The Quapaw (or Arkansas and Ugahxpa) people are a tribe of Native Americans that coalesced in the Midwest and Ohio Valley. The Dhegiha Siouan-speaking tribe historically migrated from the Ohio Valley area to the west side of the Mississippi River and resettled in what is now the state of Arkansas; their name for themselves refers to this migration and traveling downriver.[3]

The Quapaw are federally recognized as the Quapaw Nation.[4] The US federal government removed them to Indian Territory in 1834, and their tribal base has been in present-day Ottawa County in northeastern Oklahoma. The number of members enrolled in the tribe was 3,240 in 2011.[1]

Quapaw Nation Flag
Flag of the Quapaw Nation
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 United States ( Oklahoma)
English, Quapaw language[2]
Christianity (Roman Catholicism), traditional tribal religion, Big Moon and Little Moon Native American Church
Related ethnic groups
Dhegihan peoples: Osage, Omaha, Ponca, Kansa


Algonquian-speaking people called the Quapaws /akansa/, and the French called them Arcansas.[5] The French named the Arkansas River and the territory and state of Arkansas for them.


Robe dite aux trois villages, Qwapah, Arkansas, Musée du quai Branly
Quapaw "Three Villages" Robe, Arkansas, 18th century. Musée du quai Branly

The Quapaw Nation is headquartered in Quapaw in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, in the northeast corner of the state. They have a 13,000-acre (53 km2) Quapaw tribal jurisdictional area.

The Quapaw people elect a tribal council and the tribal chairman, who serves a two-year term. The governing body of the tribe is outlined in the governing resolutions of the tribe, which were voted upon and approved in 1956 to create a written form of government (prior to 1956 the Quapaw Tribe operated on a hereditary chief system).[6] The Chairman is John L. Berrey.[1] Of the 3,240 enrolled tribal members, 892 live in the state of Oklahoma. Membership in the tribe is based on lineal descent.[7]

The tribe operates a Tribal Police Department and a Fire Department, which handles both fire and EMS calls. They issue their own tribal vehicle tags and have their own housing authority.[1]

Economic development

The tribe owns two smoke shops and motor fuel outlets, known as the Quapaw C-Store and Downstream Q-Store.[8]

They have two casinos, the Quapaw Casino and the Downstream Casino Resort, both located in Quapaw; these generate most of the revenue for the tribe.[9][10] In 2012 the Quapaw Tribe's annual economic impact was measured at more than $225,000,000.[10] They also own and operate the Eagle Creek Golf Course and resort, located in Loma Linda, Missouri.[11]

The Tar Creek Superfund site has been listed by the Environmental Protection Agency for clean-up of environmental hazards. European-Americans leased lands for development that require remediation to remove toxic waste.


The traditional Quapaw language is part of the Dhegiha branch of the Siouan language family. There are few remaining native speakers, but Quapaw was well documented in fieldnotes and publications from many individuals, including George Izard in 1827, Lewis F. Hadley in 1882, 19th-century linguist James Owen Dorsey, Frank T. Siebert in 1940, and by linguist Robert Rankin in the 1970s.[12]

Classes in the Quapaw language are taught at the tribal museum.[13] An online audio lexicon of the Quapaw language was created by editing old recordings of Elders speaking the language.[14]

Other efforts at language preservation and revitalization are being undertaken. In 2011 the Quapaw participated in the first annual Dhegiha Gathering. The Osage language program hosted and organized the gathering, held at the Quapaw tribe's Downstream Casino. Language-learning techniques and other issues were discussed and taught in workshops at the conference among the five cognate tribes.[15] The Annual Dhegiha Gathering was held in 2012 also at Downstream Casino.[16]

Cultural heritage

The Quapaw host cultural events throughout the year, primarily held at the tribal museum. These include Indian dice games, traditional singing, and classes in traditional arts, such as finger weaving, shawl making, and flute making. In addition, Quapaw language classes are held there.[17]

Fourth of July

The tribe's annual dance is during the weekend of the Fourth of July. This dance started shortly after the American Civil War,[18] 2011 was the 139th anniversary of this dance.[19] Common features of this powwow include gourd dance, war dance, stomp dance, and 49s. Other activities take place such as Indian football, handgame, traditional footraces, traditional dinners, turkey dance, and other dances such as Quapaw Dance, and dances from other area tribes.

This weekend is also when the tribe convenes the annual general council meeting, during which important decisions regarding the policies and resolutions of the Quapaw tribe are voted upon by tribal members over the age of eighteen.


The Quapaw Nation (known as Ugahxpa in their own language) are descended from a historical group of Dhegian-Siouan speaking people who lived in the lower Ohio River valley area. The modern descendants of this group also include the Omaha, Ponca, Osage and Kaw. The Quapaw and the other Dhegiha Siouan speaking tribes are believed to have migrated from the Ohio River valley after 1200 CE. Scholars are divided in whether they think the Quapaw and other related groups left before or after the Beaver Wars of the 17th century, in which the more powerful Five Nations of the Iroquois drove out other tribes from the Ohio Valley and retained the area for hunting grounds.[20][21]

They arrived at their historical territory, the area of the confluence of the Arkansas and Mississippi rivers, at minimum by the mid-17th century. The timing of the Quapaw migration into their ancestral territory in the historical period has been the subject of considerable debate by scholars of various fields. It is referred to as the "Quapaw Paradox" by academics. Many professional archaeologists have introduced numerous migration scenarios and time frames, but none has conclusive evidence.[22] Glottochronological studies suggest the Quapaw separated from the other Dhegihan-speaking peoples ranging between AD 950 to as late as AD 1513.[23]

The Illinois and other Algonquian-speaking peoples to the northeast referred to them as the Akansea or Akansa, meaning "land of the downriver people". As French explorers Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet met the Illinois before they did the Quapaw, they adopted this exonym for the more westerly people. English-speaking settlers who arrived later in the region adopted the name used by the French.

During years of colonial rule of New France, many of the French fur traders and voyageurs had an amicable relationship with the Quapaw, as with many other trading tribes.[24] Many Quapaw women and French men married and had families together. Pine Bluff, Arkansas, was founded by Joseph Bonne, a man of Quapaw-French ancestry.

Écore Fabre (Fabre's Bluff) was started as a trading post by the Frenchman Fabre and was one of the first European settlements in south central Arkansas. While the area was ruled by the Spanish from 1763–1789, following French defeat in the Seven Years' War, they did not have as many colonists in the area. After increased American settlement following the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, Écore Fabre was renamed as Camden.

English speakers tried to adapt French names to English phonetics: Chemin Couvert (French for "covered way or road") was gradually converted to "Smackover" by Anglo-Americans. They used this name for a local creek. Founded by the French, Le Petit Rocher was translated into English and renamed by Americans as Little Rock after the United States acquired the territory in the Purchase.

Numerous spelling variations have been recorded in accounts of tribal names, reflecting both loose spelling traditions, and the effects of transliteration of names into the variety of European languages used in the area. Some sources listed Ouachita as a Choctaw word, whereas others list it as a Quapaw word. Either way, the spelling reflects transliteration into French.

The following passages are taken from the public domain Catholic Encyclopedia, written early in the 20th century. It describes the Quapaw from the non-native perspective of that time. Some of the tribe has strong Cherokee kin relationships then and now.

A tribe now nearly extinct, but formerly one of the most important of the lower Mississippi region, occupying several villages about the mouth of the Arkansas, chiefly on the west (Arkansas) side, with one or two at various periods on the east (Mississippi) side of the Mississippi, and claiming the whole of the Arkansas River region up to the border of the territory held by the Osage in the north-western part of the state. They are of Siouan linguistic stock, speaking the same language, spoken also with dialectic variants, by the Osage and Kansa (Kaw) in the south and by the Omaha and Ponca in Nebraska. Their name properly is Ugakhpa, which signifies "down-stream people", as distinguished from Umahan or Omaha, "up-stream people". To the Illinois and other Algonquian tribes, they were known as 'Akansea', whence their French names of Akensas and Akansas. According to concurrent tradition of the cognate tribes, the Quapaw and their kinsmen originally lived far east, possibly beyond the Alleghenies, and, pushing gradually westward, descended the Ohio River – hence called by the Illinois the "river of the Akansea" – to its junction with the Mississippi, whence the Quapaw, then including the Osage and Kansa, descended to the mouth of the Arkansas, while the Omaha, with the Ponca, went up the Missouri.

DeSoto Map Leg 3 HRoe 2008
A map showing the de Soto expedition route through Mississippi, and Arkansas, up to the point de Soto dies. Based on the Charles M. Hudson map of 1997.

Early European contact

In 1541, when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto led an expedition that came across the town of Pacaha (also recorded by Garcilaso as Capaha), between the Mississippi River and a lake on the Arkansas side, apparently in present-day Phillips County. His party describe the village as strongly palisaded and nearly surrounded by a ditch. Archaeological remains and local conditions bear out the description. If the migration out of the Ohio Valley preceded the entrada, these people may have been the proto-Quapaw. However, given the use of the Tunica language in Pacaha and the evidence for a late Quapaw migration to Arkansas, it is likely that the people whom de Soto met were Tunica.[22]

The first certain encounters with Quapaw by Europeans occurred more than 130 years later. In 1673, the Jesuit Father Jacques Marquette accompanied the French commander Louis Jolliet in making his noted voyage down the Mississippi. He reportedly went to the villages of the Akansea, who gave him warm welcome and listened with attention to his sermons, while he stayed with them a few days. In 1682 La Salle passed by their villages, then five in number, of which one was on the east bank of the Mississippi. A Recollect father, Zenobius Membré, who accompanied the LaSalle expediton planted a cross and attempted to convert the Native Americans to Christianity.

The commander negotiated a peace with the tribe and formally "claimed" the territory for France. The Quapaw were uniformly kind and friendly toward the French. In spite of frequent shiftings, there were four Quapaw villages generally reported along the Mississippi River in this early period. They corresponded in name and population to four sub-tribes still existing, listed as Ugahpahti, Uzutiuhi, Tiwadimañ, and Tañwañzhita, or, under their French transliterations: Kappa, Ossoteoue, Touriman, and Tonginga. Kappa was reported to have been on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River and the other three located on the western bank in or near present-day Desha County, Arkansas. In 1721 depopulation led to the consolidation of Tourima and Tongigua into one village.[25] Ossoteoue or Osotouy was situated at the mouth of the Arkansas River and is now thought to be an archaeological site known as the Menard-Hodges Mounds.[26]

In 1686 the French commander Henri de Tonti built a post on the Arkansas River, near its mouth, that later was known as the Arkansas Post. This began European occupation of the Quapaw country. Tonti arranged also for a resident Jesuit missionary, but apparently without result. About 1697 a smallpox epidemic killed the greater part of the women and children of two villages. In 1727 the Jesuits, from their house in New Orleans, again took up the missionary work. In 1729 the Quapaw allied with the French against the Natchez, resulting in the practical extermination of the Natchez.

The French relocated the Arkansas Post upriver, trying to avoid flooding. After losing to the British in the Seven Years' War, France ceded its North American territories to Britain. This nation exchanged territory with Spain, which took over "control" of Arkansas and other former French territory west of the Mississippi River. It built new forts to protect its valued trading post with the Quapaw.

19th century

Shortly after the United States acquired the territory in 1803 by the Louisiana Purchase, it recorded the Quapaw as living in three villages on the south side of the Arkansas River about 12 miles (19 km) above Arkansas Post. In 1818, they made their first treaty with the US government, ceding all claims from the Red River to beyond the Arkansas and east of the Mississippi.

They kept a considerable tract between the Arkansas and the Saline, in the southeastern part of the state. Under continued US pressure, in 1824 they ceded this also, excepting 80 acres (320,000 m2) occupied by the chief Saracen (Sarrasin) below Pine Bluff. They expected to incorporate with the Caddo of Louisiana, but were refused permission. Successive floods in the Caddo country near the Red River pushed many toward starvation, and they wandered back to their old homes.

In 1834, under another treaty, the Quapaw were removed from the Mississippi valley areas to their present location in the northeast corner of Oklahoma, then Indian Territory.

Sarrasin (alternate spelling Saracen), their last chief before the removal, was a Roman Catholic and friend of the Lazarist missionaries (Congregation of the Missions), who had arrived in 1818. He died about 1830 and is buried adjoining St. Joseph's Church, Pine Bluff, where a memorial window preserves his name. The pioneer Lazarist missionary among the Quapaw was Rev. John M. Odin, who later served as the Archbishop of New Orleans.

In 1824 the Jesuits of Maryland, under Father Charles Van Quickenborne, took up work among the native and immigrant tribes of present-day Kansas and Oklahoma. In 1846 the Mission of St. Francis was established among the Osage, on Neosho River, by Fathers John Shoenmakers and John Bax, who extended their services to the Quapaw for some years. The Quapaw together with the associated remnant tribes, the Miami, Seneca, Wyandot and Ottawa, were served from the Mission of "Saint Mary of the Quapaws", at Quapaw, Oklahoma. Historians estimated their number at European encounter as 5000. The Catholic Encyclopedia noted the people had suffered from high fatalities due to epidemics, wars, removals, and social disruption. It documented their numbers as 3200 in 1687, 1600 in 1750, 476 in 1843, and 307 in 1910, including all mixed bloods.

Peter Clabber, Principal Chief of Quapaws - NARA - 251688
Peter Clabber, Principal Chief of Quapaws, 1905

Kinship, religion and culture

Besides the four established divisions already noted, the Quapaw have the clan system, with a number of gentes. Polygamy was practiced, but was not common. They were agricultural. Their towns were palisaded. Their town houses, or public structures, are referred to as longhouses and are constructed with timbers dovetailed together and bark roofs, were commonly erected upon large man-made mounds to guard against the frequent flooding. Their ordinary houses were rectangular and long enough to accommodate several families.

The Quapaw dug large ditches, and constructed fish weirs to manage their food supply. They excelled in pottery and in the painting of hide for bed covers and other purposes. The dead were buried in the ground, sometimes in mounds or in the clay floors of their houses, being frequently strapped to a stake in a sitting position and then covered with earth. They were friendly to the Europeans, while warring with the Chickasaw and other Southeastern tribes over resources and trade.

20th century

Quapaw mocs 1900 okla
Quapaw moccasins, ca. 1900, Oklahoma History Center

In the early 20th century, an account noted that the Dhegiha language, a branch of Siouan including the "dialects" of the Omaha, Ponca, Osage, Kansa, and Quapaw, has received more extended study. Rev. J.O. Dorsey published material about it under the auspices of the Bureau of American Ethnology, now part of the Smithsonian Institution.[27]

Documentary film

The Quapaw tribal jurisdictional area includes the Tar Creek Superfund Site, which at one time was considered to be the worst environmental disaster in the country. The city of Picher has been closed and abandoned, and the environmental issues related to mining are explored in the documentary Tar Creek, made in 2009 by Matt Myers. Tar Creek tells the full story of the Tar Creek Superfund Site. It discusses the racism of environmental and governmental practices that led to the neglect and lack of regulation resulting in this hazardous site. The Quapaw and other residents of Ottawa County have suffered ill effects, including lead poisoning of a high percentage of children, from contamination of ground and water due to this site.

Notable Quapaw people

See also


  1. ^ a b c d 2011 Oklahoma Indian Nations Pocket Pictorial Directory Archived 12 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission, 2011: 30. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  2. ^ "Quapaw." Archived 10 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Ethnologue. Retrieved 28 Jan 2012.
  3. ^ "Quapaw Tribe, OK – Official Website – Tribal Name". www.quapawtribe.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Welcome to the Quapaw Nation."
  5. ^ Bright, William (2007). Native American Placenames of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-806135984.
  6. ^ "Quapaw Tribe Governing Resolutions."
  7. ^ "Quapaw Enrollment"
  8. ^ "Quapaw Businesses.", Quapaw tribal website, 2013 (retrieved 8 February 2013)
  9. ^ "Directions." Archived 27 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine Downstream Casino Resort. 2008 (retrieved 12 August 2010)
  10. ^ a b "Casino Pumps 1 Billion: Downstream Casino Economic Impact", Neosho Daily News, 19 January 2013 (retrieved 8 February 2013)
  11. ^ "Golf" Archived 28 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Downstream Casino Resort website, 2013 (retrieved 8 February 2013)
  12. ^ Quapaw Historical Written Works, Quapaw Tribal Ancestry
  13. ^ "Quapaw language", Quapaw Tribal website, 2011 (retrieved 10 September 2011)
  14. ^ Quapaw Language
  15. ^ "Dhegiha Gathering" Archived 19 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Dhegiha Gathering Article. 2011, Osage Tribe website (retrieved 10 September 2011)
  16. ^ "2nd Dhegiha Gathering." 2nd Dhegiha Gathering Notice. 2013, Quapaw Tribe website (retrieved 8 February 2013)
  17. ^ "Calendar", Quapaw Tribe Website, 2008 (retrieved 12 August 2010)
  18. ^ Baird, David (1975). The Quapaw People. Indian Tribal Series.
  19. ^ "Powwows.", Tribal website. 2011 (retrieved 10 September 2011)
  20. ^ Rollins, Willard (1995). The Osage: An Enthnohistorical Study of Hegemony on the Prairie-Plains. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. pp. 96–100.
  21. ^ Louis F. Burns, "Osage" Archived 2 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine Oklahoma Historical Society's Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, retrieved 2 March 2009
  22. ^ a b Ethridge, Robbie (2008). The Transformation of the Southeastern Indians, 1540–1760. University Press of Mississippi.
  23. ^ "Dhegihan and Chiwere Siouans in the Plains: Historical and Archaeological Perspectives". Plains Anthropologist: 394. 2004.
  24. ^ Havard, Gilles (2003). Histoire de l'Amérique française. Paris: Flamarion.
  25. ^ "Quapaw". Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  26. ^ Ford, James A. (1961), Menard Site: the Quapaw Village of Osotouy On the Arkansas River, New York: American Museum of Natural History
  27. ^ Pilling, Siouan Bibliography

External links

Ardina Moore

Ardina Moore (née Revard, born 1930) is a Quapaw-Osage Native American from Miami, Oklahoma. She is a Quapaw language speaker and has developed a heritage preservation program to teach the language to younger tribal members.She is a fashion designer and regalia-maker, who founded an Indian apparel business, Buffalo Sun, in 1983. She has received numerous awards for her fashion designs, has served in multiple leadership positions within the Quapaw Tribe of Indians, and was inducted into the Oklahoma Women's Hall of Fame.

Arkansas Post

The Arkansas Post was the first European settlement in the lower Mississippi River Valley and present-day Arkansas when Henri de Tonti established it in 1686 as a French trading post on the banks of the lower Arkansas River. The French and Spanish traded with the Quapaw for years, and the post was of strategic value to the French, Spanish, and Americans. It was designated as the first capital of the Arkansas Territory in 1819, but lost that status to Little Rock in 1821. During the years of fur trading, Arkansas Post was protected by a series of forts. The forts and associated settlements were located at three known sites and possibly a fourth, as the waterfront area was prone to erosion and flooding.The land encompassing the second (and fourth) Arkansas Post site (Red Bluff) was designated as a state park in 1929. In 1960 about 757.51-acre (306.55 ha) of land at the site was protected as a National Memorial and National Historic Landmark; it commemorates the history of several cultures and time periods: the Quapaw, the French settlers who inhabited the small entrepôt as the first Arkansans, Spanish rule, an American Revolutionary War skirmish in 1783, the first territorial capital of Arkansas, and an American Civil War battle in 1863.Three archeological excavations have been conducted at the site, beginning in the 1950s. Experts say the most extensive cultural resources at the site are archeological, both for the 18th and 19th-century settlements, and the earlier Quapaw villages. Due to changes in the river and navigation measures, the water level has risen closer to the height of the bluffs, which used to be well above the river. The site is now considered low lying. Erosion and construction on the river have resulted in the remains of three of the historic forts being under water in the river channel.

Dhegihan languages

The Dhegihan languages are a group of Siouan languages that include Kansa–Osage, Omaha–Ponca, and Quapaw. Their historical region included parts of the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, the Great Plains, and southeastern North America.

Kansa and Osage are mutually intelligible, as are Omaha and Ponca.

The 2nd Annual Dhegiha Gathering in 2012 brought Kansa, Quapaw, Osage, Ponca and Omaha speakers together to share best practices in language revitalization.

History of Arkansas

The history of Arkansas began millennia ago when humans first crossed into North America. Many tribes used Arkansas as their hunting lands but the main tribe was the Quapaw, who settled in Arkansas River delta upon moving south from Illinois. Early French explorers gave the territory its name, a corruption of Akansea, which is a phonetic spelling of the Illinois word for the Quapaw. This phonetic heritage explains why "Arkansas" is pronounced so differently than "Kansas" even though they share the same spelling. What began as a rough wilderness inhabited by trappers and hunters became incorporated into the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and became Arkansas Territory in 1819. Upon gaining statehood in 1836, Arkansas had begun to prosper under a plantation economy that was heavily reliant on slave labor. After the Civil War Arkansas was a poor rural state based on cotton. Prosperity returned in the 1940s. The state became famous for its political leadership, including President Bill Clinton (Governor, 1979–81 and 1983–92), and as the base for the Walmart Corporation.

Ho-Chunk mythology

The Hocągara (Ho-Chungara) or Hocąks (Ho-Chunks) are a Siouan-speaking Indian Nation originally from Wisconsin and northern Illinois, but due to forced emigration, they are also found in Nebraska, where about half the nation now lives. They are most closely related to the Chiwere peoples (the Ioway, Oto, and Missouria), and more distantly to the Dhegiha (Quapaw, Kansa, Omaha, Ponca, and Osage).

Mitchigamea language

Mitchigamea or Michigamea is a language spoken by Mitchigamea people.

In 1673, Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet used a Mitchigamea man, who only spoke Illinois poorly, as a translator between the Illinois-speaking French, and the Siouan-speaking Quapaw. Jean Bernard Bossu provides two sentences from the mid-18th century which, according to John Koontz, indicate that Michigamea was a Siouan language of the Mississippi Valley branch.

Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma

The Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma is a federally recognized tribe of Modoc people, the smallest tribe in Oklahoma and located in Ottawa County in the northeast corner of the state. They are descendants of Captain Jack's band of Modoc people, removed in 1873 from their traditional territory in northern California and southern Oregon after the Modoc Wars. They were exiled to the Quapaw Agency in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), where they were colocated with the Shawnee people from east of the Mississippi River.

In the 1950s the federally recognized status of the Klamath Reservation (where other Modoc were colocated) and the Modoc was terminated, ending federal assistance to the two tribes. The Modoc tribe in Oklahoma reorganized independently and gained federal recognition in 1978. They have also acquired a land base and have introduced bison to their area. They have pursued several avenues of economic development in what was an inhospitable environment compared to northern California.

National Park College

National Park College (NPC) is a public community college in Hot Springs, Arkansas. NPC was founded in 2003 as a result of a merger between Garland County Community College and Quapaw Technical Institute. It is now one of the state's largest community colleges, enrolling 3,000 students annually in credit programs and an additional 3,800 students in non-credit programs. Tuition at NPC is less than half of Arkansas' universities. The name of the college is derived from its location adjacent to Hot Springs National Park.

Ottawa County, Oklahoma

Ottawa County is a county located in the northeastern corner of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 31,848. Its county seat is Miami. The county was named for the Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma. It is also the location of the federally recognized Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma and the Quapaw Tribe of Indians, which is based in Quapaw.

Ottawa County comprises the Miami, OK Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Joplin-Miami, MO-OK Combined Statistical Area. The county borders both Kansas and Missouri.

Quapaw, Oklahoma

Quapaw is a town in Ottawa County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 906 at the 2010 census, a 7.9 percent decline from 984 as of the 2000 census. Quapaw is part of the Joplin, Missouri metropolitan area.

Quapaw Area Council

The Quapaw Area Council is a regional council of the Boy Scouts of America. It is the largest Council in Arkansas in both area and members and is headquartered in Little Rock. The council serves over 18,000 youth and 3,600 adults in thirty-nine counties divided into ten districts, and approximately 100 boys become Eagle Scouts each year.

Quapaw Indian Agency

The Quapaw Indian Agency was a territory that included parts of the present-day Oklahoma counties of Ottawa and Delaware. Established in the late 1830s as part of lands allocated to the Cherokee Nation, this area was later leased by the federal government and known as the Leased District. The area that became known as the Quapaw Agency Lands contained 220,000 acres and was located in the northeastern corner of Oklahoma where that state adjoins Missouri and Kansas.

After the Civil War, the Cherokee were forced to cede the land and the US assigned it to several other tribes. This area was settled prior to 1874 by 24 Indian groups. These range from full Indian tribes down to the remnants of several larger Indian groups whose main body settled elsewhere.

The agency was disbanded in 1890 by the Oklahoma Organic Act, which was designed to extinguish tribal communal land claims. The land was attached to an Indian Territory prior to passage of the Dawes Act and distribution of plots to individual households. Another Indian reserve, the Miami Indian Agency based in Miami, Oklahoma was disbanded at the same time. All Native American claims were extinguished prior to Oklahoma's admission to statehood in the 20th century.

Quapaw Quarter

The Quapaw Quarter of Little Rock, Arkansas, is a section of the city including its oldest and most historic business and residential neighborhoods. The area's name was first given in 1961, honoring the Quapaw Indians who lived in the area centuries ago.

As many as fifteen separate National Historic Register Districts make up the Quapaw Quarter, including more than 200 separate homes and buildings on the National Register of Historic Places. Trapnall Hall, along East Capitol Avenue, was among the first of the homes built in 1843 as the home of early state legislator Frederic Trapnall and his wife, Martha. Structures housing businesses on Main Street and Broadway south of Interstate 630 are also among this group.

Throughout the Quapaw Quarter, many small and large homes from the Antebellum and Victorian eras can be found, in addition to several examples of Craftsman-style architecture. Scott, Center and Spring streets, in particular, are where many such homes stand today. The exterior of the Villa Marre, one such home, was known nationally as the outside of the home containing the office of Sugarbaker Designs, the fictional Atlanta-based interior design firm on the CBS sitcom Designing Women. The actual home is along Little Rock's Scott Street, and has been a former home for the office of the Quapaw Quarter Association, the chief organization that sponsors historic preservation efforts in the area.

Quapaw language

Quapaw, or Arkansas, is a Siouan language of the Quapaw people, originally from a region in present-day Arkansas. It is now spoken in Oklahoma.

It is similar to the other Dhegihan languages: Kansa, Omaha, Osage and Ponca.

Quapaw–Prospect Historic District

The Quapaw–Prospect Historic District is a predominantly residential historic district on the northwest side of Hot Springs, Arkansas. It covers a roughly nine-block stretch of Quapaw and Prospect Streets, from their junction in the east to Grand Avenue in the west, including properties on streets running between the two. The area was developed between about 1890 and 1950, and contains a cross-section of architectural styles popular in that period. Although Colonial Revival and Craftsman style houses dominate the area, it has a particularly fine collection of Queen Anne Victorians as well.The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. Four properties that are included in the district were previously listed on the National Register: they are the Walter Beauchamp House, the Williams-Wootton House, the William H. Martin House, and the Charles N. Rix House.

Reconstruction Treaties

On the eve of the American Civil War in 1861, a significant number of Indigenous peoples of the Americas had been relocated from the Southeastern United States to Indian Territory, west of the Mississippi. The inhabitants of the eastern part of the Indian Territory, the Five Civilized Tribes, were suzerain nations with established tribal governments, well established cultures, and legal systems that allowed for slavery. Before European Contact these tribes were generally matriarchial societies, with agriculture being the primary economic pursuit. The bulk of the tribes lived in towns (some covering hundreds of acres and containing thousands of people) with planned streets, residential and public areas. The people were ruled by complex hereditary chiefdoms of varying size and complexity with high levels of military organization.By the middle of the 19th century, the United States Government had started leasing land from the Five Civilized Tribes (ex. Choctaw and Chickasaw)

in the western, more arid, part of Indian Territory. These leased lands were used to resettle several Plains Indian tribes that tended to be nomadic in nature, embracing the Horse culture. At the extreme, the Comanche society was based on patrilinear and patrilocal extended family sharing a common language; they did not develop the political idea of forming a nation or tribe until their relocation to Indian Territory.

At the beginning of the Civil War, the Union Army was withdrawn from Indian Territory exposing the Five Civilized Tribes to aggression from the Plains Indians. The Confederacy filled the vacuum. All of the Five Civilized Tribes as well as other surrounding tribes signed treaties with the Confederacy. As a part of reconstruction, the Southern Treaty Commission was created by Congress to write new treaties with the Tribes that sided with the Confederacy.

Scouting in Arkansas

Scouting in Arkansas has a long history, from 1913 to the present day, serving thousands of youth in programs that suit the environment in which they live.

Tornado outbreak of April 27–30, 2014

The tornado outbreak of April 27–30, 2014 was a relatively widespread, damaging and deadly tornado outbreak that struck the central and southern United States in late April 2014. The storm complex responsible for the outbreak produced multiple long-track tornadoes – seven were deadly, causing 35 fatalities. One additional death occurred in Florida, due to severe flooding associated with this system.This event was the first major tornado outbreak to hit the United States in 2014; it covered a large swath from Nebraska to Louisiana, Illinois to Florida, and Oklahoma to North Carolina. This system affected millions in the Northeastern United States on April 30, causing significant, damaging floods in Maryland and flash flood advisories as far north as New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and NYC's metropolitan area and suburbs.

USS Quapaw (ATF-110)

USS Quapaw (ATF–110/AT-110) was a Abnaki-class fleet ocean tug in the United States Navy. She was named after the Quapaw.

Quapaw was laid down by United Engineering Co., Alameda, California, 28 December 1942; launched 15 May 1943; sponsored by Mrs. N. Lehman; and commissioned 6 May 1944, Lt. Comdr. N. H. Castle in command. She was redesignated ATF–110 on 15 May 1944.

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