Qizilbash

Qizilbash or Kizilbash (Turkish: Kızılbaş "Red-Head", sometimes also Qezelbash or Qazilbash, Persian: قزلباش‎ / qezelbāš) were a wide variety of Shi'i militant groups that flourished in Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as "Iranian Azerbaijan"),[1][2] Anatolia and Kurdistan from the late 15th century onwards, some of which contributed to the foundation of the Safavid dynasty of Iran.[3][4]

Qezelbash
Mannequin of a Safavid Qizilbash soldier, exhibited in the Sa'dabad Complex, Iran

Etymology

The word Qizilbash is Ottoman Turkish (قزلباش; modern Turkish Kızılbaş Turkish pronunciation: [kɯzɯɫbaʃ] 'red-head'). The expression is derived from their distinctive twelve-gored crimson headwear (tāj or tark in Persian; sometimes specifically titled "Haydar's Crown" تاج حیدر / Tāj-e Ḥaydar),[5] indicating their adherence to the Twelve Imams and to Shaykh Haydar, the spiritual leader (sheikh) of the Safavid order in accordance with the Imamate in Twelver doctrine.[6] The name was originally a pejorative label given to them by their Sunni Ottoman foes, but soon it was adopted as a provocative mark of pride.

Origins

The origin of the Qizilbash can be dated from the 15th century onward, when the spiritual grandmaster of the movement, Shaykh Haydar (the head of the Safaviyya Sufi order), organized his followers into militant troops.

Connections between the Qizilbash and other religious groups and secret societies, such as the Mazdaki movement in the Sasanian Empire, or its more radical offspring, the Persian Khurramites, have been suggested. Like the Qizilbash, the latter were an early Shi'i ghulat group[3] and dressed in red, for which they were termed "the red ones" (Arabic: محمرةmuḥammirah) by medieval sources.[7] In this context, Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli sees the Qizilbash as "spiritual descendants of the Khurramites".[3]

Organization

The Qizilbash were a coalition of many different tribes of predominantly (but not exclusively) Turkic-speaking background united in their adherence to Safavi Shia Islam.

As murids of the Safavi sheikhs (pirs), the Qizilbash owed implicit obedience to their leader in his capacity as their murshid-e kāmil "supreme spiritual director" and, after the establishment of the kingdom, as their padishah, changing the purely religious pir – murid relationship into a political one. As a consequence, any act of disobedience of the Qizilbash Sufis against the order of the spiritual grandmaster (Persian: nāsufigari "conduct unbecoming of a Sufi") became "an act of treason against the king and a crime against the state", as was the case in 1614 when Padishah Abbas the Great put some followers to death.[8]

Beliefs

The Qizilbash adhered to heterodox Shi’i doctrines encouraged by the early Safavi sheikhs Haydar and his son Ismail I. They regarded their rulers as divine figures, and so were classified as ghulat "extremists" by orthodox Twelvers.[9]

When Tabriz was taken, there was not a single book on Twelverism among the Qizilbash leaders. The book of the well known Iraqi scholar al-Hilli (1250–1325) was procured in the town library to provide religious guidance to the state.[10] The imported Shi'i ulama did not participate in the formation of Safavid religious policies during the early formation of the state. However, ghulat doctrines were later forsaken and Arab Twelver ulama from Lebanon, Iraq, and Bahrain were imported in increasing numbers to bolster orthodox Twelver practice and belief.

Qizilbash aqidah in Anatolia

In Turkey, orthoprax Twelvers following Ja'fari jurisprudence are called Ja'faris. Although the Qizilbash are also Twelvers, their practices do not adhere to Ja'fari jurisprudence.

  • The Qizilbash have a unique and complex conviction tracing back to the Kaysanites and Khurramites, who are considered ghulat Shia. According to Turkish scholar Abdülbaki Gölpinarli, the Qizilbash of the 16th century – a religious and political movement in Iranian Azerbaijan that helped to establish the Safavid dynasty – were "spiritual descendants of the Khurramites".[11]
  • Among the individual revered by Alevis, two figures, firstly Abu Muslim who assisted the Abbasid Caliphate to beat Umayyad Caliphate, but later eliminated and murdered by Caliph al-Mansur, and secondly Babak Khorramdin, who incited a rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate and consequently was killed by Caliph al-Mu'tasim, are highly respected. In addition, the Safavid leader Ismail I is highly regarded.
  • The Qizilbash aqidah is based upon a syncretic fiqh called batiniyya[12] which incorporates some Qarmatian thoughts, originally introduced by Abu’l-Khāttāb Muhammad ibn Abu Zaynab al-Asadī,[13][14] and later developed by Maymun al-Qāddāh and his son ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maymun,[15] and Muʿtazila with a strong belief in The Twelve Imams.
  • Not all of the members believe that the fasting in Ramadan is obligatory although some Alevi Turks performs their fasting duties partially in Ramadan.
  • Some beliefs of shamanism still are common among the Qizilbash in villages.
  • On the other hand, the members of Bektashi Order are Isma'ili[12] and "Hurufism" with a strong belief in the Twelve Imams.
  • The Qizilbash are not a part of Ja'fari jurisprudence, even though they can be considered as members of different tariqa of Shia Islam all looks like sub-classes of Twelver. Their conviction includes Batiniyya-Hurufism and "Sevener-Qarmatians-Isma'ilism" sentiments.[12][16]
  • They all may be considered as special groups not following the Ja'fari jurisprudence, like Alawites who are in the class of ghulat Twelver Shia Islam, but a special Batiniyya belief somewhat similar to Isma'ilism in their conviction.

"Turk & Tājīk"

Shah Ismail I
Shah Ismail I, the Sheikh of the Safavi tariqa, founder of the Safavid dynasty of Iran, and the Commander-in-chief of the Qizilbash armies.

Among the Qizilbash, Turcoman tribes from Eastern Anatolia and Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan, also known as Iranian Azerbaijan) who had helped Ismail I defeat the Aq Qoyunlu tribe were by far the most important in both number and influence and the name Qizilbash is usually applied exclusively to them.[17] Some of these greater Turcoman tribes were subdivided into as many as eight or nine clans, including:

Other tribes – such as the Turkman, Bahārlu, Qaramānlu, Warsāk, and Bayāt – were occasionally listed among these "seven great uymaqs". Today, the remnants of the Qizilbash confederacy are found among the Afshar, the Qashqai, Turkmen, Shahsevan, and others.[18]

Some of these names consist of a place-name with addition of the Turkish suffix -lu, such as Shāmlu or Bahārlu. Other names are those of old Oghuz tribes such as the Afshār, Dulghadir, or Bayāt, as mentioned by the medieval Uyghur historian Mahmud al-Kashgari.

The non-Turkic Iranian tribes among the Qizilbash were called Tājīks by the Turcomans and included:[17][19]

The rivalry between the Turkic clans and Persian nobles was a major problem in the Safavid kingdom. As V. Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Turcomans "were no party to the national Persian tradition". Shah Ismail tried to solve the problem by appointing Persian wakils as commanders of Qizilbash tribes. The Turcomans considered this an insult and brought about the death of 3 of the 5 Persians appointed to this office – an act that later inspired the deprivation of the Turcomans by Shah Abbas I.[20]

History

Chardin Ghezelbash
In Jean Chardin's book.

The Beginnings

In the 15th century, Ardabil was the center of an organization designed to keep the Safavi leadership in close touch with its murids in Azerbaijan, Iraq, Eastern Anatolia and elsewhere. The organization was controlled through the office of khalīfāt al-khulafā'ī who appointed representatives (khalīfa) in regions where Safavi propaganda was active. The khalīfa, in turn, had subordinates termed pira. The Safavi presence in eastern Anatolia posed a serious threat to the Ottoman Empire because they encouraged the Shi'i population of Asia Minor to revolt against the sultan.

In 1499, Ismail, the young leader of the Safavi order, left Lahijan for Ardabil to make a bid for power. By the summer of 1500, about 7,000 supporters from the local Turcoman tribes of Asia Minor (Anatolia), Syria, and the Caucasus – collectively called "Qizilbash" by their enemies – rallied to his support in Erzincan.[21] Leading his troops on a punitive campaign against the Shīrvanshāh (ruler of Shirvan), he sought revenge for the death of his father and his grandfather in Shīrvan. After defeating the Shīrvanshāh Farrukh Yassar and incorporating his kingdom, he moved south into Azarbaijan, where his 7,000 Qizilbash warriors defeated a force of 30,000 Aq Qoyunlu under Alwand Mirzā[22] and conquered Tabriz. This was the beginning of the Safavid state.

By 1510, Ismail and his Qizilbash had conquered the whole of Iran and the Republic of Azerbaijan,[23] southern Dagestan (with its important city of Derbent), Mesopotamia, Armenia, Khorasan, Eastern Anatolia, and had made the Georgian kingdoms of Kartli and Kakheti his vassals.[24][25] Many of these areas were priorly under the control of the Ak Koyunlu.

In 1510 Shah Ismail sent a large force of the Qizilbash to Transoxiania to fight the Uzbeks. The Qizilbash defeated the Uzbeks and secured Samarkand at the Battle of Marv. However, in 1512, an entire Qizilbash army was annihilated by the Uzbeks after Turcoman Qizilbash had mutinied against their Persian wakil and commander Najm-e Thani at the Battle of Ghazdewan.[26] This defeat put an end to Safavid expansion and influence in Transoxania and left the northeastern frontiers of the kingdom vulnerable to nomad invasions, until some decades later.

The Battle of Chaldiran

Meanwhile, the Safavid dawah continued in Ottoman areas – with great success. Even more alarming for the Ottomans was the successful conversion of Turcoman tribes in Eastern Anatolia, and the recruitment of these well experienced and feared fighters into the growing Safavid army. In order to stop the Safavid propaganda, Sultan Bayezid II deported large numbers of the Shi'i population of Asia Minor to Morea. However, in 1507, Shah Ismail and the Qizilbash overran large areas of Kurdistan, defeating regional Ottoman forces. Only two years later in Central Asia, the Qizilbash defeated the Uzbeks at Merv, killing their leader Muhammad Shaybani and destroying his dynasty. His head was sent to the Ottoman sultan as a warning.

QIZILBASH
A Safavid Qizilbash cavalryman.

In 1511, a pro-Safavid revolt known as the Shahkulu Uprising broke out in Teke. An imperial army that was sent to suppress it, was defeated. Shah Ismail sought to turn the chaos within the Ottoman Empire to his advantage and moved up his borders even more westwards in Asia Minor. The Qizilbash defeated a large Ottoman army under Sinan Pasha. Shocked by this heavy defeat, Sultan Selim I (the new ruler of the Empire) decided to invade Persia with a force of 200,000 Ottomans and face the Qizilbash on their own soil. In addition, he ordered the persecution of Alevis[27][28] and massacre its adherents in the Ottoman Empire.[29]

On the 20 August 1514 (1st Rajab 920 A.H.), the two armies met at Chaldiran in northwestern Iran. The Ottomans -equipped with both firearms and cannon- were reported to outnumber the Qizilbash as much as three to one. The Qizilbash were badly defeated;[30] casualties included many high-ranking Qizilbash amirs as well as three influential ulamā.

The defeat destroyed Shah Ismail's belief in his own invincibility and divine status. It also fundamentally altered the relationship between the murshid-e kāmil and his murids (followers).

The deprivation of the Turcomans

Ismail I tried to reduce the power of the Turcomans by appointing Iranians to the vakil office. However, the Turcomans did not like having an Iranian to the most powerful office of the Safavid Empire, and kept murdering many Iranians who were appointed to that office.[31] After the death of Ismail, the Turkomans managed to seize power from the Iranians, they were however, defeated by Tahmasp I, the son of Ismail.

For almost ten years after the Battle of Chaldiran, rival Qizilbash factions fought for control of the kingdom. In 1524, 10-year-old Shah Tahmasp I, the governor of Herat, succeeded his father Ismail. He was the ward of the powerful Qizilbash amir Ali Beg Rūmlū (titled "Div Soltān") who was the de facto ruler of the Safavid kingdom.[32] However, Tahmasp managed to reassert his authority over the state and over the Qizilbash.

During the reign of Shah Tahmasp, the Qizilbash fought a series of wars on two fronts and – with the poor resources available to them – successfully defended their kingdom against the Uzbeks in the east, and against the arch rivals of the Safavids – the Ottomans – in the west.[33] With the Peace of Amasya (1555), peace between Safavids and Ottomans remained for the rest of Tahmasp's reign.[34] During Tahmasp' reign, he carried out multiple invasions in the Caucasus which had been incorporated in the Safavid empire since Shah Ismail I and for many centuries afterwards, and started with the trend of deporting and moving hundreds of thousands of Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians to Iran's heartlands. Initially only solely put in the royal harems, royal guards, and several other specific posts of the Empire, Tahmasp believed he could eventually reduce the power of the Qizilbash, by creating and fully integrating a new layer in Iranian society with these Caucasian elements and who would question the power and hegemony of the tribal Qizilbash. This included the formation of a military slave system,[35] similar to that of the neighboring Ottoman Empire – the janissaries.[36] Tahmasp's successors, and most importantly Shah Abbas I (r. 1588–1629), would significantly expand this policy, when during the reign of Abbas I alone some 200,000 Georgians, 300,000 Armenians and many tens of thousands of Circassians were relocated to Irans heartlands.[37][38][39][40][41] By this creation of a so-called "third layer" or "third force" in Iranian society composed of ethnic Caucasians, and the complete systematic disorganisation of the Qizilbash by his personal orders, Abbas I eventually fully succeeded in replacing the power of the Qizilbash, with that of the Caucasian ghulams. These new Caucasian elements (the so-called ghilman / غِلْمَان / "servants"), almost always after conversion to Shi'ism depending on given function would be, unlike the Qizilbash, fully loyal only to the Shah. This system of mass usage of Caucasian subjects remained to exist until the fall of the Qajar Dynasty.

Inter-tribal rivalry of the Turcomans, the attempt of Persian nobles to end the Turcoman dominance, and constant succession conflicts went on for another 10 years after Tahmasp's death. This heavily weakened the Safavid state and made the kingdom vulnerable to external enemies: the Ottomans attacked in the west, whereas the Uzbeks attacked the east.

Daud Khan Undiladze
Daud Khan Undiladze, Safavid ghulam, military commander, and the governor of Karabakh and Ganja between 1627 and 1633.

In 1588, Shah Abbas I came to power. He appointed the Governor of Herat and his former guardian and tutor, Alī Quli Khān Shāmlū (also known as Hājī Alī Qizilbāsh Mazandarānī) the chief of all the armed forces. Later on, events of the past, including the role of the Turcomans in the succession struggles after the death of his father, and the counterbalancing influence of traditional Ithnāʻashari Shia Sayeds, made him determined to end the dominance of the untrustworthy Turcoman chiefs in Persia which Tahmasp had already started decades before him. In order to weaken the Turcomans – the important militant elite of the Safavid kingdom – Shah Abbas further raised a standing army, personal guard, Queen-Mothers, Harems and full civil administration from the ranks of these ghilman who were usually ethnic Circassians, Georgians, and Armenians, both men and women, whom he and his predeseccors had taken captive en masse during their wars in the Caucasus, and would systematically replace the Qizilbash from their functions with converted Circassians and Georgians. The new army and civil administration would be fully loyal to the king personally and not to the clan-chiefs anymore.[22]

The reorganisation of the army also ended the independent rule of Turcoman chiefs in the Safavid provinces, and instead centralized the administration of those provinces.

Ghulams were appointed to high positions within the royal household, and by the end of Shah Abbas' reign, one-fifth of the high-ranking amirs were ghulams.[17] By 1598 already an ethnic Georgian from Safavid-ruled Georgia, well known by his adopted Muslim name after conversion, Allahverdi Khan, had risen to the position of commander-in-chief of all Safavid armed forces.[42] and by that became one of the most powerful men in the empire. The offices of wakil and amir al-umarā fell in disuse and were replaced by the office of a Sipahsālār (Persian: سپهسالار‎, master of the army), commander-in-chief of all armed forces – Turcoman and Non-Turcoman – and usually held by a Persian (Tādjik) noble.

The Turcoman Qizilbash nevertheless remained an important part of the Safavid executive apparatus, even though ethnic Caucasians came to largely replace them. For example, even in the 1690s, when ethnic Georgians formed the mainstay of the Safavid military, the Qizilbash still played a significant role in the army.[43] The Afshār and Qājār rulers of Persia who succeeded the Safavids, stemmed from a Qizilbash background. Many other Qizilbash – Turcoman and Non-Turcoman – were settled in far eastern cities such as Kabul and Kandahar during the conquests of Nader Shah, and remained there as consultants to the new Afghan crown after the Shah's death. Others joined the Mughal emperors of India and became one of the most influential groups of the Mughal court until the British conquest of India.

Qizilbash in the Mughal Empire

The first Mughal Emperor Babur is known to have attained battalions of elite Qizilbash during the Battle of Ghazdewan, they then served during the Battle of Panipat (1526) and particularly during the Battle of Khanwa where the Mughal Empire won a decisive victory against armed Rajput's led by Rana Sanga.

In the year 1556, Qizilbash troopers are known to have served victoriously under the command of the teenage Mughal Emperor Akbar during the Second Battle of Panipat against armed Rajput's led by Hemu.

Later onward's Ahmad Shah Durrani also sought the assistance of the Qizilbash during the Third Battle of Panipat against the Maratha Confederacy, once again those Qizilbash were conscripted by the Mughal Grand Vizier, Shuja-ud-Daula in service of the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II.

Legacy

Afghanistan

Mohammad Naib Sharif in Kabul
Mohammad Naib Sharif, leader of the Qizilbash group in Afghanistan during the First Anglo-Afghan War of 1839–42

Qizilbash in Afghanistan live in urban areas, such as Kabul, Herat or Mazari Sharif, as well as in certain villages in Hazarajat. They are descendants of the troops left behind by Nadir Shah during his "Indian campaign" in 1738.[44][45] Afghanistan's Qizilbash held important posts in government offices in the past, and today engage in trade or are craftsmen. Since the creation of Afghanistan, they constitute an important and politically influential element of society. Estimates of their population vary from 30,000 to 200,000.[46][47] They are Persian-speaking Shi'i Muslims.

Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone described the Qizilbash of Kabul in the beginning of the 19th century as "a colony of Turks," who spoke "Persian, and among themselves Turkish."[48] Described as learned, affluent, and influential, they appear to have abandoned their native Turkish language in favour of Persian, and became "in fact Persianized Turks".[49] Lady Florentia Sale (wife of Sir Robert Henry Sale) and Vincent Eyre – both companions of Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone – described the Qizilbash of Afghanistan also as "Persians, of Persian descent".[50][51]

The influence of the Qizilbash in the government created resentment among the ruling Pashtun clans, especially after the Qizilbash openly allied themselves with the British during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839–1842). During Abdur Rahman Khan's massacre of the Shi'i minorities in Afghanistan, the Qizilbash were declared "enemies of the state" and were persecuted and hunted by the government and by the Sunni majority.[52]

Syria/Lebanon

Between the late seventeenth century and 1822 the term “Qizilbash” was also used in Ottoman administrative documents to identify Twelver (Imami) Shiites in what is today Lebanon. The Ottomans were aware they had no link to the Anatolian or Iranian Qizilbash, employing the term only as a means to delegitimize them or justify punitive campaigns against them. In the early eighteenth century, a part of northern Lebanon is even described as the “Kızılbaş mukataa” tax district.[53]

Turkey

Some contemporary Alevi and Bektashi leaning religious or ethnic minorities in Anatolia are referred to, pejoratively, as Qizilbash.

It has been reported that, among the Ottoman Turks, kızılbaş has become something of a derogatory term and can be applied to groups that aren't necessarily associated with the Kazilbash of Central Asia. The Bektaşi in Turkey are often referred to as Kızılbaşi[54]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cornell, Vincent J. (2007). Voices of Islam (Praeger perspectives). Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 225 vol.1. ISBN 0275987329.
  2. ^ Parker, Charles H. (2010). Global Interactions in the Early Modern Age, 1400–1800. Cambridge University Press. p. 53. ISBN 1139491415.
  3. ^ a b c Roger M. Savory: Kizil-Bash. In Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. 5, p. 243-45.
  4. ^ Savory, EI2, Vol. 5, p. 243: "Kizilbāsh (T. “Red-head”). [...] In general, it is used loosely to denote a wide variety of extremist Shi'i sects [see Ghulāt], which flourished in [V:243b] Anatolia and Kurdistān from the late 7th/13th century onwards, including such groups as the Alevis (see A. S. Tritton, Islam : belief and practices, London 1951, 83)."
  5. ^ Note: Tāj, meaning crown in Persian, is also a term for hats used to delineate one's affiliation to a particular Sufi order.
  6. ^ Moojan Momen, "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam", Yale Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN 0-300-03499-7, pp. 101–107.
  7. ^ H. Anetshofer/H.T. Karateke, Traktat über die Derwischmützen (ri̇sāle-i̇ Tāciyye) des Müstaqīm-zāde Süleymān Sāʻdeddīn; Brill, 2001; ISBN 90-04-12048-3 (German original)
  8. ^ Roger M. Savory, "The office of khalifat al-khulafa under the Safawids", in JOAS, lxxxv, 1965, p. 501
  9. ^ Momen, 1985
  10. ^ Moojan Momen, "An Introduction to Shi'i Islam", Yale Univ. Press, 1985, ISBN 0-300-03499-7, p. 397
  11. ^ Roger M. Savory (ref. Abdülbaki Gölpınarlı), Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Kizil-Bash", Online Edition 2005
  12. ^ a b c Halm, H. "Bāṭenīya". Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 4 August 2014.
  13. ^ "Abu'l-Ḵaṭṭāb Asadī". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  14. ^ "Ḵaṭṭābiya". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  15. ^ "ʿAbdallāh B. Maymūn Al-Qaddāḥ". Retrieved 15 February 2015.
  16. ^ Öztürk, Yaşar Nuri, En-el Hak İsyanı (The Anal Haq Rebellion) – Hallâc-ı Mansûr (Darağacında MiraçMiraç on Gallows), Vol 1 and 2, Yeni Boyut, 2011.
  17. ^ a b c Minorsky, Vladimir (1943) "Tadhkirat al-muluk", London, p. 16-18, p.188
  18. ^ Tapper, Richard (2011). "Introduction". Tribe and State in Iran and Afghanistan. London: Routledge. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-415-61056-8.
  19. ^ Savory, Roger M. (1965). "The consolidation of Safawid power in Persia". Der Islam. 41 (1): 71–94. doi:10.1515/islm.1965.41.1.71.
  20. ^ Savory, Roger M. (1964). "The significance of the political murder of Mirza Salman". Islamic Studies: Journal of the Central Institute of Islamic Research. Karachi. 3: 181–191.
  21. ^ Faruk Sümer, Safevi Devletinin Kuruluşu ve Gelişmesinde Anadolu Türklerinin Rolü, Türk Tarih Kurumu Yayınları, Ankara, 1992, p. 15. (in Turkish)
  22. ^ a b Roger M. Savory, Encyclopaedia of Islam, "Safawids", Online Edition, 2005
  23. ^ BBC, (Link)
  24. ^ "History of Iran: Safavid Empire 1502–1736". Retrieved 16 December 2014.
  25. ^ "Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia". Retrieved 15 December 2014.
  26. ^ Roger M. Savory, "The significance of the political murder of Mirza Salman", in "Studies on the history of Safawid Iran", xv, pp. 186–187
  27. ^ "Turkey's Alevis Outraged by 'Executioner' Name for Bridge". bloomberg.com. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  28. ^ "Alevis protest plans to name third bridge after Ottoman Sultan". todayszaman.com. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  29. ^ H.A.R. Gibb & H. Bowen, "Islamic society and the West", i/2, Oxford, 1957, p. 189
  30. ^ M.J. McCaffrey, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Čālderān", v, pp. 656–8, (Link Archived 29 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine)
  31. ^ Savory, R. (2007). Iran Under the Safavids. Cambridge University Press. p. 43. ISBN 9780521042512. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
  32. ^ Roger M. Savory in Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Dīv Soltān", Online Edition, 2005, (Link)
  33. ^ Rothman 2015, p. 236.
  34. ^ M. Köhbach in Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Peace of Amasya", v, p. 928, Online Edition, (Link)
  35. ^ Streusand, p. 148.
  36. ^ "Barda and Barda-Dāri v. Military slavery in Islamic Iran". Retrieved 15 April 2014.
  37. ^ Blow 2009, p. 66.
  38. ^ Aslanian 2011, p. 1.
  39. ^ Bournoutian 2002, p. 208.
  40. ^ Mikaberidze 2015, pp. 291, 536.
  41. ^ Floor & Herzig 2012, p. 479.
  42. ^ C. Fleischer, Encyclopaedia Iranica, "Allāhverdi Khān", v, pp. 891–892, Online Edition, 2005, (Link)
  43. ^ Matthee, Rudi (2012). Persia in Crisis: Safavid Decline and the Fall of Isfahan. I.B.Tauris. p. 114. ISBN 978-1845117450.
  44. ^ 5. The Rise of Afghanistan, page 124 // Afghanistan: A Military History from Alexander the Great to the War Against the Taliban. Author: Stephen Tanner. First published in 2002 by Da Capo Press; (revised edition) reprinted in 2009. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, 2009, 375 pages. ISBN 9780306818264
    The Qizilbash, or "Red Heads," were Turkic warriors-turned-Persian who had arrived in Afghanistan in numbers after Nadir Shah's and other Persian debacles.
  45. ^ The Dictionary. — N. — Nadir Shah Afshar, page 305 – 306. // Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Fourth edition. Author: Ludwig W. Adamec. Lanham: Scarecrow Press, 2012, XCV+569 pages. ISBN 9780810878150
    Some of Nadir's Qizilbash soldiers settled in Afghanistan where their descendants had successful careers in the army (until the end of Dost Muhammad's rule), government, the trades, and crafts.
  46. ^ Countries and Their Cultures: Qizilbash:..Obtaining accurate population figures for the Qizilbash in Afghanistan and Pakistan is virtually impossible because they claim to be Sunni, Tajik, Farsiwan, or Pashtun, or they identify themselves according to their place of origin in India. Population estimates for Afghanistan range from 30,000 to 200,000, but some suggest the figure is closer to one million. The story is similar in Pakistan. Few influential Qizilbash live in Iran, their original home...
  47. ^ Social Structure. — Ethnic Groups, page 104. // Afghanistan: A Country Study. Editors: Richard F. Nyrop, Donald M. Seekins. Baton Rouge: Claitor's Law Books and Publishing Division, 2001, 226 pages. ISBN 9781579807443
    In 1996, approximately 40 percent of Afghans were Pashtun, 11.4 of whom are of the Durrani tribal group and 13.8 percent of the Ghilzai group. Tajiks make up the second largest ethnic group with 25.3 percent of the population, followed by Hazaras, 18 percent; Uzbeks, 6.3 percent; Turkmen, 2.5 percent; Qizilbash, 1.0; 6.9 percent other. The usual caveat regarding statistics is particularly appropriate here.
  48. ^ Mountstuart Elphinstone, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, pp. 320–321
  49. ^ Henry Yule, "Hobson-Jobson", London, 1886, p. 380
  50. ^ Lady Sale, "A Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan 1841–42", London, Murray 1843, p. IX
  51. ^ Vincent Eyre, "The Military Operations at Cabul", London, Murray, MDCCCXLIII, p. XXXI.
  52. ^ U.S. Library of Congress, "Afghanistan: The society and its environment", index s.v. Qizilbash, (Link)
  53. ^ Stefan Winter, “The Kızılbaş of Syria and Ottoman Shiism” in Christine Woodhead, ed., The Ottoman World (London: Routledge, 2012), 171–183.
  54. ^ John Winter Crowfoot, "Survivals among the Kappadokian Kizilbash (Bektash)", Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 30., 1900, pp. 305–20

Sources

  • Yves Bomati and Houchang Nahavandi,Shah Abbas, Emperor of Persia,1587–1629, 2017, ed. Ketab Corporation, Los Angeles, ISBN 978-1595845672, English translation by Azizeh Azodi.
  • Aslanian, Sebouh (2011). From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa. California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520947573.
  • Blow, David (2009). Shah Abbas: The Ruthless King Who Became an Iranian Legend. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-0857716767.
  • Bournoutian, George (2002). A Concise History of the Armenian People: (from Ancient Times to the Present) (2 ed.). Mazda Publishers. p. 208. ISBN 978-1568591414.
  • Floor, Willem; Herzig, Edmund (2012). Iran and the World in the Safavid Age. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1850439301.
  • Mikaberidze, Alexander (2015). Historical Dictionary of Georgia (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-1442241466.
  • Rothman, E. Nathalie (2015). Brokering Empire: Trans-Imperial Subjects between Venice and Istanbul. Cornell University Press. ISBN 978-0801463129.
1970 in Afghanistan

The following lists events that happened during 1970 in Afghanistan.

Progress in establishing a modern type of administration throughout the country to replace traditional tribal institutions is steady rather than spectacular. The personal popularity of the king and his firm support of the prime minister ensures growing respect for the central government, but this does not prevent occasional outbreaks of severe intertribal hostilities. An important factor in the modernizing process to which the king has committed himself is the steady improvement of communications with the outside world. Several international airlines call regularly at Kabul, and the road from the capital to the Khyber Pass carries increasingly heavy traffic in both directions. The tourist industry receives a great impetus both from the erection on the road between Kabul and Paghman of a luxury hotel with spectacular views, and from the readiness with which the Afghan diplomatic posts in many countries grant tourist visas. External communications are stimulated by a marked improvement in relations with Pakistan. The Afghan government shows increasing interest in the economic success of the Regional Cooperation for Development program (RCD), which is being vigorously pursued by Pakistan, Iran, and Turkey; a visit to Kabul by the Pakistan finance minister, Nawab Muzaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash, leads to a scheme for technical aid in the fields of irrigation, seeds, and fertilizers to help Afghanistan achieve agricultural self-sufficiency as part of its policy of decreasing its reliance on external aid.

Abbas the Great

Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (Persian: شاه عباس بزرگ‎; 27 January 1571 – 19 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty. He was the third son of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda.Although Abbas would preside over the apex of Iran's military, political and economic power, he came to the throne during a troubled time for the Safavid Empire. Under his weak-willed father, the country was riven with discord between the different factions of the Qizilbash army, who killed Abbas' mother and elder brother. Meanwhile, Iran's enemies, the Ottoman Empire (its archrival) and the Uzbeks, exploited this political chaos to seize territory for themselves. In 1588, one of the Qizilbash leaders, Murshid Qoli Khan, overthrew Shah Mohammed in a coup and placed the 16-year-old Abbas on the throne. But Abbas was no puppet and soon seized power for himself.

Under his leadership, Iran developed the ghilman system where thousands of Circassian, Georgian, and Armenian slave-soldiers joined the civil administration and the military. With the help of these newly created layers in Iranian society (initiated by his predecessors but significantly expanded during his rule), Abbas managed to eclipse the power of the Qizilbash in the civil administration, the royal house and the military. These actions, as well as his reforms of the Iranian army, enabled him to fight the Ottomans and Uzbeks and reconquer Iran's lost provinces, including Kakheti whose people he subjected to widescale massacres and deportations. By the end of the 1603-1618 Ottoman War, Abbas had regained possession over Transcaucasia and Dagestan, as well as swaths of Eastern Anatolia and Mesopotamia; the latter two were territories which had been lost as a result of the 1555 Peace of Amasya. He also took back land from the Portuguese and the Mughals and expanded Iranian rule and influence in the North Caucasus, beyond the traditional territories of Dagestan.

Abbas was a great builder and moved his kingdom's capital from Qazvin to Isfahan, making the city the pinnacle of Safavid architecture. In his later years, following a court intrigue involving several leading Circassians, Abbas became suspicious of his own sons and had them killed or blinded.

Afghan

Afghan (also referred to as Afghanistani) (Pashto/Persian: افغان‎; see: etymology) refers to someone or something from Afghanistan, in particular a citizen of that country. Prior to the rise of the nation as Afghanistan, it was used by Persian speakers and those influenced by the Persian language to denote the Pashtun people. In modern times, Afghan is rarely used as an ethnic term for the Pashtuns, but is rather used as the national demonym for all citizens of Afghanistan—Pashtuns, and many Tajiks, Hazaras, Uzbeks, Aimaqs, Turkmens, Balochs, Nuristanis, Pashayis, Pamiris, Arabs, and others. According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, the word Afghan (afḡān) in current political usage means any citizen of Afghanistan, regardless of their tribal or religious affiliation. According to the 1964 Constitution of Afghanistan, all Afghans are equal in rights and obligations before the law. The fourth article of the current Constitution of Afghanistan states that citizens of Afghanistan consist of Pashtun, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, Aimaq, Arab, Baluch, Pashayi, Nuristani, Qizilbash, Gurjar, Brahui, and members of other tribes.As an adjective, the word Afghan also means "of or relating to Afghanistan or its people, language, or culture".

Alevism

Alevism (; Turkish: Alevilik or Turkish: Anadolu Aleviliği/Alevileri, also called Qizilbash, or Shī‘ah Imāmī-Tasawwufī Ṭarīqah, or Shīʿah-ī Bāṭen’īyyah) is a syncretic, heterodox, and local Islamic tradition, whose adherents follow the mystical (bāṭenī) teachings of Ali, the Twelve Imams and a descendant—the 13th century Alevi saint Haji Bektash Veli. Alevis are found primarily in Turkey among ethnic Turks and Kurds, and make up somewhere between 10 and 20% of Turkey's population, they are the largest sect of Islam in Turkey after Sunni Islam.After the death of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a dispute arose about his legitimate successor. The Islamic community was divided into those who adhered to Abu Bakr, named Sunnis, and those who sided with Ali, called Shia. Concurrently, people who sided with Ali were called Alevis, defined as "those who adore to Ali and his family". Therefore, some authors use Shiism synonymously with Alevism. However, Alevism is not Shiism, even though it is influenced by it and although they share some common beliefs with the Twelver Shia, their rites and practises are different from Shiism. Thus Alevism incorporates Turkish folk belief's present during the 14th century such as shamanism mixed with Shia, Sunni and Sufi beliefs that were adopted by some Turkish tribes, and later integrated with in Sunni Islam.In Turkey, Ja'faris, Alavids, Kaysanites, Qarmatians, Fatimid Ismailis, Nizaris, Qizilbashes (also known as Türk Alevileri), Nusayris (also known as Arab Alevileri) and Pamiris (also known as Pamir Alevileri) are collectively known as Aleviler ("Alevis"). Alawism and Alevism are two distinct sects.

Alevis have some links with Twelver Shia Islam (such as importance of the Ahl al-Bayt, the day of Ashura, the Mourning of Muharram, commemorating Karbala), but do not follow taqlid towards a Marja' "source of emulation". Some practices of the Alevis are based on Sufi elements of the Bektashi tariqa.

Battle of Chaldiran

The Battle of Chaldiran (Persian: جنگ چالدران‎; Turkish: Çaldıran Muharebesi) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire over the Safavid Empire. As a result, the Ottomans annexed Eastern Anatolia and northern Iraq from Safavid Iran. It marked the first Ottoman expansion into Eastern Anatolia (Western Armenia), and the halt of the Safavid expansion to the west. The Chaldiran battle was just the beginning of 41 years of destructive war, which only ended in 1555 with the Treaty of Amasya. Though Mesopotamia and Eastern Anatolia (Western Armenia) were eventually reconquered by the Safavids under the reign of Shah Abbas the Great (r. 1588–1629), they would be permanently lost to the Ottomans by the 1639 Treaty of Zuhab.

At Chaldiran, the Ottomans had a larger, better equipped army numbering 60,000 to 100,000 as well as many heavy artillery pieces, while the Safavid army numbered some 40,000 to 80,000 and did not have artillery at its disposal. Ismail I, the leader of the Safavids, was wounded and almost captured during the battle. His wives were captured by the Ottoman leader Selim I, with at least one married off to one of Selim's statesmen. Ismail retired to his palace and withdrew from government administration after this defeat and never again participated in a military campaign. After their victory, Ottoman forces marched deeper into Persia, briefly occupying the Safavid capital, Tabriz, and thoroughly looting the Persian imperial treasury.The battle is one of major historical importance because it not only negated the idea that the Murshid of the Shia-Qizilbash was infallible, but also led Kurdish chiefs to assert their authority and switch their allegiance from the Safavids to the Ottomans.

Cabanı

Cabanı (also, Dzhabany) is a village in the Shamakhi Rayon of Azerbaijan. The village forms part of the municipality of İkinci Cabanı.This was the site of a crucial battle of 1500AD when some 7,000 Qizilbash forces, consisting of the Ustaclu, Shamlu, Rumlu, Tekelu, Zhulkadir, Afshar, Qajar and Varsak tribes, responded to the invitation of Ismail I and marched against the Shirvanshah ruler Farrukh Yassar, setting in motion the eventual establishment of the Safavid state

Khorasani Turks

Khorasani Turks (Persian: ترک‌های خراسان‎, Khorasani Turkish:خوراسان تؤرکلری; often described as Qizilbash) are a Turkic ethnic group inhabiting part of North Khorasan, Razavi Khorasan and Golestan provinces of Iran, as well as in the neighboring regions of Turkmenistan up to beyond the Amu Darya River, and speak Khorasani Turkic.

The Khorasani Turks are not to be confused with other Turkic groups which have arrived in Khorasan more recently, especially Iranian Azerbaijanis, who had a presence in the area, especially in Mashhad, from about the early 20th century.

Languages of Afghanistan

Afghanistan is a multilingual country in which two languages – Dari and Pashto – are both official and most widely spoken.Dari is the official name of the Persian language in Afghanistan. It is often referred to as the Afghan Persian. Although still widely known as Farsi ("Persian") to its native speakers, the name was officially changed to Dari in 1964.Both Persian and Pashto are Indo-European languages from the Iranian languages sub-family. Other regional languages, such as Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi and Nuristani, are spoken by minority groups across the country.

Minor languages include Hindi-Urdu, Punjabi, Ashkunu, Kamkata-viri, Vasi-vari, Tregami and Kalasha-ala, Pamiri (Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi and Wakhi), Brahui, Arabic, Qizilbash, Aimaq, and Pashai and Kyrgyz. Linguist Harald Haarmann believes that Afghanistan is home to more than 40 minor languages, with around 200 different dialects.

Mahjabin Qizilbash

Mahjabin Qizilbash (Pashto: ماہ جبین قزلباش‎) was a Pashto singer from Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

She was of Turko-Persian Qizilbash origins. She had two sons and one daughter.

Military of the Safavid dynasty

The Military of the Safavid dynasty covers the military history of the Safavid dynasty from 1501 to 1736.

Mohammad Khodabanda

Mohammad Khodābandeh or Khudābanda, also known as Mohammad Shah or Sultan Mohammad (Persian: شاه محمد خدابنده‎, born 1532; died 1595 or 1596), was Shah of Persia from 1578 until his overthrow in 1587 by his son Abbas I. He was the fourth Safavid Shah of Iran and succeeded his brother, Ismail II. Khodabanda was the son of Shah Tahmasp I by a Turcoman mother, Sultanum Begum Mawsillu, and grandson of Ismail I, founder of the Safavid Dynasty.

After the death of his father in 1576 Mohammad was passed over in favour of his younger brother Ismail II. Mohammad suffered from an eye affliction that rendered him nearly blind, and so in accordance with Persian Royal culture could not contend for the throne. However, following Ismail II's short and bloody reign Mohammad emerged as the only heir, and so with the backing of the Qizilbash tribes became Shah in 1578.

Mohammad's reign was marked by a continued weakness of the crown and tribal infighting as part of the second civil war of the Safavid era. An important figure in the early years of Mohammad's reign was his wife Khayr Al-Nisa Begum, who helped secure her husband's reign. However her efforts to consolidate central power brought about opposition from the powerful Qizilbash tribes, who had her murdered in 1579. Mohammad has been described as "a man of refined tastes but weak character". As a result, Mohammad's reign was characterised by factionalism, with major tribes aligning themselves with Mohammad's sons and future heirs. This internal chaos allowed foreign powers, especially the rivalling and neighboring Ottoman Empire, to make territorial gains, including the conquest of the old capital of Tabriz in 1585. Mohammad was finally overthrown in a coup in favour of his son Shah Abbas I.

Muzaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash

Nawab Muzaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash (Urdu: نواب مظفر علی خان قزلباش‎) was born in 1908. He was a politician from the Punjab and a minister in the governments of the Punjab, West Pakistan and Pakistan. Muzaffar Qizilbash started his legislative career as a Unionist, later joining the Muslim League and subsequently the Republican Party. He later served as Minister for Industries in the cabinet of Prime Minister Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar (Muslim League) from October 18, 1957 - December 16, 1957. Afterwards, he served as Minister for Industries, Commerce and Parliamentary Affairs in the cabinet of Prime Minister Feroz Khan Noon (Republican) from December 16, 1957 - March 18, 1958, when he was appointed Chief Minister of West Pakistan.

His successor as Minister for Industries and Commerce was Sardar Abdur Rashid Khan, the incumbent Chief Minister of West Pakistan, while the Parliamentary Affairs portfolio was assigned to Sardar Amir Azam Khan. Qizilbash was later Chief Minister of West Pakistan from March 1958 - October 7, 1958 when the cabinet was dismissed on the declaration of Martial Law by President Iskander Mirza.

After the fall of the Ayub Khan government, Qizilbash served as Finance Minister of Pakistan in the presidential cabinet of President and Chief Martial Law Administrator General Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan from August 4, 1969 - February 22, 1971. Shahtaj Qizilbash was the niece of Muzaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash. Nawab Muzaffar Ali Khan Qizilbash owned the historically significant Nisar Haveli in the Walled City of Lahore area for a while after the Independence of Pakistan in 1947.

Persians in the Mughal Empire

Persian people were among one of the major ethnic groups, who accompanied the ethnic Turco-Mongol ruling elite of the Mughal Empire after its invasion of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan. Throughout the Mughal Empire, a number of ethnic Persian technocrats, bureaucrats, traders, scientists, architects, teachers, poets, artists, theologians and Sufis migrated and settled in different parts of the Indian Subcontinent.

The name Mughal is derived from the original homelands of the Timurids, the Central Asian (Turkestan) steppes once conquered by Genghis Khan and hence known as Moghulistan, "Land of Mongols". Although early Mughals spoke the Chagatai language and maintained some Turko-Mongol practices, they became essentially Persianized and transferred the Persian literary and high culture to South Asia, thus forming the base for the Indo-Persian culture and the Spread of Islam in South Asia.

Ramian

Ramian (Persian: راميان‎, also Romanized as Rāmīān, Rāmeyān, and Rāmīyān) is a city and capital of, Ramian County in Golestan Province, in northern Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 11,719, in 2,831 families.Ramian was used in Parthian times as a castle. In "Immortal Land" v. III (written by: Zabihollah e Mansoori) says Greek called it "Laboos" and there was a fight between Ashk II and Selucied king. Some say Ramian at that time had great vineries and wines.

Many residents of modern Ramian are from the Shia Turkmen tribe of Qara-Eli (Garaili/Geraili). Genetically, they are a mix of Turkmens and Keraites. Because they were Shia, they had sent to Kalpush to defend people against raids by the Sunni Turkmen and Uzbeks, in Saffavied era. They separated other parts (Khorasan -like: Jajarm-, Semnan and Golestan -like: Ramian- provinces in early Qajar in order of Hosseyn-Qoli khan Qajar. Modern Ramian has been constructed at that time. Before, there was on old Ramian (Kohna Ramian) which was that old Ramian.

They are also known as Qizilbash, because they were Shia Qizilbash force of Safavied.

Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (; Persian: دودمان صفوی‎, romanized: Dudmâne Safavi, pronounced [d̪uːd̪ˈmɒːne sæfæˈviː]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history. The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the gunpowder empires and one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Iran. They established the Twelver school of Shia Islam as the official religion of the empire, marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history.

The Safavid dynasty had its origin in the Safavid order of Sufism, which was established in the city of Ardabil in the Azerbaijan region. It was an Iranian dynasty of Kurdish ancestry but during their rule they intermarried with Turkoman, Georgian, Circassian, and Pontic Greek dignitaries. From their base in Ardabil, the Safavids established control over parts of Greater Iran and reasserted the Iranian identity of the region, thus becoming the first native dynasty since the Sasanian Empire to establish a national state officially known as Iran.The Safavids ruled from 1501 to 1722 (experiencing a brief restoration from 1729 to 1736) and, at their height, they controlled all of what is now Iran, Azerbaijan Republic, Bahrain, Armenia, eastern Georgia, parts of the North Caucasus, Iraq, Kuwait, and Afghanistan, as well as parts of Turkey, Syria, Pakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan.

Despite their demise in 1736, the legacy that they left behind was the revival of Iran as an economic stronghold between East and West, the establishment of an efficient state and bureaucracy based upon "checks and balances", their architectural innovations and their patronage for fine arts. The Safavids have also left their mark down to the present era by spreading Twelver Islam in Iran, as well as major parts of the Caucasus, Anatolia, and Mesopotamia.

Sonqor County

Sonqor County (Persian: شهرستان سنقر‎; }) is a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Sonqor. The name is Turco-Mongolian, meaning an "osprey". At the 2006 census, the county's population was 95,904, in 23,755 families. The county is subdivided into two districts: the Central District and Kolyai District. The county has two cities: Sonqor and Satar.

The majority of the people in this county is Kurds and Azerbaijanis.Kollyaii refers to the regions Songhor سنقر and Koliai ( کلياي ). Kollyaii is a mountainous county in Kermanshah Province, which is in the west of Iran. According to 1996 census, Sonqor had a population of 112,214. It consists of two districts: the central district (Songhor and Koliai) and nine townships. The city of Sonqor, which serves as the governmental seat of Kulliye, is 85 km northeast of Kermanshah. It is 1,700 meters (5,500 feet) above sea level and has a rather cold climate.

Historically, the people in the city of Sonqor are said to have descended from the qizilbash, who were the Safavid's Imperial Royal Guard, tasked with the protection of the house of Kulliye's Beghwand/Bigvand family. The guards spoke the Turkic language of the Qizilbash Turkmen, which was the language of the Safavid's court ; while the surrounding townships and villages of Koliai (Kulliye) were speaking the Kurdish dialect of Gorani language mixed with Kalhori (this dialect is locally known as "Koliai"). However, in recent years, the Kurdish population in Sonqor has increased considerably.

Tahmasp I

Tahmasp I (; Persian pronunciation: [tæhˈmɒːseb], Persian: شاه تهماسب یکم‎) (22 February 1514 – 14 May 1576) was an influential Shah of Iran, who enjoyed the longest reign of any member of the Safavid dynasty. He was the son and successor of Ismail I.

He came to the throne aged ten in 1524 and came under the control of the Qizilbash who formed the backbone of the Safavid Empire. The Qizilbash leaders fought among themselves for the right to be regents over Tahmasp, and by doing so held most of the effective power in the empire. Upon adulthood, however, Tahmasp was able to reassert the power of the Shah and control the tribesmen with the start of the introduction of large amounts of Caucasian elements, effectively and purposefully creating a new layer in Iranian society, solely composed of ethnic Caucasians. This new layer, also called the third force in some of the modern day sources, would be solely composed of hundreds of thousands of ethnic Circassians, Georgians and Armenians, and they would continue to play a crucial role in Persia's royal household, harems, civil and military administration, as well as in all other thinkable and available positions for centuries after Tahmasp, and they would eventually fully eliminate the effective power of the Qizilbash in most of the functioning posts of the empire, by which they would also become the most dominant class in the meritocratic Safavid kingdom as well. One of his most notable successors, the greatest Safavid emperor, Abbas I (also known as Abbas the Great) would fully implement and finalize this policy and the creation of this new layer in Iranian society.

Tahmasp's reign was marked by foreign threats, primarily from the Safavid's arch rival, the Ottomans, and the Uzbeks in the far east. In 1555, however, he regularized relations with the Ottoman Empire through the Peace of Amasya. By this treaty historical Armenia and Georgia were divided equally between the two, the Ottoman Empire obtained most of Iraq, including Baghdad, which gave them access to the Persian Gulf, while the Persians retained their former capital Tabriz and all their other north-western territories in the Caucasus (Dagestan, Azerbaijan) and as they were prior to the wars. The frontier thus established ran across the mountains dividing eastern and western Georgia (under native vassal princes), through Armenia, and via the western slopes of the Zagros down to the Persian Gulf. The Ottomans, further, gave permission for Persian pilgrims to go to the holy places of Mecca and Medina as well as to the Shia sites of pilgrimages in Iraq. This peace lasted for 30 years, until it was broken in the time of Shah Mohammad Khodabanda.

Tahmasp is also known for the reception he gave to the fugitive Mughal Emperor Humayun as well as Suleiman the Magnificent's son Bayezid, which is depicted in a painting on the walls of the Safavid palace of Chehel Sotoon.

One of Shah Tahmasp's more lasting achievements was his encouragement of the Persian rug industry on a national scale, possibly a response to the economic effects of the interruption of the Silk Road carrying trade during the Ottoman wars.

Talish

Agha Ali Abbas Qizilbash (also known as Agha Talish, Urdu: آغا طالِش ‎) (1926 – 19 February 1998) was a Pakistani actor who made his debut in 1947 and was mostly known and recognized in Pakistan for playing 'character actor' or villain roles.

Turks in Afghanistan

Turks in Afghanistan are Turkic people from modern day Afghanistan. The major ethnicities are the Qizilbash, Uzbeks, Kyrgyz and Turkmens. The Qizilbash came to Afghanistan during the rule of Nader Shah Afshar over Afghanistan and since they worked in governmental offices, they remained there after the withdrawal of Nader Afshar and now live in big cities like Kabul, Mazar e Sharif and Kandahar. They used to speak the Azeri version of Turkish but due to the assimilation into the predominantly Persian and Pashtun society currently they speak either Farsi or Pashto. However, Uzbeks and Turkmens have been living in Afghanistan since the third century B.C. They speak the same language as their ethnic equivalents in Central Asia. In addition to that the Kyrgyz people settle the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan and are really isolated there. The number of them was 1,130 in 2003, all from eastern Wakhan District in the Badakhshan Province of northeastern Afghanistan. They still lead a nomadic lifestyle and are led by a khan or tekin. Some economic ties exist between Turkey and Uzbek people in Northern-Afghanistan and there are Turkish police trainers in Wardak, in the east of the country.

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Al-Qasim ibn Muhammad
Muhammad al-BaqirZayd ash-Shahīd (Zaydiyyah)First Sufi
Abu Hashim (Hashimiyya)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ja'far al-SadiqYemen-FiversZaydi-AlavidsMuhammad "al-Imām"
Isma'il ibn Jafar
 
Al-Aftah
(Aftahiyya)
 
Al-Dibaj
(Sumaytiyya)
 
 
Musa al-Kadhim
 
Ibrāhim ibn Ali ibn ′Abd Allah
 
 
 
 
Imāmī Ismā'īlīsmMuhammad al-AftahIbrāhim ibn MūsāImāmī Athnā‘ashariyyahMuslim’īyyah (Sīnbād)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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(Mubārakʾiyya)
SevenersFātimā al-Ma‘sūmahAli al-RidaIshaq al-Turk
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Ḥamdān Qarmaṭ'l-ʾAšʿaṯ
 
 
Al-Tustari
(Taṣawwuf)
 
 
Muhammad al-Taqī (Jawad)
 
Muhammerah (Muqanna)
 
 
 
 
 
Aḥmad (Taqī Muhammad) Abū Sa'idMūsā al-MūbārraqāAli al HadiKhurrāmīyah (Pāpak, Maziar)
Ḥusayn (Raḍī ʿAbdillāh)Abū-TāhirMuhammad ibn Ali al-HadiHasan al-AskariKızılbaş
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ubayd Allāh (Fatimids)
 
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Işık Alevis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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(Baba Rexheb)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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(Alavi Bohra)
Hebtiahs BohraA . Hussain Jivaji
(Atba-i-Malak)
Jafari Bohras (Syed Jafar Ahmad Shirazi)Progressive Dawoodis (Asghar Ali)Atba-i-Malak Vakil (A. Qadir Ebrahimji)Atba-i-Malak Badar (Ghulam Hussain Miya Khan)
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