Quảng Trị Province

Quảng Trị (Vietnamese: [kwa᷉ːŋ ʈîˀ] (listen)) is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, north of the former imperial capital of Huế.

Quảng Trị Province

Tỉnh Quảng Trị
Official seal of Quảng Trị Province

Seal
Nickname(s): 
Serenity under Reign
Location of Quảng Trị within Vietnam
Location of Quảng Trị within Vietnam
Coordinates: 16°45′N 107°0′E / 16.750°N 107.000°ECoordinates: 16°45′N 107°0′E / 16.750°N 107.000°E
Country Vietnam
RegionNorth Central Coast
CapitalĐông Hà
Area
 • Total4,745.7 km2 (1,832.3 sq mi)
Population
 (2018)
 • Total650,321
 • Density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Demographics
 • EthnicitiesVietnamese, Bru – Vân Kiều, Hoa, Tà Ôi
Time zoneUTC+7 (ICT)
Area codes233
ISO 3166 codeVN-25
Websitewww.quangtri.gov.vn

Geography

Sampans Along the Thach Han River August,1967
Sampans along the Thạch Hãn River (August 1967)

Located in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam, Quảng Trị Province is surrounded by Quảng Bình Province to the north; Thừa Thiên-Huế Province to the south; Savannakhet Province, in Laos, to the west; and the South Biển Đông Sea to the east, with 75 kilometres (47 mi) of coast. Except for the narrow piedmont coastal plains, the terrain is dominated by hills and the Annamite Mountains.

The highlands, characterized by steep slopes, sharp crests, and narrow valleys, are covered mainly by a dense broadleaf evergreen forest. Most of the peaks are from 4,000 feet (1,200 m) to 7,000 feet (2,100 m) feet high, but some rise above 8,000 feet (2,400 m). The narrow coastal plains flanking the highlands on the east have rocky headlands and consist of belts of sand dunes and, in areas where the soil is suitable, rice fields. From the crests that mark the drainage divide in the highlands, streams flow either east towards the East Sea or west into Laos or Cambodia. Those flowing eastward follow short courses through deep narrow valleys over rocky bottoms until they reach the coastal plains, where they slow down and disperse. The westward flowing streams follow longer traces, sometimes through deep canyons which are subject to seasonal flooding. The weather features a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, with hot and dry south-west winds during the Southwest Monsoon (May to September), and much cooler wet weather during the rainy season (November to mid-March). Annual average temperature is 24 °C (75 °F), but temperatures can drop as low as 7 °C (45 °F) during the rainy season.

History

In the immediate prehistorical period, the lowlands of Quảng Trị and central Vietnam as a whole were occupied by Cham peoples (Champa), speaking a Malayo-Polynesian language, and culturally distinct from the Vietnamese to the north along the Red River. The Qin conquered parts of present-day Central Vietnam at the end of the 3rd century BCE, and administered the indigenous peoples of the area through a commandery, Rinan, for several centuries. A rebellion by the Cham in the 2nd century CE overthrew Chinese control and reestablished local government.[1] Beginning in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Chams were defeated in the area by Vietnamese armies, and ethnic Vietnamese gradually displaced or absorbed those Chams who had not fled. Over time a distinct Vietnamese dialectical and cultural subgroup developed in the area. The region was seized by the French by 1874. In 1887 it became part of French Indochina, i.e. the Annam protectorate.

34. Quang Tri Citadel and City looking South Fall 1967
The Quảng Trị Citadel and part of Quảng Trị City looking south, as they were in 1967

Upon the division of Vietnam in 1954 into North and South, Quảng Trị became the northernmost province of the Republic of Vietnam. Beginning 1964, the province gradually became a center for American bases, particularly after October 1966, when the 3rd Marine Division moved to bases just south of the demilitarized zone. In 1966, North Vietnamese forces also began occupying the northern region and pushing deeper into the province. The provincial capital, Quảng Trị City, was overrun and occupied briefly by Communist troops in April 1967, and was a principal battleground during the 1968 Tet Offensive when it was again overrun by North Vietnamese troops and held for a short period before being recaptured by South Vietnamese government and U.S. forces.[2][3] The Battle of Khe Sanh (1968) was a part of the North's steady efforts to occupy the whole of the province. After Khe Sanh was evacuated in July 1968, the North Vietnamese continued their efforts to take the entire province. The most notable achievement of the North Vietnamese offensive in 1972 was capturing Quảng Trị (First Battle of Quảng Trị), although they lost much of the territory gained during the South Vietnamese counter-offensive from June through September 1972 (Second Battle of Quảng Trị).

Formerly, in 2000, Clear Path International (CPI) removed unexploded ordnance (UXO) left by the United States in Quảng Trị province, which was at the time the largest unexploded ordnance removal effort by an NGO in Vietnam's history. Since 1999, Mines Advisory Group (MAG International) has maintained operations in Quảng Trị and neighbouring Quảng Bình Province, providing the only civilian staffed demining and UXO clearance operations in Vietnam. Slowly rebuilding in the areas cleared of mines is Roots of Peace[4] working with MAG on a demine-replant model, clearing areas and working with local farmers to plant high value crops.

Administrative divisions

Quảng Trị is subdivided into 10 district-level sub-divisions:

  • 8 districts:

They are further subdivided into 11 commune-level towns (or townlets), 117 communes, and 13 wards.

Non-governmental organizations

Currently, there are many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Quảng Trị. One of the biggest problems which they are focusing on is the explosive remnants of war (ERW). Below is the list of NGOs who are very active in helping Quảng Trị Province deal with this problem:

Transportation

The National Route 1A runs north-south of this province. Vietnam–Laos road also runs west-east of this province and has a junction with national road 1A. Hanoi–Saigon Railway goes through Quảng Trị. Quảng Trị Airport will be built 7 km north of Đông Hà.

Etymology

The province's name derives from Sino-Vietnamese .

See also

References

  1. ^ Rafe de Crespigny: "South Vietnam under the Later Han Dynasty" (1989) Archived August 28, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ http://www.history.army.mil/html/books/vietnam/tet_battles/tet.pdf
  3. ^ "History of Quảng Trị". History.army.mil. Retrieved 2013-02-06.
  4. ^ http://rootsofpeace.org/rop-programs/rop-vietnam/vietnam_highland_economic_reha
  5. ^ "Vietnam - Roots of Peace".

Further reading

  • Dyhouse, Janie (August 2018). "Searching for Sunday". VFW Magazine. Vol. 105 no. 10. Kansas City, Mo.: Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States. pp. 26–27. ISSN 0161-8598. Nearly 50 years ago, a U.S. soldier in Vietnam saved a baby's life. Now he hopes to reconnect with her.
  • Murfin, Gary D., A. Terry Rambo, Le-Thi-Que, Why They Fled: Refugee Movement during the Spring 1975 Communist Offensive in South Vietnam Asian Survey, Vol. 16, No. 9. (Sep., 1976): 855–863
  • Pearson, Lieutenant General Willard. The War in the Northern Provinces: 1966–1968, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, (1975).
  • Schulzinger, Robert D. A Time for War: The United States and Vietnam, 1941–1975 (1997).

External links

https://www.quangtri.gov.vn/portal/pages/http--webthunghiemqt-quangtri-gov-vn-portal-Pages-.aspx

Battle of Quang Tri (1968)

The Battle for Quang Tri occurred in and around Quảng Trị City (Quảng Trị Province), the northernmost provincial capital of Republic of South Vietnam during the Tet Offensive when the Vietcong (VC) and People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) attacked Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and American forces across major cities and towns in South Vietnam in an attempt to force the Saigon government to collapse. This included several attacks across northern I Corps, most importantly at Huế, Da Nang and Quảng Trị City. After being put on the defensive in the city of Quảng Trị, the Allied forces regrouped and forced the PAVN/VC out of the town after a day of fighting.

Cam Lộ District

Cam Lộ (listen) is a rural district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 46,231. The district covers an area of 347 km². The district capital lies at Cam Lộ.

Cồn Cỏ District

Cồn Cỏ (listen) (also known as Tiger Island) is a rural district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. It is an island and is located 27 km to the east of Mũi Lay.

Con Co Island has an area of 2.3 km2 (0.89 sq mi), the isometric form of hills, the highest peak of 63m. This is a young volcanic island, composed of basalt and basalt tuff stones of Neogene – Quaternary age [1].

Before it became its own district, the island was in the commune of Vĩnh Quang, in Vĩnh Linh District of Quảng Trị Province. The island became a district through Decree 174/2004 NĐ-CP of October 1, 2004. Province officials held a ceremony to create the district on April 18, 2005.

As of 2003 the district had a population of 400. The district covers an area of 2 km², making one of the smallest districts in Vietnam. The district capital lies at Dảo Cồn Cỏ.

Dien Sanh train crash

The Dien Sanh train crash occurred on 10 March 2015 when a passenger train struck a lorry obstructing the line on a level crossing near Dien Sanh station, Quảng Trị Province, Vietnam. One person was killed and four were seriously injured.

Firebase (U.S.-Vietnam War)

Firebases in the U.S.-involvement Vietnam War, were a type of military base, usually fire bases.

It may refer to:

Firebase 6, Central Highlands

Firebase Airborne, central South Vietnam

Firebase Argonne, Quảng Trị Province

Firebase Atkinson, southwest South Vietnam

Firebase Bastogne, Thua Thien Province

Firebase Berchtesgaden (Firebase Eagle's Nest) Thừa Thiên–Huế

Firebase Betty, Bình Thuận Province

Firebase Bird, southern South Vietnam

Firebase Birmingham, Thừa Thiên–Huế Province

Firebase Checkmate, central South Vietnam

Firebase Crook, southwest South Vietnam

Firebase Cunningham, central South Vietnam

Firebase Currahee, central South Vietnam

Firebase Delta, Central Highlands

Firebase Fuller, central South Vietnam

Firebase Gela, southern South Vietnam

Firebase Gio Linh, central South Vietnam

Firebase Granite, central South Vietnam

Firebase Hawk Hill, central South Vietnam

Firebase Henderson, Quảng Trị Province

Firebase Illingworth, southwest South Vietnam

Firebase Jaeger, Dinh Tuong Province; involved in Operation Hop Tac I

Firebase Jay, southwest South Vietnam

Firebase Kate (Firebase White) Quang Duc Province; aka Landing Zone Kate

Firebase Maureen, central South Vietnam

Firebase Mile High, Central Highlands

Firebase Neville, Quảng Trị Province

Firebase Pedro, central South Vietnam

Firebase Ripcord, Thua Thien Province

Firebase Ross, Quảng Nam Province

Firebase Russell, Quảng Trị Province

Firebase Sarge (Firebase Dong Toan) central South Vietnam

Firebase St. George, Central Highlands

Firebase Thunder III, southern South Vietnam

Firebase Tomahawk, central South Vietnam

Firebase Veghel, central South Vietnam

Firebase Vera, central South Vietnam

Hướng Hóa District

Hướng Hóa (listen) is a rural district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 69,003. The district covers an area of 1,145 km². The district capital lies at Khe Sanh. The population is made up of ethnic Vietnamese as well as Bru people and Ta Oi people.

It was the site of the Battle of Khe Sanh in early-1968, one of the bloodiest engagements of the Vietnam War. Khe Sanh was the location of a US Marine base, so it was often attacked by Vietcong guerrillas as well as North Vietnamese regulars

The district is mountainous and rugged, and is around 20 km to the east of the border with Laos. It is 65 km to the west of the town of Đông Hà.

It consists of two towns, Khe Sanh the district seat, and Lao Bảo.

It has 20 communes. These include Xy, A Túc, A Dơi, A Xing, Thanh, Thuận, Pa Tầng, Hướng Lộc. Other districts are designated as New Economic Zones, located on National Road 9. There are five of these, Tân Hợp, Tân Liên, Tân Lập, Tân Long and Tân Thành. Six communes lie on where the Ho Chi Minh trail once branched into the area near the DMZ. These are Hướng Tân, Hướng Linh, Hướng Phùng, Hướng Sơn, Hướng Việt and Hướng Lập. To the southeast of the district is the commune Húc.

Hải Lăng District

Hải Lăng (listen) is a rural district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 100,854. The district covers an area of 491 km². The district capital lies at Hải Lăng.

Khe Sanh

Khe Sanh is the district capital of Hướng Hoá District, Quảng Trị Province, Vietnam, located 63 km west of Đông Hà. During the Vietnam War, the Khe Sanh Combat Base was located to the north of the city. The Battle of Khe Sanh took place there. The Khe Sanh Combat Base is a museum where relics of the war are exhibited. Most of the former base is now overgrown by wilderness or coffee and banana plants.

La Vang

La Vang or Lavang is a locale in Quảng Trị Province, Vietnam. It is the site of the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of La Vang (Đức Mẹ La Vang), a Roman Catholic sanctuary, commemorating a vision of the Blessed Virgin Mary that was seen there in 1798. The site has been rebuilt on several occasions and is an important site of pilgrimage for Catholics in Vietnam, as well as for the Catholic Overseas Vietnamese community. Many Vietnamese Catholic parishes throughout the world are named for Our Lady of La Vang.

List of islands of Vietnam

The following is a list of islands of Vietnam:

From the north Vietnam to the south Vietnam.

National Route 9 (Vietnam)

National Route 9 (Vietnamese: Quốc lộ 9 (or abbrv. QL9) or Đường 9) runs across Vietnam roughly in line with the 17th Parallel. The route includes two segments. The segment called National Route 9A begins at Đông Hà and ends at Lao Bảo on the Vietnam-Laos border and is entirely within Quảng Trị Province. The 8 km-long segment called National Route 9B begins at Dong Ha and runs eastward to Cửa Việt Port.

Operation Lancaster

Operation Lancaster was a U.S. Marine Corps operation that took place in northern Quảng Trị Province from November 1967 to January 20, 1968.

Operation Osceola

Operation Osceola was a security operation around the Quảng Trị Combat Base, Quảng Trị Province, South Vietnam from 20 October 1967 to 16 February 1968.

Operation Utah Mesa

Operation Utah Mesa was a United States Marine Corps, United States Army and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) operation in northwest Quảng Trị Province, South Vietnam from 12 June to 6 July 1969.

Operation Virginia Ridge

Operation Virginia Ridge was a US Marine Corps operation that took place in northwest Quảng Trị Province, lasting from 2 May to 16 July 1969.

Quảng Trị (town)

Quảng Trị (listen) is a District level town in Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. It is second of two municipalities in the province after the provincial capital Đông Hà.

Triệu Phong District

Triệu Phong is a district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 106,507. The district covers an area of 355 km². The district capital lies at Ái Tử.

Vĩnh Linh District

Vĩnh Linh (listen) is a rural district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. A coastal district, it is bordered to the east by the East Sea, to the south by Gio Linh District, to the southwest by Hướng Hóa District, and to the north by Quảng Bình Province (Lệ Thủy District).

Đa Krông District

Da Krong (listen ; means The big river) is a rural district of Quảng Trị Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 31,529. The district covers an area of 1,223 km². The district capital lies at Krông Klang.

Places adjacent to Quảng Trị Province
Quảng Trị Province
Towns
Districts
Regions
Municipalities
Provinces

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