Qingming Festival

The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day),[2][3] is a traditional Chinese festival observed by the Han Chinese of China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Thailand. It falls on the first day of the fifth solar term of the traditional Chinese lunisolar calendar. This makes it the 15th day after the Spring Equinox, either 4 or 5 April in a given year.[4][5][6] During Qingming, Chinese families visit the tombs of their ancestors to clean the gravesites, pray to their ancestors, and make ritual offerings. Offerings would typically include traditional food dishes, and the burning of joss sticks and joss paper. The holiday recognizes the traditional reverence of one's ancestors in Chinese culture.

The Qingming Festival has been observed by the Chinese for over 2500 years. It became a public holiday in mainland China in 2008. In Taiwan, the public holiday was in the past observed on 5 April to honor the death of Chiang Kai-shek on that day in 1975, but with Chiang's popularity waning, this convention is not being observed. A similar holiday is observed in the Ryukyu Islands, called Shīmī in the local language.

In mainland China, the holiday is associated with the consumption of qingtuan, green dumplings made of glutinous rice and Chinese mugwort or barley grass. A similar confection called caozaiguo or shuchuguo, made with Jersey cudweed, is consumed in Taiwan.

Qingming
Ching Ming comforts to heaven
Burning paper gifts for the departed.
Official nameQingming Jie (清明节)
Tomb Sweeping Day (掃墳節)
Ching Ming Festival (清明節)
Observed byHan Chinese[1]
SignificanceRemembering ancestors
ObservancesCleaning and sweeping of graves, ancestor worship, offering food to deceased, burning joss paper
Date15th day from the Spring Equinox
4, 5 or 6 April
2018 date5 April
2019 date5 April
2020 date4 April
Qingming Festival
Traditional Chinese清明節
Simplified Chinese清明节
Literal meaning"Pure Brightness Festival"

Origin

The festival originated from the Cold Food or Hanshi Festival which remembered Jie Zitui, a nobleman of the state of Jin (modern Shanxi) during the Spring and Autumn Period. Amid the Li Ji Unrest, he followed his master Prince Chong'er in 655 BC to exile among the Di tribes and around China. Supposedly, he once even cut meat from his own thigh to provide his lord with soup. In 636 BC, Duke Mu of Qin invaded Jin and enthroned Chong'er as its duke, where he was generous in rewarding those who had helped him in his time of need. Owing either to his own high-mindedness or to the duke's neglect, however, Jie was long passed over. He finally retired to the forest around Mount Mian with his elderly mother. The duke went to the forest in 636 BC but could not find them. He then ordered his men to set fire to the forest in order to force Jie out. When Jie and his mother were killed instead, the duke was overcome with remorse and erected a temple in his honor. The people of Shanxi subsequently revered Jie as an immortal and avoided lighting fires for as long as a month in the depths of winter, a practice so injurious to children and the elderly that the area's rulers unsuccessfully attempted to ban it for centuries. A compromise finally developed where it was restricted to 3 days around the Qingming solar term in mid-spring.

The present importance of the holiday is credited to Emperor Xuanzong of Tang. Wealthy citizens in China were reportedly holding too many extravagant and ostentatiously expensive ceremonies in honor of their ancestors. In AD 732, Xuanzong sought to curb this practice by declaring that such respects could be formally paid only once a year, on Qingming.[7]

Observance

A Indonesian Chinese Family pray for their deceased members at Sanggar Agung Temple, Surabaya
An Indonesian Chinese family pray for their deceased members at Qingming Festival of 2013 under the Heaven Gate of Sanggar Agung.

Qingming Festival is when Chinese people traditionally visit ancestral tombs to sweep them. This tradition has been legislated by the Emperors who built majestic imperial tombstones for every dynasty. For over 5000 years, the Chinese imperials, nobility, merchants and peasantry alike have gathered together to remember the lives of the departed, to visit their tombstones to perform Confucian filial piety by tombsweeping, to visit burial grounds, graveyards or in modern urban cities, the city columbaria, to perform groundskeeping and maintenance, and to commit to pray for their ancestors in the uniquely Chinese concept of the afterlife and to offer remembrances of their ancestors to living blood relatives, their kith and kin.

The Qingming Festival commemorates the life of the departed in an elaborate set of rituals often mistranslated in the West as ancestral worship. Actually, it is a Confucian form of posthumous respect and filial piety offered to a Chinese person's ancestors, departed relatives, or parents. Not all Chinese persons will pray directly to their ancestors in ancestral spirit but almost all will observe the Qing Ming Rituals.

The young and old alike kneel down to offer prayers before tombstones of the ancestors, offer the burning of joss in both the forms of incense sticks (joss-sticks) and silver-leafed paper (joss-paper), sweep the tombs and offer food, tea, wine, chopsticks, and/or libations in memory of the ancestors. Depending on the religion of the observers, some pray to a higher deity to honour their ancestors while others may pray directly to the ancestral spirits.

These rites have a long tradition in Asia, especially among the imperialty who legislated these rituals into a national religion. They have been preserved especially by the peasantry and are most popular with farmers today, who believe that continued observances will ensure fruitful harvests ahead by appeasing the spirits in the other world.

Religious symbols of ritual purity, such as pomegranate and willow branches, are popular at this time. Some people carry willow branches with them on Qingming or stick willow branches on their gates and/or front doors. There are similarities to palm leaves used on Palm Sundays in Christianity; both are religious rituals. Furthermore, the belief is that the willow branches will help ward off the unappeased, troubled and troubling spirits, and/or evil spirits that may be wandering in the earthly realms on Qingming.

After gathering on Qingming to perform Confucian clan and family duties at the tombstones, graveyards or columbaria, celebrants spend the rest of the day in clan or family outings, before they start the spring plowing. They often sing and dance. Qingming is also a time when young couples traditionally start courting. Another popular thing to do is to fly kites in the shapes of animals or characters from Chinese opera.[8] Another common practice is to carry flowers instead of burning paper, incense, or firecrackers.[9]

Five coloured papers on a grave mound, Bukit Brown Cemetery, Singapore - 20110326-02
Colored papers placed on a grave during Qingming Festival, Bukit Brown Cemetery, Singapore

Despite having no official status, the overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asian nations, such as those in Singapore and Malaysia, take this festival seriously and observe its traditions faithfully. Some Qingming rituals and ancestral veneration decorum observed by the overseas Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore can be dated back to Ming and Qing dynasties, as the overseas communities were not affected by the Cultural Revolution in Mainland China. Qingming in Malaysia is an elaborate family function or a clan feast (usually organized by the respective clan association) to commemorate and honour recently deceased relatives at their grave sites and distant ancestors from China at home altars, clan temples or makeshift altars in Buddhist or Taoist temples. For the overseas Chinese community, the Qingming festival is very much a family celebration and, at the same time, a family obligation. They see this festival as a time of reflection for honouring and giving thanks to their forefathers. Overseas Chinese normally visit the graves of their recently deceased relatives on the weekend nearest to the actual date. According to the ancient custom, grave site veneration is only permissible ten days before and after the Qingming Festival. If the visit is not on the actual date, normally veneration before Qingming is encouraged. The Qingming Festival in Malaysia and Singapore normally starts early in the morning by paying respect to distant ancestors from China at home altars. This is followed by visiting the graves of close relatives in the country. Some follow the concept of filial piety to the extent of visiting the graves of their ancestors in mainland China. Traditionally, the family will burn spirit money and paper replicas of material goods such as cars, homes, phones and paper servants. In Chinese culture, it is believed that people still need all of those things in the afterlife. Then family members take turns to kowtow three to nine times (depending on the family adherence to traditional values) before the tomb of the ancestors. The Kowtowing ritual in front of the grave is performed in the order of patriarchal seniority within the family. After the ancestor worship at the grave site, the whole family or the whole clan feast on the food and drink they have brought for the worship either at the site or in nearby gardens in the memorial park, signifying the family's reunion with its ancestors. Another ritual related to the festival is the cockfight,[10] as well as being available within that historic and cultural context at Kaifeng Millennium City Park (Qingming Riverside Landscape Garden).[11][12]

The holiday is often marked by people paying respects to those who are considered national or legendary heroes, or those exemplary Chinese figures who died in events considered politically sensitive.[13] The April Fifth Movement and the Tiananmen Incident were major events in Chinese history which occurred on Qingming. After Premier Zhou Enlai died in 1976, thousands honored him during the festival to pay their respects. Many also pay respects to victims of the Tiananmen Square protests in 1989 and Zhao Ziyang.[14]

In Chinese tea culture

The Qingming festival holiday has a significance in the Chinese tea culture since this specific day divides the fresh green teas by their picking dates. Green teas made from leaves picked before this date are given the prestigious 'pre-qingming' () designation which commands a much higher price tag. These teas are prized for having much lighter and subtler aromas than those picked after the festival.

Celebration in China

Weather

The Qingming festival was originally considered the day with the best spring weather, when many people would go out and travel. The Old Book of Tang describes this custom and mentions of it may be found in ancient poetry.[15]

Customs

During the Tang dynasty, Emperor Xuanzong of Tang promoted large-scale tug of war games, using ropes of up to 167 metres (548 ft) with shorter ropes attached, and more than 500 people on each end of the rope. Each side also had its own team of drummers to encourage the participants.[16] In honor of these customs, families often go hiking or kiting, play Chinese soccer or tug-of-war, and plant trees.[17]

Beliefs

The Qingming festival is also part of spiritual and religious practice in China. For example, Buddhism teaches that those who die with guilt are unable to eat in the afterlife, except on the day of the Qingming festival.[18]

In painting

The famous Qingming scroll by Zhang Zeduan is an ancient Chinese painting which portrays the scene of Kaifeng city, the capital of the Song Dynasty during a Qingming festival.

Panorama of Along the River During the Qingming Festival, 12th century original by Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145)
Panorama of Along the River During the Qingming Festival, 12th century original by Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145)
Panorama of Along the River During the Qingming Festival, an 18th century recreation of the 12th century original
Panorama of Along the River During the Qingming Festival, an 18th century recreation of the 12th century original

In literature

Qingming was frequently mentioned in Chinese literature. Among these, the most famous one is probably Du Mu's poem (simply titled "Qingming"):

Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese pinyin English translation
清明時節雨紛紛 清明时节雨纷纷 qīng míng shí jié yǔ fēn fēn During the Festival of Qing Ming drizzling is the rain
路上行人欲斷魂 路上行人欲断魂 lù shàng xíng rén yù duàn hún Breaking are the hearts and souls of mourners on the roads, pedestrians in sorrow and pain
借問酒家何處有 借问酒家何处有 jiè wèn jiǔ jiā hé chù yǒu Courteously inquiring where the nearest wine houses are located
牧童遙指杏花村 牧童遥指杏花村 mù tóng yáo zhǐ xìng huā cūn Only a herdsboy waving a finger pointing to a village - the Apricot Flowers Hamlet

Although the date is not presently a holiday in Vietnam, the Qingming festival is mentioned (under the name Thanh Minh) in the epic poem The Tale of Kieu, when the protagonist Kieu meets a ghost of a dead old lady. The description of the scenery during this festival is one of the best-known passages of Vietnamese literature:

Hán Nôm Vietnamese English translation
𣈜春𡥵燕迻梭, Ngày xuân con én đưa thoi Swift swallows and spring days were shuttling by;
韶光𠃩𨔿㐌外𦒹𨑮。 Thiều quang chín chục đã ngoài sáu mươi Of ninety radiant ones three score had fled.
𦹵𡽫撑羡蹎𡗶, Cỏ non-xanh tận chân trời Young grass spread all its green to heaven's rim;
梗梨𤽸點沒𢽼񣡢花, Cành lê trắng điểm một vài bông hoa Some blossoms marked pear branches with white dots.
清明𥪞節𣎃𠀧, Thanh Minh trong tiết tháng ba Now came the Feast of Light in the third month
礼羅掃墓,噲羅踏清。 Lễ là Tảo mộ, hội là Đạp thanh With graveyard rites and junkets on the green.
𧵆賒奴㘃燕񣡢, Gần xa nô nức yến oanh As merry pilgrims flocked from near and far,
姉㛪懺所步行制春。 Chị em sắm sửa bộ hành chơi xuân The sisters and their brother went for a stroll.

See also

References

  1. ^ https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/cnainsider/meet-chetti-melaka-peranakan-indians-striving-save-culture-hindu-10849258
  2. ^ "General holidays for 2015". GovHK. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  3. ^ "Macau Government Tourist Office". Macau Tourism. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  4. ^ "Traditional Chinese Festivals". china.org.cn. 5 April 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  5. ^ "Tomb Sweeping Day". Taiwan.gov.tw. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  6. ^ http://www.discoverhongkong.com/uk/see-do/events-festivals/chinese-festivals/ching-ming-festival.jsp
  7. ^ "寒食清明节:纪念晋国大夫介之推". Cathay.ce.cn. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 April 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  9. ^ "Asia News - South Asia News - Latest headlines – News, Photos, Videos". UPIAsia.com. 22 July 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  10. ^ "Festival of Pure Brightness". Uiowa.edu. Archived from the original on 19 November 2014. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Millennium City Park, Kaifeng, Henan". Travelchinaguide.com. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  12. ^ "Qingming Riverside Landscape Garden". Cultural-china.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2015. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
  13. ^ "Celebration". China Daily. 3 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  14. ^ "China clamps down on Qing Ming". Straits Times. 8 April 2009. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
  15. ^ Xu, Liu. "Old Book of Tang": 13.
  16. ^ Tang dynasty Feng Yan: Notes of Feng, volume 6
  17. ^ "Chinese Traditional Holidays". Qingming Festival Customs. China Internet News Center.
  18. ^ Buddhism and Qingming Festival http://www.xuefo.net/nr/article49/489323.html. Retrieved 26 March 2019. Missing or empty |title= (help)

External links

[[Category:Spring (season) events in China]

13th Golden Horse Awards

The 13th Golden Horse Awards (Mandarin:第13屆金馬獎) took place on October 30, 1976 at Zhongshan Hall in Taipei, Taiwan.

Along the River During the Qingming Festival

Along the River During the Qingming Festival, also known by its Chinese name as the Qingming Shanghe Tu, is a painting by the Song dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145). It captures the daily life of people and the landscape of the capital, Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng) during the Northern Song. The theme is often said to celebrate the festive spirit and worldly commotion at the Qingming Festival, rather than the holiday's ceremonial aspects, such as tomb sweeping and prayers. Successive scenes reveal the lifestyle of all levels of the society from rich to poor as well as different economic activities in rural areas and the city, and offer glimpses of period clothing and architecture. The painting is considered to be the most renowned work among all Chinese paintings, and it has been called "China's Mona Lisa."As an artistic creation, the piece has been revered and court artists of subsequent dynasties made re-interpretive versions, each following the overall composition and the theme of the original but differing in details and technique. Over the centuries, the Qingming scroll was collected and kept among numerous private owners, before it eventually returned to public ownership. The painting was a particular favorite of Puyi, the Last Emperor, who took the Song dynasty original with him when he left Beijing. It was re-purchased in 1945 and kept at the Palace Museum in the Forbidden City. The Song dynasty original and the Qing versions, in the Beijing and Taipei Palace Museums respectively, are regarded as national treasures and are exhibited only for brief periods every few years.

Caozaiguo

Caozaiguo or shuquguo is a type of kuih with a sweet dough made with glutinous rice flour, sugar, and a ground cooked paste of Jersey cudweed or Chinese mugwort. The herbs give the dough and the finished kuih a unique flavor and brownish green color. The kuih is a found in Fujian, Hakka, and Taiwanese cuisine.

Caozaiguo is usually made in Qingming Festival as a celebratory food item. Although the kuih can be made from either herb, Chinese mugwort is more commonly used in making Hakka-style caozaiguo. The herb-flavored dough is commonly filled with ground meat, dried white radish, or sweet bean pastes. In Taiwan, a filling consisting of Dried shrimp, shiitake mushrooms, dried and shredded white radish (菜脯), and deep-fried shallots is commonly used.

Dongjing Meng Hua Lu

Dongjing meng Hua lu (Chinese: 東京夢華錄; pinyin: Dōngjīng Mèng Huà lù; literally: 'Dreams of Splendor of the Eastern capital (Kaifeng)') or The Eastern Capital: A Dream of Splendor, is a memoir written by Meng Yuanlao (Chinese: 孟元老) (c. 1090-1150). In 1126, Meng was made a refugee from Kaifeng, the thriving capital of the Northern Song Dynasty after Jurchen Jin invaders conquered northern China and forced the withdrawal of the Song court to the temporary capital, Hangzhou, in the south, then known as Lin'an. Meng's book is a detailed and nostalgic description of the old capital's urban life, seasonal products, and festivals, as well as foods, customs, and traditions. In later dynasties, the book was much imitated and taken as an authoritative picture of affluent Chinese culture.Nothing else is known of the author, evidently a minor government official, except that he lived in Bianjing (汴京) (now called Kaifeng, in Henan province) between the ages of 13 and 27 before escaping to the south. His book was first printed in 1187, but the Preface is dated 1147, a number of years after the capital was moved, indicating that Meng started a draft at this point. The work was published in 10 volumes (juan) and traditional bibliographers classified it as travel writing. It is often cited under the abbreviated name, Meng Hua lu.

Dragon Pavilion

The Dragon Pavilion, Longting or Wanshou pavilion is located in Kaifeng in the eastern part of Henan province, People's Republic of China. During the Northern Song (960–1127) and Jin (1115–1234) dynasties, Kaifeng was an imperial capital city. The imperial palace of that time is largely lost to time, but a few parts, such as the Dragon Pavilion, remain visible today.

Du Mu

Du Mu (Chinese: 杜牧; pinyin: Dù Mù; Wade–Giles: Tu4 Mu4; 803–852) was a leading Chinese poet of the late Tang dynasty. His courtesy name was Muzhi (牧之), and sobriquet Fanchuan (樊川). He is best known for his lyrical and romantic quatrains.Regarded as a major poet during a golden age of Chinese poetry, his name is often mentioned together with that of another renowned Late Tang poet, Li Shangyin, as the Little Li-Du (小李杜), in contrast to the Great Li-Du: Li Bai and Du Fu. Among his influences were Du Fu, Li Bai, Han Yu and Liu Zongyuan.

Events and festivals in Macau

Events and festivals in Macau.

Ghost Festival

The Ghost Festival, also known as the Hungry Ghost Festival, Zhongyuan Jie (中元节), Gui Jie (鬼节) or Yulan Festival (traditional Chinese: 盂蘭盆節; simplified Chinese: 盂兰盆节; pinyin: Yúlánpénjié; Cantonese Jyutping: jyu4 laan4 pun4 zit3) is a traditional Buddhist and Taoist festival held in certain Asian countries. According to the Chinese calendar (a lunisolar calendar), the Ghost Festival is on the 15th night of the seventh month (14th in parts of southern China). In Chinese culture, the fifteenth day of the seventh month in the lunar calendar is called Ghost Day and the seventh month in general is regarded as the Ghost Month (鬼月), in which ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower realm. Distinct from both the Qingming Festival (or Tomb Sweeping Day, in spring) and Double Ninth Festival (in autumn) in which living descendants pay homage to their deceased ancestors, during Ghost Festival, the deceased are believed to visit the living.On the fifteenth day the realms of Heaven and Hell and the realm of the living are open and both Taoists and Buddhists would perform rituals to transmute and absolve the sufferings of the deceased. Intrinsic to the Ghost Month is veneration of the dead, where traditionally the filial piety of descendants extends to their ancestors even after their deaths. Activities during the month would include preparing ritualistic food offerings, burning incense, and burning joss paper, a papier-mâché form of material items such as clothes, gold and other fine goods for the visiting spirits of the ancestors. Elaborate meals (often vegetarian meals) would be served with empty seats for each of the deceased in the family treating the deceased as if they are still living. Ancestor worship is what distinguishes Qingming Festival from Ghost Festival because the latter includes paying respects to all deceased, including the same and younger generations, while the former only includes older generations. Other festivities may include, buying and releasing miniature paper boats and lanterns on water, which signifies giving directions to the lost ghosts and spirits of the ancestors and other deities.

Golden Week (China)

The Golden Week (黄金周), in the People's Republic of China, is the name given to a semi-annual 7-day or 8-day national holiday, implemented in 2000:

The "Chinese Lunar New Year Golden Week" (Chinese New Year) begins in January or February.

The "National Day Golden Week" begins around 1 October. If Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day, the Golden Week may be 8 days long.A third Golden Week holiday, which spanned 1 May and celebrated Labour Day, existed until 2007.

Three or four (if Mid-Autumn Festival is near National Day) days of paid holiday are given, and the surrounding weekends are re-arranged so that workers in Chinese companies always have seven or eight continuous days of holiday. These national holidays were first started by the government for the PRC's National Day in 1999 and are primarily intended to help expand the domestic tourism market and improve the national standard of living, as well as allowing people to make long-distance family visits. The Golden Weeks are consequently periods of greatly heightened travel activity.

Jingxiang

Jìngxiāng (敬香 "offering incense with respect"), shàngxiāng (上香 "offering incense"), bàishén (拜神 "worshipping gods"), is a ritual of offering incense accompanied by tea and or fruits in Chinese traditional religion. In ancestral religious worship it's jìngzǔ (敬祖 "veneration of the ancestor") or bàizǔ 拜祖 ("worship of the ancestor"). It is observed by a devotee holding joss incense with both hands in front of an altar while praying or meditating. For added respect the devotee or descendent is expected to kneel during and after placing the incense in the urn or at the altar.

Jiangxiang is practiced in diffused Chinese folk religion and also by adherents belonging to the schools of Taoism, Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism. It's used for making a general prayer to one of the Chinese deities, sending well wishes to a deceased ancestor as part of daily prayers in Chinese ancestor veneration, or celebrating the Qingming Festival, Ghost festival and Chongyang Festival .

List of Buddhist festivals

Japanese festivals and Barua festivals often involve Buddhist culture, as do pagoda festivals held as fairs held at Buddhist temples in Myanmar. Features of Buddhist Tibetan festivals may include the traditional cham dance, which is also a feature of some Buddhist festivals in India and Bhutan. Many festivals of Nepal are religious festivals involving Buddhism, as are many Burmese traditional festivals. Lunar New Year festivals of Buddhist countries in East, South and Southeast Asia include some aspects of Buddhist culture, however they are considered cultural festivals as opposed to religious ones.

Meigan cai

Meigan cai (simplified Chinese: 梅干菜; traditional Chinese: 霉乾菜; pinyin: méigān cài; Wade–Giles: mei2-kan1 ts'ai4; literally: 'molded dried vegetable'; or mei cai (simplified Chinese: 梅菜; traditional Chinese: 霉菜; pinyin: méi cài; Wade–Giles: mei2 ts'ai4) is a type of dry pickled Chinese mustard of the Hakka people from Huizhou, Guangdong province, China. Meigan cai is also used in the cuisine of Shaoxing (绍兴), Zhejiang province, China and in Taiwan.

The pickle consists of a whole head of various varieties of Chinese mustards and cabbages (芥菜 (leaf mustard)、油菜 (rape)、白菜 (Chinese cabbage) that has undergone an elaborate process consisting of drying, steaming, and salting. The vegetables are harvested, trimmed before the Qingming Festival, and sun-dried until limp. It is then salted or brined, kneaded until the juices are exuded, and left to ferment in large clay urns for 15 to 20 days. The vegetable is then repeatedly steamed and dried until reddish brown in colour and highly fragrant.

This pickled vegetable is used to flavor stewed dishes, in particular Meigan cai cooked with pork (梅菜扣肉/梅干菜烧肉)) or for Meigan cai baozi (梅菜菜包). Meigan cai was formerly a tribute item to the imperial palace in the Qing Dynasty.

Mount Erskine

Mount Erskine is a residential neighbourhood within the city of George Town in Penang, Malaysia. This hilly neighbourhood, 4 km (2.5 mi) northwest of the city centre, is situated between the Tanjung Tokong and Pulau Tikus suburbs to the north and to the south respectively.

Notable for its large Chinese cemeteries established by the Cantonese, Teochew and Hokkien communities on Penang Island, the neighbourhood witnesses a considerable increase in activity during the annual Qingming Festival.

Popiah

Popiah (Pe̍h-ōe-jī: po̍h-piáⁿ) is a Fujianese/Teochew-style fresh spring roll. Popiah is often eaten in the Fujian province of China (usually in Xiamen) and its neighbouring Chaoshan (and by the Teochew and Hoklo diaspora in various regions throughout Southeast Asia) and in Taiwan (due to the heavy Hokkien influence), during the Qingming Festival.

In the Chaoshan dialect, popiah is pronounced as /poʔ˩piã˥˧/(薄餅). which means "thin wafer". In varieties of Hokkien, it is also commonly referred to as /lun˩piã˥˧/(潤餅), which is the etymological origin of "lumpia" in Indonesia and the Philippines. It is referred to as rùnbǐng (潤餅) or báobǐng (薄餅) in Mandarin, and also as bópíjuǎn (薄皮卷).

Public holidays in Cambodia

Cambodia has numerous public holidays, including memorial holidays and religious holidays of Buddhist origin. The Khmer traditional calendar, known as Chhankitek, is a lunisolar calendar although the word Chhankitek itself means lunar calendar. While the calendar is based on the movement of the moon, calendar dates are also synchronized with the solar year to keep the seasons from drifting. Therefore, some public holidays are subject to change every year based on the lunar calendar. The government has announced plans to reduce public holidays by at least 7 days beginning in 2020.

Qin Lake Scenic Area

Qin Lake Scenic Area is located in Jiangsu province Taizhou City. And it takes about two hours to go there from Shanghai.

Qin Lake (溱湖) is 1.4 kilometers in length, with an area of about 3500 acres around. In the scenic area, lakes and rivers aoccupy about thirty seven percent of the total area of the scenic area. Among these lakes, Qin Lake has the largest scale, it is also named the Magpie lake because many magpies gather there every Spring. Qin Lake is rich in fish, diamond lotus root and water melon and pollution-free green food. Fish cakes and Shrimp balls made in Qin lake are very delicious, they have a famous name--"Qin lake double off" (溱湖双绝)). Every year on the Qingming Festival, there will be a Boat festival. Many boats will compete on Qin Lake. The Qin Lake Boat Festival and the Water-Sprinkling Festival and other famous activities are approved to be The ten top folk activities.

There are also foods famous for Qin Lake--”Qin lake eight fresh ”(溱湖八鲜),they are Qin lake Duan crab(溱湖簖蟹)、Qin lake turtle (溱湖甲鱼)、Qin lake icefish (溱湖银鱼)、 Qin lake shrimp (溱湖青虾)、 Qin lake birds (溱湖水禽)、 Qin lake screw shell (溱湖螺贝)、 Qin lake or four (溱湖四喜)、Qin lake greenstuffs (溱湖水蔬).All of them have distinguishing features.

Qingtuan

Qīngtuán (青团) is a form of dumpling that is green, common throughout Chinese cuisine. It is made of glutinous rice mixed with Chinese mugwort or barley grass. This is then usually filled with sweet red or black bean paste. The exact technique for making qingtuan is quite complicated and the grass involved is only edible in the early spring, so it is typically only available around the time of the Qingming Festival (April 4 or 5), with which the dumpling has become associated.

Much of the qingtuan consumed in China is prepared and consumed as street food from local vendors.

Tiananmen Incident

The Tiananmen Incident took place on 5 April 1976, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China. The incident occurred on the traditional day of mourning, the Qingming Festival, after the Nanjing Incident, and was triggered by the death of Premier Zhou Enlai earlier that year. Some people strongly disapproved of the removal of the displays of mourning, and began gathering in the Square to protest against the central authorities, then largely under the auspices of the Gang of Four, who ordered the Square to be cleared.

The event was labeled as counterrevolutionary immediately after its occurrence by the Communist Party's Central Committee and served as a gateway to the dismissal and house arrest of then–Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping, who was accused of planning the event, while he insisted that he came to Tiananmen Square only for a haircut. The Central Committee's decision on the event was reversed after the Cultural Revolution ended, as it would later be officially hailed as a display of patriotism.

Zhang Zeduan

Zhang Zeduan (simplified Chinese: 张择端; traditional Chinese: 張擇端; pinyin: Zhāng Zéduān; Wade–Giles: Chang Tse-tuan; 1085–1145), alias Zheng Dao, was a Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty. He lived during the transitional period from the Northern Song to the Southern Song, and was instrumental in the early history of the Chinese landscape art style known as shan shui.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinQīngmíng jié
Gwoyeu RomatzyhChingming jye
Wade–GilesCh'ing1-ming2 chieh2
IPA[tɕʰíŋ.mǐŋ tɕjě]
Wu
SuzhouneseTshin min tsih
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationChīng-mìhng jit
IPA[tsʰéŋ.mȅŋ tsīːt̚]
JyutpingCing1-ming4 zit3
Southern Min
Tâi-lôTshinn-miâ tsueh
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