Quaestor

A quaestor (UK: /ˈkwiːstə/, US: /ˈkwɛstər/, Latin for investigator)[1] was a public official in Ancient Rome. The position served different functions depending on the period. In the Roman Kingdom, quaestores parricidii (quaestors with judicial powers) were appointed by the king to investigate and handle murders. In the Roman Republic, quaestors (Lat. quaestores) were elected officials who supervised the state treasury and conducted audits. It was the lowest ranking position in the cursus honorum (course of offices). However, this means that in the political environment of Rome, it was quite common for many aspiring politicians to take the position of quaestor as an early rung on the political ladder. In the Roman Empire, the position, which was initially replaced by the praefectus (prefect), reemerged during the late empire as quaestor intra Palatium, a position appointed by the emperor to lead the imperial council and respond to petitioners.[2]

Etymology

Quaestor derives from the Latin verb quaero, quaerere, meaning "to inquire". The job title has traditionally been understood as deriving from the original investigative function of the quaestores parricidii.[3][4] Ancient authors, perhaps influenced by etymology, reasoned that the investigative role of the quaestores parricidii had evolved to include financial matters, giving rise to the similarly-named later offices. However, this connection has been questioned by modern scholars.[5][6]

History

Origins

The earliest quaestors were quaestores parricidii (quaestors with judicial power), an office dating back to the Kingdom of Rome. Quaestores parricidii were chosen to investigate capital crimes, and may have been appointed as needed rather than holding a permanent position. Ancient authors disagree on the exact manner of selection for this office as well as on its earliest institution, with some dating it to the mythical reign of Romulus.[7]

Roman Republic

In the Roman Republic, quaestors were elected officials who supervised the treasury and financial accounts of the state, its armies and its officers. The quaestors tasked with financial supervision were also called quaestores aerarii, because they oversaw the aerarium (public treasury) in the Temple of Saturn.[8] The earliest origins of the office is obscure, but by about 420 BC there were four quaestors elected each year by the Comitia Tributa (Assembly of the People). After 267 BC, the number was expanded to ten.

The office of quaestor, usually a former broad-striped tribune, was adopted as the first official post of the cursus honorum (lit. course of offices), the standard sequence that made up a career in public service. Once elected as quaestor, a Roman man earned the right to sit in the Senate and began progressing through the cursus honorum. Quaestors were not provided any lictors (civil servant bodyguards) while in the city of Rome, but while in the provinces, they were allowed to have the fasces (a bound bundle of wooden rods symbolizing a magistrate's authority and jurisdiction).[9]

Every Roman consul, the highest elected official in the cursus honorum, and every provincial governor was appointed a quaestor. Some quaestors were assigned to work in the city and others in the provinces where their responsibilities could include being recruited into the military. Some provincial quaestors were assigned as staff to military generals or served as second-in-command to governors in the Roman provinces. Still others were assigned to oversee military finances.

Lucius Cornelius Sulla's reforms in 81 BC raised the number of quaestors to 20 and the minimum age for a quaestorship was 30 for patricians (members of ruling class families) and 32 for plebeians (commoners). Additionally, the reforms granted quaestors automatic membership in the Senate upon being elected, whereas previously, membership in the Senate was granted only after censors revised the Senate rolls, which occurred less frequently than the annual induction of quaestors.

There were at that time (B.C. 75) twenty Quæstors elected annually, some of whom remained in Rome; but most of the number were stationed about the Empire, there being always one as assistant to each Proconsul. When a Consul took the field with an army, he always had a Quæstor with him. This had become the case so generally that the Quæstor became, as it were, something between a private secretary and a senior lieutenant to a governor. The arrangement came to have a certain sanctity attached to it, as though there was something in the connection warmer and closer than that of mere official life; so that a Quæstor has been called a Proconsul’s son for the time, and was supposed to feel that reverence and attachment that a son entertains for his father.

— Anthony Trollope, The Life of Cicero

This relationship between a consul and a quaestor was similar to that between a patron and a client. The quaestor was essential a client to their superior. There was some level of mutual respect between the two individuals, but a defined sense of place and knowledge of each other's roles. This relationship often continued past the designated terms of either individual, and the quaestor could be called upon for assistance or other needs by the consul. Breaking this pact or doing harm by a former superior would make the quaestor seem dishonorable or even treasonous.[10]

Late Antiquity

Constantine the Great created the office quaestor sacri palatii (quaestor of the sacred place) which functioned as the Roman Empire's senior legal official. Emperor Justinian I also created the offices quaesitor, a judicial and police official for Constantinople, and quaestor exercitus (quaestor of the army), a short-lived joint military-administrative post covering the border of the lower Danube. The quaestor sacri palatii survived long into the Byzantine Empire, although its duties were altered to match the quaesitor. The term is last attested in 14th century Byzantium as a purely honorific title.

Powers and responsibilities

Roman Republic

In the early republic, there were two quaestors, and their duties were maintaining the public treasury, both taking in funds and deciding who to pay them to. This continued until 421 BCE when the number of quaestors was doubled to 4. While two continued with the same duties of those that had come before, the other two had additional responsibilities, each being in service to the one of the consuls.[11]'

When consuls went to war, each was assigned a quaestor. The quaestor's main responsibilities involved the distribution of war spoils between the aerarium, or public treasury, and the army. The key responsibility of the quaestor was the administration of public funds to higher-ranking officials in order to pursue their goals, whether those involve military conquests which require funding for armies or public works projects.[10]

The office of quaestor was a position bound to their superior, whether that be a consul, governor, or other magistrate, and the duties would often reflect their superiors. For example, Gaius Gracchus was quaestor under the consul Orestes in Sardinia, and many of his responsibilities involved leading military forces. While not in direct command of the army, the quaestor would be in charge of organizational and lesser duties that were a necessary part of the war machine.[12]

Roman Empire

During the reign of the Emperor Constantine I, the office of quaestor was reorganized into a judicial position known as the quaestor sacri palatii. The office functioned as the primary legal adviser to the emperor, and was charged with the creation of laws as well as answers petitions to the emperor.[13]

From 440 onward, the office of the quaestor worked in conjunction with the praetorian prefect of the East to oversee the supreme tribunal, or supreme court, at Constantinople. There they heard appeals from the various subordinate courts and governors.

Byzantine Empire

Under the Emperor Justinian I, an additional office named quaestor was created to control police and judicial matters in Constantinople. In this new position, a quaestor was responsible for wills, as well as supervision of complaints by tenants regarding their landlords, and finally over the homeless.[13]

Notable quaestors

See also Category: Roman Quaestors.

Gaius Gracchus

Following the death of his brother Tiberius Gracchus, Gaius Gracchus stayed out of the political spotlight for a period until he was forced to defend a good friend of his named Vettius in court. Hearing his vocal abilities, the Senate began to fear that Gaius would arouse the people in the same manner as his brother and appointed him quaestor to Gnaeus Aufidius Orestes in Sardinia to prevent him from becoming a tribune. Gaius used his position as quaestor to successfully defeat his enemies as well as gain a large amount of loyalty among his troops. Following an incident where Gaius won the support of a local village to provide for his troops, the Senate attempted to keep Gaius in Sardinia indefinitely by reappointing Orestes to stay in Sardinia. Gaius was not pleased by this and returned to Rome demanding an explanation, actions which eventually led to his election as a tribune of the people.[12]

Marcus Antonius

Marcus Antonius, or Mark Antony, who is most well known for his civil war with Octavian, started off his political career in the position of quaestor after being a prefect in Syria and then one of Julius Caesar's legates in Gaul. Through a combination of Caesar's favor and his oratory skills defending the legacy of Publius Clodius, Antony was able to win the quaestorship in 51 BCE. This then led to Antony's election as augur and tribune of the people in 50 BC due to Caesar's efforts to reward his ally.[14]

Gaius Julius Caesar

While Julius Caesar served as Quaestor to the Governor or Proconsul/Propraetor in Hispania Ulterior he took major military action against the rebellious tribes of the region. His time as Quaestor was uneventful although when he became Governor there, he settled the disputes.

Marcus Tullius Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was the Quaestor to the Propraetor/Proconsul of Sicily. He fixed major agricultural problems in the region and improved on the purchase and selling of grain. The farmers after this loved Cicero and began to travel to Rome to vote for him in elections every year.

See also

References

  1. ^ "quaestor". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (2016), "Quaestor: Ancient Roman Official", Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., retrieved 1 August 2016
  3. ^ Covino, Ralph (2011). Anne Mackay (ed.). "The Fifth century, the decemvirate, and the quaestorship" (PDF). ASCS 32 Selected Proceedings. Australasian Society for Classical Studies. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
  4. ^ Smith, William (1875). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. John Murray. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
  5. ^ Gaughan, Judy E. (2009). Murder Was Not a Crime: Homicide and Power in the Roman Republic. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292721110. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
  6. ^ Latte, Kurt (1936). "The Origin of the Roman Quaestorship". Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association. 67: 23–24. JSTOR 283224.
  7. ^ Titus Livius, "The History of Rome, Book 2", Benjamin Oliver Foster, Ph.D., Ed, retrieved 5 May 2017
  8. ^ Livy (1881). J. R. Seeley (ed.). Livy, Book I, with Introduction, Historical Examination, and Notes. Clarendon Press. Retrieved 2012-08-12.
  9. ^ Smith, William (1875). "LacusCurtius • Fasces (Smith's Dictionary, 1875)". penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  10. ^ a b Thompson, L. A. (1962), "The Relationship between Provincial Quaestors and Their Commanders-in-Chief.", Historia: Zeitschrift Für Alte Geschichte, JSTOR 4434751
  11. ^ Polybbius, The Histories: Book VI, Loeb Classical Library, 1922, retrieved 1 May 2017
  12. ^ a b Plutarch, Life of Gaius Gracchus, Loeb Classical Library, 1921, retrieved 1 May 2017
  13. ^ a b Kazhdan, Alexander, Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, 1991, retrieved 1 May 2017
  14. ^ van der Blom, Henriette (2016), Oratory and Political Career in the Late Roman Republic, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, retrieved 21 Apr 2017

Further reading

  • Bourne, Frank (Princeton University). "A History of the Romans" Boston, MA. 1967, D.C. Heath and Company
Aedile

Aedile (Latin: aedīlis Latin pronunciation: [ae̯ˈdiː.lɪs], from aedes, "temple edifice") was an elected office of the Roman Republic. Based in Rome, the aediles were responsible for maintenance of public buildings (aedēs) and regulation of public festivals. They also had powers to enforce public order.

There were two pairs of aediles: the first were the "plebeian aediles" (Latin aediles plebis) and possession of this office was limited to plebeians; the other two were "curule aediles" (Latin aediles curules), open to both plebeians and patricians, in alternating years. An aedilis curulis was classified as a magister curulis.

The office of the aedilis was generally held by young men intending to follow the cursus honorum to high political office, traditionally after their quaestorship but before their praetorship. It was not a compulsory part of the cursus, and hence a former quaestor could be elected to the praetorship without having held the position of aedile. However, it was an advantageous position to hold because it demonstrated the aspiring politician's commitment to public service, as well as giving him the opportunity to hold public festivals and games, an excellent way to increase his name recognition and popularity.

Bureau of the European Parliament

The Bureau of the European Parliament is responsible for matters relating to the budget, administration, organisation and staff. It is composed of the President of the European Parliament along with all 14 Vice-Presidents and the five Quaestors (in a consultative capacity). They are elected for two and a half years (renewable term) with the President holding a casting vote. Elections are usually held at the start, and at the midpoint, of each Parliamentary term.

Cursus honorum

The cursus honorum (Latin: lit. "course of honor", or more colloquially "ladder of offices") was the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in both the Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. It was designed for men of senatorial rank. The cursus honorum comprised a mixture of military and political administration posts. Each office had a minimum age for election. There were minimum intervals between holding successive offices and laws forbade repeating an office.These rules were altered and flagrantly ignored in the course of the last century of the Republic. For example, Gaius Marius held consulships for five years in a row between 104 BC and 100 BC. He was consul seven times in all, also serving in 107 and 86. Officially presented as opportunities for public service, the offices often became mere opportunities for self-aggrandizement. The reforms of Sulla required a ten-year interval before holding the same office again for another term.To have held each office at the youngest possible age (suo anno, "in his own year") was considered a great political success. For instance, to miss out on a praetorship at 39 meant that one could not become consul at 42. Cicero expressed extreme pride not only in being a novus homo ("new man"; comparable to a "self-made man") who became consul even though none of his ancestors had ever served as a consul, but also in having become consul "in his year".

Executive magistrates of the Roman Empire

The executive magistrates of the Roman Empire were elected individuals of the ancient Roman Empire. During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman King) to the Roman Senate. During the transition from republic to empire, the constitutional balance of power shifted back to the executive (the Roman Emperor). Theoretically, the senate elected each new emperor, although in practice, it was the army which made the choice. The powers of an emperor, (his imperium) existed, in theory at least, by virtue of his legal standing. The two most significant components to an emperor's imperium were the "tribunician powers" (potestas tribunicia) and the "proconsular powers" (imperium proconsulare). In theory at least, the tribunician powers (which were similar to those of the Plebeian Tribunes under the old republic) gave the emperor authority over Rome's civil government, while the proconsular powers (similar to those of military governors, or Proconsuls, under the old republic) gave him authority over the Roman army. While these distinctions were clearly defined during the early empire, eventually they were lost, and the emperor's powers became less constitutional and more monarchical.Under the empire, the citizens were divided into three classes, and for members of each class, a distinct career path was available (known as the cursus honorum). The traditional magistracies were only available to citizens of the senatorial class. The magistracies that survived the fall of the republic were (by their order of rank per the cursus honorum) the Consulship, Praetorship, Plebeian Tribunate, Aedileship, Quaestorship, and Military Tribunate. If an individual was not of the senatorial class, he could run for one of these offices if he was allowed to run by the emperor, or otherwise, he could be appointed to one of these offices by the emperor. Mark Antony abolished the offices of Roman Dictator and Magister equitum ("Master of the Horse") during his Consulship in 44 BC, shortly after the assassination of Julius Caesar. The office of Interrex was also abolished during the transition from republic to empire. In 22 BC the emperor Augustus appointed P. Aemilius Lepidus and L. Munatius Plancus to the Censorship, and while they began a census that year, they never completed it, and shortly thereafter the office was abolished. The emperor Claudius attempted to revive the office by appointing himself and L. Vitellius Censor in 47 AD, but after Claudius, no further attempts were made to revive the office.

Faustus Cornelius Sulla (quaestor 54 BC)

Faustus Cornelius Sulla (before 86 BC – 46 BC) was a Roman senator. Faustus was the only surviving son of the Dictator of Rome Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his fourth wife Caecilia Metella, and thus a member of one of the most ancient patrician families, the Cornelii. After his father's death in 78 BC, he and his twin sister Fausta were brought up by his guardian, his father's friend Lucullus.

Faustus married Pompeia, daughter of Pompey the Great. Faustus accompanied Pompey on his Asian campaigns, and was the first to climb over the walls of the Temple of Jerusalem when it was stormed by Pompey in 63 BC. After his return to Rome, he gave gladiatorial games to celebrate his father in 60 BC. At an unknown time before 57 BC, Faustus Sulla became augur. As moneyer in 56 BC, he issued coinage in honor of his father and his father-in-law. As owner of the central slopes of Mount Falernus, his name became synonymous with the most esteemed wine in ancient Rome, Faustian Falernian.

Faustus Sulla was Quaestor in 54 BC. The senate commissioned him to rebuild the Curia Hostilia in 52 BC which had been burned down after the riots which followed the murder of Clodius. After that the Curia was known as the Curia Cornelia.

His career as an advocate was cut short, however, by the civil war between Pompey and Julius Caesar. He, as Lucullus' ward and Pompey's son-in-law, sided with the former. Faustus was at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, joining the leaders of his party in Africa subsequently. After the Battle of Thapsus, he tried to escape to Mauretania, but was caught and killed by Publius Sittius, a supporter of Caesar, in 46 BC.With Pompeia he had at least two children: Faustus Cornelius Sulla the Younger and Cornelia Sulla (married Lucius Scribonius Libo, who was praetor in 80 BC). From one of whom is presumably descended Faustus Cornelius Sulla Lucullus, suffect consul in 31 AD.

Hocicudo

Oxymycterus is the genus of hocicudos. They are rat-like animals endemic to South America. As of April 2019 it included 16 species.Species listing:

O. akodontius Thomas, 1921 Argentine hocicudo

O. amazonicus Herzhkovitz, 1994 Amazon hocicudo

O. angularis Thomas, 1909 angular hocicudo

O. caparaoe Hershkovitz, 1998 Caparao hocicudo

O. dasytrichus (Schinz, 1821) Atlantic Forest hocicudo

O. delator Thomas, 1903 spy hocicudo

O. hiska Hinojosa, Anderson & Patton, 1987 small hocicudo

O. hispidus Pictet, 1843 hispid hocicudo

O. hucucha Hinojosa, Anderson & Patton, 1987 Quechuan hocicudo

O. inca Thomas, 1900 Incan hocicudo

P. itapeby Peçanha et al. 2019 Itapevi hocicudo rat

O. josei Hoffmann, Lessa & Smith, 2002 Cook's hocicudo

O. nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837) long-nosed hocicudo

O. paramensis Paramo hocicudo

O. quaestor Thomas, 1903 Quaestor hocicudo

O. roberti Thomas, 1901 Robert's hocicudo

O. rufus (Fischer, 1814) red hocicudo

O. wayku Jayat et al., 2008 ravine hocicudo

Lictor

The lictor (possibly from Latin: ligare, "to bind") was a Roman civil servant who was a bodyguard to magistrates who held imperium. Lictors were used since the Roman Kingdom, and according to Roman historian Livy, the custom may have originated earlier, in the Etruscan civilization.

Pompeia (wife of Caesar)

Pompeia (fl. 1st century BC) was the second wife of Julius Caesar. Her parents were Quintus Pompeius Rufus, a son of a former consul, and Cornelia, the daughter of the Roman dictator Sulla.

Caesar married Pompeia in 67 BC, after he had served as quaestor in Hispania, his first wife Cornelia having died in 69 BC. Caesar was the nephew of Gaius Marius, and Cornelia had been the daughter of Lucius Cornelius Cinna so that they were related to both the leaders of the losing populares side in the civil war of the 80s BC.

In 63 BC Caesar was elected to the position of the Pontifex Maximus, the chief priest of the Roman state religion, which came with an official residence on the Via Sacra. In 62 BC Pompeia hosted the festival of the Bona Dea ("good goddess"), which no man was permitted to attend, in this house. However a young patrician named Publius Clodius Pulcher managed to gain admittance disguised as a woman, apparently for the purpose of seducing Pompeia. He was caught and prosecuted for sacrilege. Caesar gave no evidence against Clodius at his trial, and he was acquitted. Nevertheless, Caesar divorced Pompeia, saying that "my wife ought not even to be under suspicion". This gave rise to a proverb, sometimes expressed: "Caesar's wife must be above suspicion".

Promagistrate

In ancient Rome a promagistrate (Latin: pro magistratu) was an ex-consul or ex-praetor whose imperium (the power to command an army) was extended at the end of his annual term of office or later. They were called proconsuls and propraetors. This was an innovation created during the Roman Republic. Initially it was intended to provide additional military commanders to support the armies of the consuls (the two annually elected heads of the Republic and its army) or to lead an additional army. With the acquisitions of territories outside Italy which were annexed as provinces, proconsuls and propraetors became provincial governors or administrators. A third type of promagistrate were the proquaestors.

Quaestor (European Parliament)

Five quaestors in the European Parliament look after the financial and administrative interests of Members of the European Parliament.

Quaestor (University of St Andrews)

The Quaestor at the University of St Andrews, in Scotland, is a senior executive, and is responsible for the finances of the University; the equivalent of treasurer, Finance Director, or chief operating officer in other institutions. The Quaestor is also the Factor of the University.The Quaestor is a member of the Office of the Principal, and work under the direction of the Principal of the University of St Andrews, who is chief executive of the University.The Quaestor and Factor, as of 14 April 2017, was Derek Watson FFCA.

Quaestor hocicudo

The quaestor hocicudo (Oxymycterus quaestor) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found in southeastern Brazil and northeastern Argentina, where it lives in forest and moist and dry scrub.

Quaestor sacri palatii

The quaestor sacri palatii (Greek: κοιαίστωρ/κυαίστωρ τοῦ ἱεροῦ παλατίου, usually simply ὁ κοιαίστωρ/κυαίστωρ), in English: Quaestor of the Sacred Palace, was the senior legal authority in the late Roman Empire and early Byzantium, responsible for drafting laws. In the later Byzantine Empire, the office of the quaestor was altered and it became a senior judicial official for the imperial capital, Constantinople. The post survived until the 14th century, albeit only as an honorary title.

Quaestura exercitus

The quaestura exercitus was an administrative district of the Eastern Roman Empire with a seat in Odessus (present-day Varna) established by Emperor Justinian I (r. 527–565) on May 18, 536.Territorially, the quaestura exercitus contained the Roman provinces of Moesia Inferior and Scythia Minor, located in the lower Danube region, as well as the provinces of Cyprus, Caria, and the Aegean Islands (i.e. the Cyclades). All of these provinces were detached from the Praetorian prefecture of the East and placed under the authority of a new army official known as the quaestor exercitus ("Quaestor of the army"). The authority of the quaestor was the equivalent to that of a magister militum. Since the strategically vital Danubian provinces were economically impoverished, the purpose of the quaestura exercitus was to help support the troops that were stationed there. By connecting the exposed provinces of the Lower Danube with wealthier provinces in the interior of the empire, Justinian was able to transport supplies via the Black Sea. This territorial restructuring relieved both the destitute populations and devastated countryside of the Danubian provinces from sustaining any stationed troops. There is a lack of subsequent evidence on the history of the quaestura exercitus. However, since the position of quaestor was still extant during the mid-570s, this indicates that the overall territorial unit achieved a modicum of success.Ultimately, the Danubian provinces associated with the quaestura exercitus did not survive the Slav and Avar invasions of the Balkans in the 7th century. However, isolated fortresses on the Danube delta and along the coast of the Black Sea were maintained via supplies by sea. Charles Diehl first raised the suggestion that the great naval corps of the Karabisianoi, which appears in the 680s, was first formed by the remainders of the quaestura. This argument has been adopted by some scholars since but challenged by others, notably Helene Ahrweiler in her study of the Byzantine navy. This question is bound up with the discussion on the respective formations' nature as military-naval or civil-administrative entities.Lead seals from Moesia Inferior and Scythia Minor provide evidence supporting the existence of the quaestura exercitus. Specifically, thirteen imperial seals (nine of which are from Justinian) demonstrate that communications between officials from Scythia Minor and Constantinople occurred on a somewhat regular basis.

Roman magistrate

The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.

During the period of the Roman Kingdom, the King of Rome was the principal executive magistrate. His power, in practice, was absolute. He was the chief priest, lawgiver, judge, and the sole commander of the army. When the king died, his power reverted to the Roman Senate, which then chose an Interrex to facilitate the election of a new king.

During the transition from monarchy to republic, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the executive (the Roman king) to the Roman Senate. When the Roman Republic was founded in 509 BC, the powers that had been held by the king were transferred to the Roman consuls, of which two were to be elected each year. Magistrates of the republic were elected by the people of Rome, and were each vested with a degree of power called "major powers" (maior potestas). Dictators had more "major powers" than any other magistrate, and after the Dictator was the censor, and then the consul, and then the praetor, and then the curule aedile, and then the quaestor. Any magistrate could obstruct ("veto") an action that was being taken by a magistrate with an equal or lower degree of magisterial powers. By definition, plebeian tribunes and plebeian aediles were technically not magistrates since they were elected only by the plebeians, and as such, they were independent of all other powerful magistrates.

During the transition from republic to the Roman empire, the constitutional balance of power shifted from the Roman Senate back to the executive (the Roman Emperor). Theoretically, the senate elected each new emperor; in practice each emperor chose his own successor, though the choice was often overruled by the army or civil war. The powers of an emperor (his imperium) existed, in theory at least, by virtue of his legal standing. The two most significant components to an emperor's imperium were the "tribunician powers" and the "proconsular powers". In theory at least, the tribunician powers (which were similar to those of the plebeian tribunes under the old republic) gave the emperor authority over Rome's civil government, while the proconsular powers (similar to those of military governors, or proconsuls, under the old republic) gave him authority over the Roman army. While these distinctions were clearly defined during the early empire, eventually they were lost, and the emperor's powers became less constitutional and more monarchical. The traditional magistracies that survived the fall of the republic were the consulship, praetorship, plebeian tribunate, aedileship, quaestorship, and military tribunate. Mark Antony abolished the offices of dictator and Master of the Horse during his Consulship in 44 BC, while the offices of Interrex and Roman censor were abolished shortly thereafter.

Romanian Border Police

The Romanian Border Police (Romanian: Poliţia de Frontieră) is the structure of the Romanian Ministry of Administration and Interior responsible for the border security and passport control at border crossing points, airports and ports.

Romanian Police

The Romanian Police (Romanian: Poliția Română, pronounced [poˈlit͡si.a roˈmɨnə]) is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania. It is subordinated to the Ministry of Administration and Interior and it is led by a General Inspector with the rank of Secretary of State.

Titus Quinctius Flamininus

Titus Quinctius Flamininus ( FLAM-i-NY-nəs; c. 229–174 BC) was a Roman politician and general instrumental in the Roman conquest of Greece.A member of the patrician gens Quinctia, and brother to Lucius Quinctius Flamininus, he served as a military tribune in the Second Punic war and in 205 BC he was appointed propraetor in Tarentum. He was a quaestor in 199 BC. He became consul in 198 BC, despite being only about thirty years old, younger than the constitutional age required to serve in that position. As Livy records, two tribunes, Marcus Fulvius and Manius Curius, publicly opposed his candidacy for consulship, as he was just a quaestor, but the Senate overrode the opposition and he was elected along with Sextus Aelius Paetus.After his election to the consulship he was chosen to replace Publius Sulpicius Galba who was consul with Gaius Aurelius in 200 BC, according to Livy, as general during the Second Macedonian War. He chased Philip V of Macedon out of most of Greece, except for a few fortresses, defeating him at the Battle of the Aous, but as his term as consul was coming to an end he attempted to establish a peace with the Macedonian king. During the negotiations, Flamininus was made proconsul, giving him the authority to continue the war rather than finishing the negotiations. In 197 BC he defeated Philip at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in Thessaly, the Roman legions making the Macedonian phalanx obsolete in the process. Philip was forced to surrender, give up all the Greek cities he had conquered, and pay Rome 1,000 talents, but his kingdom was left intact to serve as a buffer state between Greece and Illyria. This displeased the Achaean League, Rome's allies in Greece, who wanted Macedon to be dismantled completely.In 198 BC he occupied Anticyra in Phocis and made it his naval yard and his main provisioning port. During the period from 197 to 194 BC, from his seat in Elateia, Flamininus directed the political affairs of the Greek states. In 196 BC Flamininus appeared at the Isthmian Games in Corinth and proclaimed the freedom of the Greek states. He was fluent in Greek and was a great admirer of Greek culture, and the Greeks hailed him as their liberator; they minted coins with his portrait, and in some cities he was deified. According to Livy, this was the act of an unselfish Philhellene, although it seems more likely that Flamininus understood freedom as liberty for the aristocracy of Greece, who would then become clients of Rome, as opposed to being subjected to Macedonian hegemony. With his Greek allies, Flamininus plundered Sparta, before returning to Rome in triumph along with thousands of freed slaves, 1,200 of whom were freed from Achaea, having been taken captive and sold in Greece during the Second Punic War.Meanwhile, Eumenes II of Pergamum appealed to Rome for help against the Seleucid king Antiochus III. Flamininus was sent to negotiate with him in 192 BC, and warned him not to interfere with the Greek states. Antiochus did not believe Flamininus had the authority to speak for the Greeks, and promised to leave Greece alone only if the Romans did the same. These negotiations came to nothing and Rome was soon at war with Antiochus. Flamininus was present at the Battle of Thermopylae in 191 BC, in which Antiochus was defeated.In 189 BC he was elected censor along with Marcus Claudius Marcellus, defeating among others Cato the Elder.In 183 BC he was sent to negotiate with Prusias I of Bithynia in an attempt to capture Hannibal, who had been exiled there from Carthage, but Hannibal committed suicide to avoid being taken prisoner. According to Plutarch, many senators reproached Flamininus for having cruelly caused the death of an enemy who had now become harmless. Although nothing is known of him after this, Flamininus seems to have died around 174.

Tribonian

Tribonian (Greek: Τριβωνιανός [trivonia'nos], c. 485?–542) was a notable Byzantine jurist and advisor, who during the reign of the Emperor Justinian I, supervised the revision of the legal code of the Byzantine Empire.Tribonian was born in Side, in Pamphylia, around the year 500. He was well educated and practiced law before the court of the praetorian prefect. Justinian made Tribonian magister officiorum (Master of Offices), although it is not clear when, and then appointed him quaestor in September 529.In 528, before he was appointed quaestor, Tribonian was named by Justinian as one of the commissioners charged with preparing the new imperial legal code, the Codex Justinianeus, which subsequently was issued on April 7, 529. In 530, after Tribonian had become quaestor, it was natural for Justinian to put him in charge of the next major law reform project: compiling and harmonizing the writings of classical Roman jurists. Justinian's main objects in creating this harmonized compilation of juristic writings were to shorten litigation (by clarifying the law), and to create a syllabus to be used at the law schools in Beirut (Berytus) and Constantinople. During the same period, Tribonian also was charged with carrying out another aspect of Justinian's reforms in legal education and codification — creating a textbook for first-year law students by updating the Institutes of Gaius. Both the Digest and the new Institutes of Justinian were promulgated in December of 533. In 534, Justinian decided that so many new laws had been passed, and so many older ones harmonized, since the publication of his first Code in 529, a second edition was needed. Hence, the Codex repetitae praelectionis was published, entirely superseding the edition of 529, the text of which has been lost.In 532 Tribonian was removed as quaestor due to the charges made by his enemies during the Nika riots, but he continued to work on the codification. He was restored to his post as quaestor in 535 and continued in that position until his death. Tribonian continued to help draft new laws for Justinian; these new laws (Novellae Constitutiones) were later combined with the Codex Justinianus, the Digest and the Institutes to comprise the Corpus Juris Civilis.

Tribonian died in 542 of a disease, perhaps the plague. Tribonian's career is summarized by his noted modern biographer, Tony Honoré, in this way: "...he was Justinian's minister for legislation and propaganda for nearly twelve years...In these years the three volumes of the Corpus Juris Civilis and most of the surviving legislation of Justinian's reign were produced. He drafted about three-quarters of the surviving constitutions of Justinian's reign. He planned and directed the work of the Second Law Commission, which produced the Digest, the Institutes and the Second "Codex Iustinianus."

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