenson in the grounds of the Garrison House and the baton itself is crafted using an old boat building technique called bird mouthing.
|The 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay was launched on Commonwealth Day, 13 March 2017, on the historic forecourt at Buckingham Palace, signalling the official countdown to the start of the Games. Accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh and Prince Edward The Earl of Wessex, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II heralded the start of the relay by placing her ‘message to the Commonwealth and its athletes’ into the distinctive loop-design Queen’s Baton which then set off on its journey around the globe. It traveled for 388 days, spending time in every nation and territory of the Commonwealth. The Gold Coast 2018 Queen’s Baton Relay was the longest in Commonwealth Games history. Covering 230,000 km over 388 days, the baton made its way through the six Commonwealth regions of Africa, the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe, Asia and Oceania. The baton landed on Australian soil in December 2017 and then spent 100 days travelling through Australia, finishing its journey at the Opening Ceremony on 4 April 2018, where the message was removed from the Baton and read aloud by Charles, Prince of Wales. For the first time, the Queen's baton was presented at the Commonwealth Youth Games during its sixth edition in 2017 which were held in Nassau, Bahamas.
The baton for the Gold Coast 2018 was designed by Brisbane-based company Designworks to reflect the local culture and life of Queensland. Designed for each Games by the host nation, the 2018 Queen’s Baton has been made using macadamia wood and reclaimed plastic, sourced from Gold Coast waterways, and inspired by the region’s vibrant spirit and indigenous heritage.
|Cardiff 1958||Ken Jones|
|Perth 1962||Phil Afford|
|Kingston 1966||Keith Gardner, Paul Foreman, Ernle Haisley, Laurie Khan, Mel Spence|
|Edinburgh 1970||Eileen Coughlan|
|Christchurch 1974||Sylvia Potts|
|Edmonton 1978||Diane Jones-Konihowski|
|Brisbane 1982||Raelene Boyle|
|Edinburgh 1986||Allan Wells|
|Auckland 1990||Peter Snell|
|Victoria 1994||Myriam Bédard|
|Kuala Lumpur 1998||Koh Eng Tong|
|Manchester 2002||David Beckham and Kirsty Howard|
|Melbourne 2006||John Landy|
|Delhi 2010||Sushil Kumar|
|Glasgow 2014||Sir Chris Hoy|
|Gold Coast 2018||Sally Pearson|
The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games (Welsh: Gemau Ymerodraeth Prydain a'r Gymanwlad 1958) were held in Cardiff, Wales, from 18–26 July 1958.
Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,130 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, including, for the first time, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya and the Isle of Man.
The Cardiff Games introduced the Queen's Baton Relay, which has been conducted as a prelude to every British Empire and Commonwealth Games ever since.2010 Commonwealth Games
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Delhi 2010, was an international multi-sport event that was held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. A total of 6081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events, making it the largest Commonwealth Games to date. It was also the largest international multi-sport event to be staged in Delhi and India, eclipsing the Asian Games in 1951 and 1982. The opening and closing ceremonies were held at the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, the main stadium of the event.
It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games were held in India and the second time they were held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. It was also the first time a Commonwealth Republic hosted the games, second in a country not presently headed by British monarch since Malaysia in 1998. The official mascot of the Games was Shera and the official song of the Games, "Jiyo Utho Bado Jeeto", was composed by Academy and Grammy awardee Indian recording artist A.R. Rahman.
Preparation for the Games received widespread international media attention, with criticism being levelled against the organisers for the slow pace of work, as well as issues related to security and hygiene. However, all member nations of the Commonwealth of Nations participated in the event, except Fiji, which is suspended from the Commonwealth, and Tokelau, which didn't send a team, in spite of threats of boycotts and athlete withdrawals.
The internationally acclaimed opening ceremony improved the image of the Games, and dispelled negative notions surrounding them, with many observers remarking that they began on an apprehensive note, but were an exceptional experience with a largely positive ending. The President of the International Olympic Committee, Jacques Rogge, said that India had made a good foundation for a future Olympics bid, which was reiterated by the Australian Minister of Sports. Commonwealth games Federation chief Mike Fennell stated that "Delhi delivered a fantastic Games". Some observers accused sections of the media of bias, unfair expectations, and negative reporting.The final medal tally was led by Australia with 78 golds and 177 most medals overall. The host nation India achieved its best performance ever at the Commonwealth Games, finishing second overall by winning 38 gold medals. England finished third with 37 gold medals.2014 Commonwealth Games
The 2014 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a' Cho-fhlaitheis 2014), officially known as the XX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Glasgow 2014, (Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu 2014), was an international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Commonwealth Games as governed by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF). It took place in Glasgow, Scotland, from 23 July to 3 August 2014.
Glasgow was selected as the host city on 9 November 2007 during CGF General Assembly in Colombo, Sri Lanka, defeating Abuja, Nigeria. It was the largest multi-sport event ever held in Scotland with around 4,950 athletes from 71 different nations and territories competing in 18 different sports, outranking the 1970 and 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh. Over the last 10 years, however, Glasgow and Scotland had staged World, Commonwealth, European, or British events in all sports proposed for the 2014 Commonwealth Games, including the World Badminton Championships in 1997.The Games received acclaim for their organisation, attendance, and the public enthusiasm of the people of Scotland, with CGF chief executive Mike Hooper hailing them as "the standout games in the history of the movement". Held in Scotland for the third time, the Games were notable for the successes of the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, with England, Wales and hosts Scotland achieving their largest ever gold medal hauls and overall medal hauls at a Commonwealth Games. England finished top of the medal table for the first time since the 1986 Commonwealth Games, also held in Scotland. Kiribati also won its first ever medal at a Commonwealth Games, a gold in the 105 kg men's weightlifting competition.2014 Commonwealth Games opening ceremony
The opening ceremony for the 2014 Commonwealth Games was held at Celtic Park in Glasgow, Scotland, between 21:00 and 23:40 BST, on 23 July 2014.2018 Commonwealth Games
The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018. It was the fifth time Australia had hosted the Commonwealth Games and the first time a major multi-sport event achieved gender equality by having an equal number of events for males and female athletes.More than 4,400 athletes including 300 para-athletes from 71 Commonwealth Games Associations took part in the event. The Gambia which withdrew its membership from the Commonwealth of Nations and Commonwealth Games Federation in 2013, was readmitted on 31 March 2018 and participated in the event . With 275 sets of medals, the games featured 19 Commonwealth sports, including beach volleyball, para triathlon and women's rugby sevens. These sporting events took place at 14 venues in the host city, two venues in Brisbane and one venue each in Cairns and Townsville.These were the first Commonwealth Games to take place under the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) presidency of Louise Martin, CBE. The host city Gold Coast was announced at the CGF General Assembly in Basseterre, Saint Kitts, on 11 November 2011. Gold Coast became the seventh Oceanian city and the first regional city to host the Commonwealth Games. These were the eighth games to be held in Oceania and the Southern Hemisphere.
The host nation Australia topped the medal table for the fourth time in the past five Commonwealth Games, winning the most golds (80) and most medals overall (198). England and India finished second and third respectively. Vanuatu, Cook Islands, Solomon Islands, British Virgin Islands and Dominica each won their first Commonwealth Games medals.Anwen Butten
Margaret Anwen Butten (born 29 August 1972 in Carmarthen) is a Welsh international Bowls competitor for Wales.
At the 2002 Commonwealth Games she won a bronze medal along with Joanna Weale in the women's pairs event. Butten competed at the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne but was unsuccessful in winning a medal. She then competed at the 2010 Commonwealth Games along with Hannah Smith in the women's pairs and won a bronze medal.
Her passion for bowls began at the age of 13 after watching her Mother play for the Welsh International team. Seeing her mother play inspired her to play.During the run up to the 2014 Commonwealth Games in Glasgow she was chosen for the Commonwealth Games Queen's Baton Relay in Carmarthen. The Baton carries a message from the Head of the Commonwealth, currently Queen Elizabeth II. The Relay traditionally begins at Buckingham Palace in London as a part of the city's Commonwealth Day festivities. The Queen entrusts the baton to the first relay runner. At the Opening Ceremony of the Games, held at Glasgow's Celtic F.C. stadium, the final relay runner, Chris Hoy, handed the baton back to the Queen, who read the message aloud to officially open the Games.
In 2016, she won a silver medal with Kathy Pearce and Emma Woodcock in the triples at the 2016 World Outdoor Bowls Championship in Christchurch.She was selected as part of the Welsh team for the 2018 Commonwealth Games on the Gold Coast in QueenslandCharlotte MacGibbon
Charlotte Cecilia MacGibbon (née Weeks on 27 September 1924) is an Australian former track and field athlete.In 1940, MacGibbon won her first national title in the javelin throw, aged just 15. In total, she won six national championships between 1940 and 1952, including two in the discus throw; she also placed third in the shot put in 1947. At the 1950 British Empire Games she became the first Australian athlete to win an international throwing event, taking the javelin with a distance of 38.84 m.In 2006, at the age of 81, she participated in the 2006 Commonwealth Games Queen's baton relay.Chautala, Sirsa
Chautala is a village in Dabwali Mandal, Sirsa district in Haryana. Former Haryana chief minister Devi Lal and Om Prakash Chautala comes from this village, where his ancestors settled in 1919.Village has one medical hospital, one Industrial training institute, government senior secondary schools for boys and girls,pvt. secondary school named Sheetal High School, two stadiums and two banks.Queen's Baton Relay for the 2010 Commonwealth Games passed through this village. 51st Senior National Volleyball Championship was held in Chaudhary Sahib Ram Stadium, Chautala in 2002.Commonwealth Games
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. It is the world's first multi-sport event which inducted equal number of women’s and men’s medal events and was implemented recently in the 2018 Commonwealth Games.Their creation was inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, as a part of the Festival of Empire, which were held in London, United Kingdom in 1911. Melville Marks Robinson founded the games as the British Empire Games which were first hosted in Hamilton in 1930. During the 20th and 21st centuries, the evolution of the games movement has resulted in several changes to the Commonwealth Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Commonwealth Winter Games for snow and ice sports for the commonwealth athletes, the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for commonwealth athletes with a disability and the Commonwealth Youth Games for commonwealth athletes aged 14 to 18. The first edition of the winter games and paraplegic games were held in 1958 and 1962 respectively, with their last edition held in 1966 and 1974 respectively and the first youth games were held in 2000. The 1942 and 1946 Commonwealth Games were cancelled because of the Second World War.The Commonwealth Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), Commonwealth Games Associations (CGAs), and organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. There are several rituals and symbols, such as the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 5,000 athletes compete at the Commonwealth Games in more than 15 different sports and more than 250 events. The first, second, and third-place finishers in each event receive Commonwealth Games medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively. Apart from many Olympic sports, the games also include some sports which are played predominantly in Commonwealth countries but which are not part of the Olympic programme, such as lawn bowls, netball and squash.Although there are currently 53 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams currently participate in the Commonwealth Games, as a number of dependent territories compete under their own flags. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom—England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland—also send separate teams.
Nineteen cities in nine countries (counting England, Wales, and Scotland separately) have hosted the event. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times (1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 and 2018); this is more times than any other nation. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland (1950, 1990) and Edinburgh (1970, 1986).
Only six countries have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for twelve games, England for seven, and Canada for one.
The most recent Commonwealth Games were held in Gold Coast from 4 to 15 April 2018. The next Commonwealth Games are to be held in Birmingham from 27 July to 7 August 2022.Commonwealth Games Australia
Commonwealth Games Australia (CGA), formerly Australian Commonwealth Games Association (ACGA), is the Commonwealth Games Association for Australia. It represents the Commonwealth Games movement and organises the participation of athletes at the Commonwealth Games and Commonwealth Youth Games.Football in the Maldives
The sport of football in the country of the Maldives is run by the Football Association of Maldives, (FAM). The association administers the national football team as well as the national league. Football is one of the most popular sports in the country.Lasswade High School Centre
Lasswade High School is a non-denominational secondary state school in Bonnyrigg, Midlothian, Scotland.Lewis Oliva
Lewis Oliva (born 23 August 1992) is a Welsh racing cyclist from Monmouthshire, Wales, who has ridden on the track for the Welsh Cycling backed professional track team since September 2016. Prior to this he was part of the Great Britain cycling team for eight years as a sprint athlete.In addition to his five British titles, Lewis is the current British keirin champion after successfully defending his title on 26/01/2018. A multiple European and World Cup medallist, Oliva has also represented Wales at the Commonwealth Games at Delhi 2010, Glasgow, 2014 and Gold Coast 2018. He took the silver medal in the keirin in the 2018 Games, after progressing from the first round via the repechages. He made his World Championship debut at the 2017 Worlds, where he competed in the keirin, his favourite event.Oliva was educated at Shirenewton Primary School, then at Monmouth School: he participated in the Queen's Baton Relay there in September 2017, ahead of the 2018 Commonwealth Games. He subsequently spent six years studying for a degree in philosophy with the Open University whilst being part of the British Cycling Academy programme. Since 2016, he has been a student of Medicine at Cardiff University in Wales. He is married to fellow racing cyclist and physiotherapist Ciara Horne.List of Commonwealth Games mascots
Since 1978, the Commonwealth Games have had a mascot in each edition.Rupertswood
Rupertswood is a mansion and country estate located in Sunbury on the outskirts of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia. It is well known as the birthplace of The Ashes urn which was humorously presented to English cricket captain Ivo Bligh to mark his team's victory in an 1882-83 Test match series between Australia and England. Rupertswood is one of the largest houses constructed in Victoria and, although now subdivided, has significant farm land. The estate also had its own private railway station (until closure in 2004), and artillery battery. It is listed on the Victorian Heritage Register.
The foundation stone for Rupertswood was laid on 29 August 1874 with around 1,000 people in attendance. The house was the country seat completed in 1876 for Sir William Clarke a land owner and pastoralist who was one of Australia's wealthiest men and the first Australian-born baronet. It was designed by local architect George L. Browne in the Free Classical style.
The estate was sold in 1925 to Hugh Victor McKay, a wealthy industrialist and inventor of the Sunshine Harvester. When McKay died in 1926, Rupertswood was bought by pastoralist William Naughton, and then in 1927 by the Salesian Society, which used the mansion and surrounding property as a male boarding school. The school later became co-educational, relocated into separate premises nearby, and is known as Salesian College, Rupertswood.
In March 2006, the Commonwealth Games Queen's Baton Relay travelled to the area, where a re-enactment of the handing over of The Ashes to the English took place in front of a small local crowd.
The mansion was restored with the help of interior designer and Victorian architecture specialist Jacqui Robertson and converted into a hotel that was often used for weddings and other formal events until its closure in 2014. The contents were auctioned on site in July 2014 by Glenelg Auction Centre. The building is now used as administration offices for Salesian College.Sushil Kumar (wrestler)
Sushil Kumar Solanki (born 26 May 1983) is an Indian freestyle wrestler. He was competing in the 66 kg weight division when he won the 2010 world title, a silver medal at the 2012 London Olympics and a bronze medal at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which made him the only Indian to win two individual Olympic medals. His 2008 Olympic medal was second for India in wrestling, and the first since Khashaba Dadasaheb Jadhav's bronze medal at the 1952 Summer Olympics. In July 2009, he received the Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna – India's highest honour for sportspersons. On 3 October 2010, Kumar handed the Queen's Baton to Prince Charles in the Queen's Baton Relay for the 2010 Commonwealth Games Opening Ceremony. Sushil won the gold medal in the 74 kg division at the 2014 Commonwealth Games.Taoriba Biniati
Taoriba Biniati (born 1 November 1995) is an I-Kiribati boxer.
Biniati comes from Tabiteuea, an atoll in the Gilbert Islands, Kiribati, south of Tarawa. She took up boxing after Derek Andrewartha, a former police officer from Hampshire, England, advertised for a female boxer to join his club with the aim of competing at the 2014 Commonwealth Games. She is coached by Tarieta Ruata, who represented Kiribati at the 2010 Commonwealth Games in Delhi. The club's only equipment was a single punchbag which they hung from a breadfruit tree.In December 2013 Biniati accompanied the Queen's Baton Relay as it passed through Kiribati on the journey to Glasgow.The Gambia at the 2010 Commonwealth Games
The Gambia competed in the 2010 Commonwealth Games held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010. The Queen's baton traveled to the Gambia as part of the Queen's Baton Relay in anticipation of the games. The 2008 Commonwealth Games Federation General Assembly was hosted by Gambia, hosting members from the Commonwealth Games Associations. It sent 17 players.Trespass (clothing)
Trespass is a privately owned international sportswear brand, specialising in skiwear, waterproof jackets, fleece, festival accessories, walking boots and camping gear. The company sells outdoor clothing in the wholesale market, through UK based retail stores and, more recently, through its online e-commerce website. Trespass's clothing, accessories, and gear range from entry level to more advanced.
Commonwealth of Nations topics
|Heads of government|